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24 Table 18. Top 10 ranking de/anti-icing technologies and procedures. Type of Rank Optimization Technology or Procedure Item # Activity 1 Spot deicing for frost 10 Quick Hit 2 Spray-and-go deicing 11 Quick Hit 3 Threshold deicing 13 Quick Hit 4 Forced air used to remove contamination 5 Quick Hit Implementation of holdover time 5 6 Research determination systems 6 Use of anti-icing fluid dilutions 16 Quick Hit 7 Type III fluids 14 Quick Hit Tempered steam as a non-glycol gate 8 12 Research deicing or pre-deicing tool 9 Use of 10C Type I buffer 15 Quick Hit Blowers and/or other mechanical means 10 1 Quick Hit to remove dry contamination 3. Spray-and-Go Deicing (quick hit); and Canada, Transportation Development Centre report TP 4. Tempered Steam as a Non-Glycol Gate Deicing or Pre- 13317E (1998). Deicing Tool (research). Hunt, M., Chaput, M. et al, Characteristics of Aircraft Anti- Icing Fluids Subjected to Precipitation, APS Aviation Inc., After review of these recommendations, ACRP selected Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre Technologies 1 and 2 for comprehensive evaluation in Phase report TP 13484E (2001). II of the project. The results of these evaluations are described Moc, N., Adhesion of Aircraft Anti-Icing Fluids on Aluminum in detail in Chapter 3 and 4 respectively. Surfaces, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Trans- portation Development Centre report TP 14149E (not yet published) (2004). Bibliography Moc, N., Adhesion of Aircraft Anti-Icing Fluids on Aluminum Aircraft Ground Deicing Technical Reports Surfaces: Phase II, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre report TP 14377E Subject Matter: Deicing Procedures--Fluid Freeze (not yet published) (2004) Point Buffer Dawson, P., Examination of the Role of Fluid Freeze Point Subject Matter: Ice Detection Sensors Buffers, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transporta- Bendickson, S., A Sensor for Detecting Anti-Icing Fluid Failure: tion Development Centre report TP 13129E (1997). Phase I, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Trans- Dawson, P., Aircraft Deicing Fluid Freeze Point Buffer Require- portation Development Centre report TP 14382E (not yet ments: Deicing Only and First Step of Two-Step Deicing, APS published) (2004). Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Develop- Bendickson, S., A Sensor for Detecting Anti-Icing Fluid Failure: ment Centre report TP 13315E (1998). Phase II, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transporta- Dawson, P., Aircraft Deicing Fluid Freeze Point Buffer Require- tion Development Centre report TP 14446E (not yet pub- ments for Deicing-Only Conditions, APS Aviation Inc., lished) (2005). Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre Dawson, P. and Peters, A., Feasibility of Use of Ice Detection report TP 13478E (1999). Sensors of End-of-Runway Wing Checks, APS Aviation Inc., Subject Matter: Fluid Characteristics--Characteristics of Air- Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre craft Anti-Icing Fluids Subjected to Precipitation report TP 13481E (1999). Chaput, M. et al, Characteristics of Aircraft Anti-Icing Fluids Dawson, P. and Hunt, M., Ice Detection Sensor Capabilities for Subjected to Precipitation, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, End-of-Runway Wing Checks: Phase 2 Evaluation, APS Avi-

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25 ation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Subject Matter: Aircraft De/Anti-Icing Fluid Research Centre report TP 13662E (2000). Chaput, M., A Potential Solution for De/Anti-Icing of Commuter Weisser, Carl F., Final Report Operational Evaluation for the Aircraft, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transporta- Two Sensor Contaminant/Fluid Integrity Measuring System tion Development Centre report TP 14152E (2003). (C/FIMS) Midway Airlines F-100 Aircraft, Allied Signal Chaput, M., APS Development of Holdover Time Guidelines for Aerospace, Etobicoke, Canada, Transportation Develop- Type III Fluids, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Trans- ment Centre report TP 12979E (1997). portation Development Centre report TP 14379E (2004). Weisser, Carl F., Operational Evaluation for the Four Sensor Contaminant/Fluid Integrity Measuring System (C/FIMS) Midway Airlines F-100 Aircraft, Allied Signal Aerospace, Subject Matter: Aircraft De/Anti-Icing Fluid Testing Etobicoke, Canada, Transportation Development Centre Chebil, S. and Alwaid, A., Influence of Application Procedure report TP 13254E (1997). on Anti-icing Fluid Viscosity, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre report TP Subject Matter: Hot Water Deicing 13996E (2002). Dawson, P., Hot Water Deicing Trials for the 199495 Winter, Dawson, P., SAE Type I Fluid Endurance Time Test Protocol, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre report TP 12653E (1995). Development Centre report TP 13827E (2003). Dawson, P., and Hanna, M., Hot Water Deicing of Aircraft, APS Moc, N., Effect of Heat on Endurance Times of Anti-icing Fluids, Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Develop- APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Devel- ment Centre report TP 13483E (1999). opment Centre report TP 14447E (not yet published) (2005). Dawson, P., and Hanna, M., APS Hot Water Deicing of Air- Youssef, D., Dawson, P., Effect of Heat on Endurance Times of craft: Phase 2, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Trans- Anti-icing Fluids (Research 20052007), APS Aviation Inc., portation Development Centre report TP 13663E (2000). Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre report (not yet published) (2007). Subject Matter: Forced Air Deicing Subject Matter: Application of Fluid Bendickson, S., A Protocol for Testing Fluids Applied with Holdover Time Guidelines Forced Air Systems, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre report TP 14380E Bendickson, S., Relationship Between Visibility and Snow- (not yet published) (2004). fall Intensity, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Bendickson, S., Evaluation of Type IV Fluids Using FedEx Forced Transportation Development Centre report TP 14151E Air Assist Equipment, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, (2003). Transportation Development Centre report TP 14445E (not yet published) (2005). Subject Matter: Holdover Time Determination Systems Dawson, P., Endurance Times of Fluids Applied with Forced Chaput, M., Technical Assessment of the Dan-Ice Detection and Air Systems, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Information System, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada Transportation Development Centre report TP 14153E (2004). (2003). Chaput, M., Operational Assessment of the Dan-Ice Detection and Information System (DIIS) Winter 200304, APS Avia- Subject Matter: Alternative Deicing Approaches tion Inc., Montreal, Canada (2004). Dawson, P. and Hanna, M., APS Evaluation of Warm Fuel as Chaput, M., and Ruggi, M., Continued Technical Assessment an Alternative Approach to Deicing, APS Aviation Inc., of the Dan-Ice Information System, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre Montreal, Canada (2006). report TP 13482E (1999). Ruggi, M. and Moc, N., Evaluation of a Real-Time Snow Pre- Ruggi, E., and Pole, C., APS Deicing with a Mobile Infra-Red cipitation Gauge for Aircraft Deicing Operations, APS Avia- System, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transporta- tion Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development tion Development Centre report TP 13489E (2005). Centre report TP 14150E (2003). Posteraro, D. and Chaput, M., Evaluation of the Chinook Ruggi, M. and Moc, N., Evaluation of a Real-Time Snow Pre- Tempered Steam Deicing Technology for Aircraft Deicing cipitation Gauge for Aircraft Deicing Operations (200304), Applications, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada (not yet APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation published) (2007). Development Centre report TP 14150E (2004).

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26 Subject Matter: Aerodynamic Penalties of Clean U.S. Federal Aviation Administration AFS-22010, Aircraft or Partially Expended De/Anti-icing Fluid Deicing and Anti-icing Program, Advisory Circular (AC) 120-60B, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washing- Chaput, M. and Campbell, R., Aircraft Takeoff Test Program ton, DC (12/05/2004). for Winter 200102: Testing to Evaluate the Aerodynamic U.S. Federal Aviation Administration AFS-2209, Ground De- Penalties of Clean or Partially Expended De/Anti-Icing Fluid, icing Using Infrared Energy, Advisory Circular (AC) 120-89, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC Development Centre report TP 13995E (2002). (12/13/2005). U.S. Federal Aviation Administration AIR-120, Aircraft Ice Subject Matter: Aircraft Ground Deicing Protection, Advisory Circular (AC) 20-73A, Federal Avia- Exploratory Research tion Administration, Washington, DC (10/16/2006). U.S. Federal Aviation Administration AFS-20011, Approved Bendickson, S., Chebil, S., Moc, N. and Vepsa, K., Aircraft Deicing Program Updates, Winter 200607, FAA N8000.329, Ground Icing General and Exploratory Research Activities for U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC the 200304 Winter, APS Aviation Inc., Montreal, Canada, (10/27/2006). Transportation Development Centre report TP 14381E U.S. Federal Aviation Administration ACE-1006, Certification Winter (not yet published) (2004). of Part 23 Airplanes for Flight in Icing Conditions, Advisory Chebil, S., Mayodon, M., Dawson, P., Aircraft Ground Icing Circular (AC) 23-1419-2D, U.S. Federal Aviation Admin- Exploratory Research for the 200203 Winter, APS Aviation istration, Washington, DC (4/19/2007). Inc., Montreal, Canada, Transportation Development Centre report TP 14154E (not yet published) (2003). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory, Government and Industry Barash, S., J. Covington, and C. Tamulonis, EPA--821-R-00- Documentation, Guidance Material 016: Preliminary Data Summary Airport Deicing Operations, and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, (2000). U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) U.S., Federal Aviation Administration AFS-2508, FAR Part Transport Canada (TC) 135 Icing Limitations, Advisory Circular (AC) 135-9, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC (5/30/ Transport Canada, Holdover Time (HOT) Guidelines 1981). 20062007, Transport Canada, Ottawa, Canada (July U.S. Federal Aviation Administration AWS-100, Hazards Fol- 2006). lowing Ground Deicing and Ground Operations in Condi- Transport Canada, Ingold, D., Guidelines for Aircraft Ground tions Conducive to Aircraft Icing, Advisory Circular (AC) Operations and Holdover Time Guidelines for Winter 2006 20-117, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC 2007, Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular (reissued 3/29/1988). (CBAAC) 0025R3, Transport Canada, Commercial and U.S. Federal Aviation Administration AFS-400, Pilot Guide-- Business Aviation, Ottawa, Canada (July 21, 2006). Large Aircraft Ground Deicing, Advisory Circular (AC) Transport Canada, Ingold, D., Guidelines for Aircraft Ground 120-58, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washing- Icing Operations, Transport Canada, Ottawa, Canada, ton, DC, (9/30/1992). Transport Canada document TP 14052E (April 17, 2007). U.S. Federal Aviation Administration AFS-2507, Ground Deicing and Anti-Icing--Training and Checking, Advisory Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Circular (AC) 135-16, U.S. Federal Aviation Administra- tion, Washington, DC (12/12/1994). SAE G-12 Methods Subcommittee, SAE Aerospace Recom- U.S. Federal Aviation Administration AFS-200, Pilot Guide-- mended Practice (ARP) 4737G Aircraft Deicing/Anti-Icing Small Aircraft Ground Deicing, Advisory Circular (AC) Methods With Fluids, SAE Aerospace Inc., Warrendale, PA 135-17, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washing- (November 2005). ton, DC (12/14/1994). U.S. Federal Aviation Administration AFS-220, Pilot Guide-- Association of European Airlines (AEA) Flight in Icing Conditions, Advisory Circular (AC) 91-74, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC Association of European Airlines Deicing/Anti-icing Work- (12/12/2002). ing, Recommendations for Deicing/Anti-Icing of Aircraft on

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27 the Ground 21st Edition, Association of European Airlines Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), Ice and Other Contaminants (AEA), Brussels, Belgium (September 2006). (Ground Procedures), Joint Aviation Requirements (JAR) Association of European Airlines Deicing/Anti-icing Work- OPS 1.345, Joint Aviation Authorities, Hoopdorp, Nether- ing, Fieandt, J., AEA Training Recommendations and Back- lands (1/3/1998). ground Information for Deicing/Anti-icing of Aircraft on the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority, New Zealand Air- Ground 3rd Edition, Association of European Airlines craft Icing Handbook, 1st Edition, New Zealand Civil (AEA), Brussels, Belgium (September 2006). Aviation Authority, Wellington, New Zealand (June 14, 2000). International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Tech- Other nical Committee 20/SC-9 with Association of European International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)/Interna- Airlines (AEA) and the SAE G-12 Aircraft Ground Deic- tional Air Transport Association (IATA) Safety Committee, ing Committee Technical Specialists, ISO 11076 Aircraft-- Manual of Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-icing Operations, Ground Based Deicing/Anti-icing Methods with Fluids, Second Edition, International Civil Aviation Organization, ISO Copyright Office, Geneva, Switzerland (November Montreal, Canada, Document 9640 (2000). 15, 2006).