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17 Table 11. Maturity of technologies and procedures versus guidance material. Item # Optimization Technology or Procedure Rating 1 Blowers & mechanical means to remove dry contamination Yes 2 Deicing-only fluid buffer reduction No 3 First-step deicing fluid buffer reduction No 4 Fluids applied before the start of precipitation to prevent bonding Yes 5 Forced air to remove contamination Yes 6 Implementation of holdover time determination systems Pending 7 Non-glycol freeze point depressant fluids No Point detection sensors to indicate fluid condition and 8 No contamination on aircraft surfaces Remote ice detection sensors to scan aircraft critical surfaces 9 No before departure runway 10 Spot deicing for frost Yes 11 Spray-and-go deicing Yes 12 Tempered Steam as a non-glycol gate deicing or pre-deicing tool Pending 13 Threshold deicing Yes 14 Type III fluids Yes 15 Use of 10C Type I BUFFER Yes 16 Use of anti-icing fluid dilutions Yes 17 Use of Infrared deicing technology Yes 18 Use of weather forecasting products for deicing process N/A not have been included in the analysis. A decision process was Table 15 is a matrix where each cell presents an overall per- finally agreed upon wherein each item was first assessed centage score. Each cell then has been given a score calculated whether it potentially improved safety, was safety neutral, or by multiplying the criterion weights for the approaches involved a risk of decreasing the level of safety below the cur- within each criterion. This representation allows a direct rent level (in relation to that item only and while still main- comparison between various cells, identifying the criterion taining a satisfactory level of safety). Six items were identified and the approaches that give the greatest weight. as potentially improving safety (each given an average score of 15.5), nine were safety neutral (each given an average score Sensitivity Analysis of 8), and three were identified as potentially decreasing safety (each given an average score of 2). As described in the previous sections, the ranked list of opti- mization technologies and procedures was developed based upon the focus group weighting of criteria. Prior to request- Overall Ranking of Optimization ing inputs from the focus group, an internal exercise was per- Technologies and Procedures formed to weigh the criteria in a similar fashion to the focus Once the list of optimization technologies and procedures group. A team of experts at the research agency independently had been ranked for each criterion, the complete matrix of developed the criterion weights shown in Table 16. item scores was assembled, as shown in Table 15. The poten- The weights in Table 16 are slightly different from the tial items for optimization are sorted by score percentage, weights determined by the focus group. Application of with the most promising approaches at the top of the list. the weights in Table 16 to the technology and procedure

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18 Table 12. Ranking of technologies and procedures by maturity. Maturity Maturity Item # Optimization Technology or Procedure Rank % 10 Spot deicing for frost 15.5 9.1% 5 Forced air used to remove contamination 15.5 9.1% 16 Use of anti-icing fluid dilutions 15.5 9.1% 15 Use of 10C Type I buffer 15.5 9.1% 1 Blowers and/or other mechanical means to remove dry contamination 15.5 9.1% 4 Fluids applied before the start of precipitation to prevent bonding 15.5 9.1% 11 Spray-and-go deicing 11.5 6.7% 13 Threshold deicing 11.5 6.7% 2 Deicing-only fluid buffer reduction 10.0 5.8% 14 Type III fluids 9.0 5.3% 17 Use of infrared deicing technology 7.5 4.4% 3 First-step deicing fluid buffer reduction 7.5 4.4% 6 Implementation of holdover time determination systems 6.0 3.5% 18 Use of weather forecasting products for deicing process 5.0 2.9% 12 Tempered steam as a non-glycol gate deicing or pre-deicing tool 4.0 2.3% 7 Non-glycol freeze point depressant fluids 3.0 1.8% Remote ice detection sensors to scan aircraft critical surfaces before 8 2.0 1.2% departure runway Point detection sensors to indicate fluid condition and contamination 9 1.0 0.6% on aircraft surfaces TOTAL 171.0 100.0%

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19 Table 13. Ranking of technologies and procedures by operational efficiency. Operational Operational Item # Optimization Technology or Procedure Efficiency Efficiency Rank % 10 Spot deicing for frost 18.0 10.5 11 Spray-and-go deicing 17.0 9.9 13 Threshold deicing 16.0 9.4 6 Implementation of holdover time determination systems 15.0 8.8 12 Tempered steam as a non-glycol gate deicing or pre-deicing tool 14.0 8.2 5 Forced air used to remove contamination 13.0 7.6 Blowers and/or other mechanical means to remove dry 1 12.0 7.0 contamination 14 Type III fluids 11.0 6.4 18 Use of weather forecasting products for deicing process 10.0 5.8 4 Fluids applied before the start of precipitation to prevent bonding 9.0 5.3 15 Use of 10C Type I buffer 8.0 4.7 16 Use of anti-icing fluid dilutions 7.0 4.1 7 Non-glycol freeze point depressant fluids 6.0 3.5 2 Deicing-only fluid buffer reduction 5.0 2.9 3 First-step deicing fluid buffer reduction 4.0 2.3 17 Use of infrared deicing technology 3.0 1.8 Remote ice detection sensors to scan aircraft critical surfaces 8 2.0 1.2 before departure runway Point detection sensors to indicate fluid condition and 9 1.0 0.6 contamination on aircraft surfaces TOTAL 171.0 100.0%

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20 Table 14. Ranking of technologies and procedures by safety. Item # Optimization Technology or Procedure Safety Safety Rank % 11 Spray-and-go deicing 15.5 9.1 13 Threshold deicing 15.5 9.1 6 Implementation of holdover time determination systems 15.5 9.1 18 Use of weather forecasting products for deicing process 15.5 9.1 Remote ice detection sensors to scan aircraft critical surfaces before 8 15.5 9.1 departure runway Point detection sensors to indicate fluid condition and contamination on 9 15.5 9.1 aircraft surfaces 10 Spot deicing for frost 8.0 4.7 5 Forced air used to remove contamination 8.0 4.7 16 Use of anti-icing fluid dilutions 8.0 4.7 14 Type III fluids 8.0 4.7 12 Tempered steam as a non-glycol gate deicing or pre-deicing tool 8.0 4.7 15 Use of 10C Type I buffer 8.0 4.7 7 Non-glycol freeze point depressant fluids 8.0 4.7 4 Fluids applied before the start of precipitation to prevent bonding 8.0 4.7 17 Use of infrared deicing technology 8.0 4.7 1 Blowers and/or other mechanical means to remove dry contamination 2.0 1.2 2 Deicing-only fluid buffer reduction 2.0 1.2 3 First-step deicing fluid buffer reduction 2.0 1.2 TOTAL 171.0 100.0%

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21 Table 15. Overall ranking of technologies and procedures. Capital Operating Environmental Operational Maturity Training Safety Optimization Technolog y or Cost Score # Cost Impact Score Efficiency Score Score Score Procedure Score (%) Score (%) (%) Score (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) 10 Spot deicing for frost 0.3 1.5 1.9 2.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 8.7 11 Spray-and-go deicing 0.2 0.8 1.7 2.1 0.5 0.8 2.3 8.3 13 Threshold deicing 0.1 0.1 1.8 2.0 0.5 0.8 2.3 7.5 Forced air used to remove 5 0.2 1.1 1.4 1.6 0.6 0.7 1.2 6.8 contamination Implementation of holdover time 6 0.1 1.2 0.8 1.9 0.3 0.1 2.3 6.6 determination systems 16 Use of anti-icing fluid dilutions 0.2 1.4 1.1 0.9 0.6 1.0 1.2 6.5 14 Type III fluids 0.3 1.3 0.6 1.4 0.4 1.0 1.2 6.3 Tempered steam as a non-glycol 12 0.1 1.0 1.5 1.8 0.2 0.4 1.2 6.1 gate deicing or pre-deicing tool 15 Use of 10C Type I buffer 0.3 1.3 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.6 1.2 5.8 Blowers and/or other mechanical 1 0.3 0.9 1.3 1.5 0.6 0.6 0.3 5.6 means to remove dry contamination Non-glycol freeze point depressant 7 0.3 0.5 1.6 0.8 0.1 1.0 1.2 5.5 fluids Fluids applied before the start of 4 0.3 0.6 0.4 1.1 0.6 1.0 1.2 5.3 precipitation to prevent bonding Use of weather forecasting products 18 0.1 0.3 0.3 1.3 0.2 0.1 2.3 4.6 for deicing process 2 Deicing-only fluid buffer reduction 0.3 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.3 3.6 Remote ice detection sensors to 9 scan aircraft critical surfaces before 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.3 2.3 3.6 departure runway 17 Use of infrared deicing technology 0.0 0.2 1.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 1.2 3.4 Point detection sensors to indicate 8 fluid condition and contamination on 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 2.3 3.0 aircraft surfaces First-step deicing fluid buffer 3 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 3.0 reduction TOTAL 3.6% 14.3% 17.9% 21.4% 7.1% 10.7% 25.0% 100.0%