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29 tional Airport (SYR), with a focus on lake-effect snow. Lake- Denver International Airport DEN effect snow is produced in the winter when cold arctic winds (Denver, Colorado) move across long expanses of warmer lake water, providing Denver International Airport (DEN) is one of the largest energy and picking up water vapor, which freezes and is de- airports in the world from the perspective of surface area, posited on the lee shores. The areas surrounding lake-effect with over 30,000 ft separating certain active runway depar- snow are called snow belts. As lake-effect snow can cause sig- ture points. For this reason, as well as for reasons related to nificant variance in precipitation rates in small areas, it was of the historical nature and severity of winter precipitation in particular interest to examine the ability of a single HOTDS Denver, DEN was selected as a desired test location for the to provide sufficient coverage at an airport site impacted by continuation of the HOTDS long distance collection. lake-effect snow. Syracuse Hancock International Airport SYR Research Approach (Syracuse, New York) and Methodologies Syracuse Hancock International Airport (SYR) was identi- Test Procedures for Data Collection fied as an ideal airport to collect lake-effect snowfall data. The test procedure developed for use during HOTDS test- Lake-effect snow on the Tug Hill Plateau (east of Lake On- ing is based on the precipitation intensity measurement pro- tario) can frequently set daily records for snowfall in the cedure included in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) United States. Syracuse, New York is directly south of the Tug Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 5485. This is the Hill Plateau and receives significant lake-effect snow from same rate measurement procedure that has been employed in Lake Ontario. Snowfall amounts at this location are signifi- cant and average 115.6 in (294cm) a year. the development of de/anti-icing fluid holdover time tables since 1990. Separate test procedures were developed for each work element; these procedures, while relying the same gen- Test Locations and Remote Test Unit eral methodology in data collection, were individualized to Test Locations the particular airport with specific contact lists, airport dia- grams, and a communication plan. The test procedures are All data collection was collected on non-airside land sur- included in Appendix A. rounding each airport. Locations used were kept non-air- side to minimize disruptions to airport operations. In addi- tion, it allowed APS personnel full autonomy to come and Focus Airports go as required by each precipitation event. Typical locations Montreal-Trudeau International Airport YUL were: (Montreal, Quebec) Perimeter roads (city owned); Montreal-Trudeau Airport (YUL) was selected as the pri- Perimeter business parking lots; mary location for the preliminary test program as efficien- Long-term parking lots; and cies were obtained by conducting research at the airport Fixed-base operator parking lots. where the APS test site is located. The test procedure for data collection was developed, tested, and refined at this primary Remote Test Unit location. The majority of all data collection was completed at YUL. A remote laboratory was established with all the neces- sary testing equipment installed into a 16-foot cube van Mirabel International Airport YMX (Figure 1). This allowed for testing in any desired remote (Mirabel, Quebec) location. Testing at the off-site location was conducted in a mobile test unit, housed within a cube van, and powered by Mirabel Airport (YMX) was selected to serve as a test area generators. for long distance data collection. YMX was envisioned to be the second largest airport in the world in terms of surface Equipment and Methodology area, with a planned area of 39,660 hectares (396.6 km2). Eco- for Precipitation Measurement nomic factors eventually led to YMX being relegated to the role of a cargo airport, and therefore was not expanded to this A snow-catching methodology was employed in this re- planned area. However, YMX still provided the necessary dis- search. This test procedure was developed based upon the tance for an appropriate analysis. rate measurement methodology employed for holdover time