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BUILDING ON CHANGE-DRIVEN MOMENTUM In response to some of the major external events, key external stakeholders, policy makers, and the public have developed expectations that a specific transportation agency response will minimize the potential impact of similar events in the future. It is no surprise, therefore, that major external events have been associated with enabling, if not forcing, change associated with nearly all of the significant progress made by several of the state DOTs with the more mature programs. The events reduce the bar- riers to otherwise difficult or expensive organizational changes, increased funding, and changed relationships with external partners (such as law enforcement). Transporta- tion change managers--middle or top management--can capitalize on the opportunity to institute such important changes that otherwise might not be possible. However, effectively capitalizing on such events requires that the agency have a general strategy in place to seize these windows of opportunity to standardize and extend the specific event-driven program and organizational changes into improved day-to-day SO&M across the agency as a whole. Even in constrained contexts, it can be extremely valuable to have an improvement program on the shelf to use when cir- cumstances permit focusing on the key elements most directly implicated, as well as to use to seize the momentum for more general improvements. CHANGE MANAGEMENT TACTICS The Institutional Capability Maturity Model is not the complete recipe for change management; it provides a framework for determining what needs to be done and the strategies for making institutional changes in a direction that is more supportive to aggressive congestion management. However, the strategies themselves must be man- aged and carried out by appropriate staff. The guide is not intended to provide gen- eral change management tactics. There is substantial existing strategic management literature, including approaches such as process engineering, balanced scorecards, and Baldrige criteria. Each of these approaches includes a version of the standard, generic steps of change management that would be generally applicable to all the components of the guide. They typically include the following: Joint (consensus) identification of the problem, opportunity, or challenge within the change manager's span of control or influence to create a sense of urgency. This activity is clearly relevant to institutional maturity in congestion management; the focus of an agency culture shifts toward operations--based on both the constraints facing alternative service improvement options and the potential of congestion man- agement opportunities. An understanding of these technical issues is an essential point of departure. Developing a vision and defining the general changes needed and the specifics for priority components, which may be limited by the change manager's span of control (see below). This activity corresponds to the adoption of the Institutional Capability Maturity Model as the template for managed change and the development of a com- mitment to use it on a continuing basis as a component of formal strategic planning. 10 GUIDE TO IMPROVING CAPABILITY FOR SYSTEMS OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT