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23 Table 17. Comparison of focus group and APS ranking of technologies and procedures. Focus APS Group Focus Final APS # Optimization Technology or Procedure Final Group Score Rank Score Rank (%) (%) 10 Spot deicing for frost 8.7 8.5 1 1 11 Spray-and-go deicing 8.3 7.7 2 2 13 Threshold deicing 7.5 6.7 3 4 5 Forced air used to remove contamination 6.8 6.9 4 3 Implementation of holdover time determination 6 6.6 6.3 5 9 systems 16 Use of anti-icing fluid dilutions 6.5 6.5 6 5 14 Type III fluids 6.3 6.4 7 7 Tempered steam as a non-glycol gate deicing or pre- 12 6.1 5.1 8 11 deicing tool 15 Use of 10C Type I buffer 5.8 6.5 9 6 Blowers and/or other mechanical means to remove 1 5.6 6.2 10 10 dry contamination 7 Non-glycol freeze point depressant fluids 5.5 4.9 11 12 Fluids applied before the start of precipitation to 4 5.3 6.3 12 8 prevent bonding Use of weather forecasting products for deicing 18 4.6 4.9 13 13 process 2 Deicing-only fluid buffer reduction 3.6% 4.1% 14 14 Remote ice detection sensors to scan aircraft critical 9 3.6 3.5 15 15 surfaces before departure runway 17 Use of infrared deicing technology 3.4 3.2 16 17 Point detection sensors to indicate fluid condition and 8 3.0 3.0 17 18 contamination on aircraft surfaces 3 First-step deicing fluid buffer reduction 3.0 3.5 18 16 Mature Technologies and Procedures (quick hits): These effort associated with this group would be directed toward technologies and procedures include those that could be supporting and advancing the research and development supported and advanced by efforts such as production of process required to bring these items to the implementa- cost benefit analysis, a lesser level of research in some cases, tion stage. and development of industry information aids. In general, these items have reached a level of maturity that enables The results of the categorization are shown in Table 18. rapid application and implementation. The effort associ- ated with this group would be directed toward developing Recommendations for Phase II supporting material to influence decision-makers for field operations to implement approaches that are appropriate The top two quick hit procedures and the top two research to their own operation. technologies from Table 18 were recommended for further Research and Development Technologies and Proce- development and evaluation in Phase II of the project: dures: The technologies and procedures included in this group are those that are not yet fully developed. They offer 1. Implementation of Holdover Time Determination Systems strong potential for optimizing the use of glycol and have (research); been identified as desirable in the focus group survey. The 2. Spot Deicing for Frost (quick hit);