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3 CHAPTER 2 Promising De/Anti-Icing Source Reduction Practices Introduction Increase in fuel burn due to live deicing operations; Glycol mitigation; and Aviation regulations prohibit the takeoff of aircraft when Occupational hazards. snow, ice or frost is adhering to wings, tails, control surfaces, propellers, engine intakes and other critical surfaces of the The negative aspects of glycol aircraft de/anti-icing fluids aircraft. This rule forms the basis of the "Clean Aircraft Con- and their direct impacts were once dismissed by the industry cept." To this end, the aviation industry has developed ground as the necessary evil to ensure safe winter operations. This sit- de/anti-icing procedures and technologies to maintain the uation is changing rapidly, however. Environmental protec- safety of winter flight operations. Aircraft deicing consists of tion agencies and regulators worldwide are exerting increasing the removal of ice, snow, and frost from aircraft surfaces; anti- pressure on airports and operators to be accountable, and the icing uses a protective agent to avoid any further accumula- high costs associated with the use of glycol have made many tion of ice or snow following deicing and prior to takeoff. airlines examine the current way of doing business. The technologies most prominently used for aircraft ground de/anti-icing are glycol-based, freeze point depressant fluids. Aircraft ground de/anti-icing is critical to flight safety Objective because ice accumulation on critical aircraft surfaces can have a detrimental impact on aerodynamic performance and can The objective of ACRP Project 10-01 was to identify proce- possibly result in engine loss or damage due to ice ingestion. dures and technologies that optimize the use of ADAFs, thus Aircraft ground de/anti-icing became the subject of concerted reducing their environmental impact while assuring safe air- industry attention approximately 15 years ago due to the craft operations in deicing and anti-icing conditions. The proj- occurrence of several fatal icing-related aircraft accidents. Of ect produced (1) a description of the application of currently particular importance to North American regulators were the available procedures and technologies to optimize ADAF use; crashes that occurred in Dryden, Ontario and La Guardia, New (2) the results of an experiment to validate the effectiveness of York in 1989 and 1992, respectively. Both accidents resulted in several promising procedures and technologies; (3) a plan for the loss of lives and ultimately stimulated extensive Transport implementation of these promising procedures and technolo- Canada (TC) and FAA involvement in aircraft de/anti-icing gies; and (4) recommendations for further study. research and development. Despite dramatic improvements in recent years in the qual- Organization ity of aircraft de/anti-icing fluids, fluid delivery equipment, fluid recovery equipment, industry procedures, and ground/ ACRP Project 10-01 was performed in two phases. Phase I flight crew training, the negative aspects of the use of glycol has three work elements: for aircraft ground de/anti-icing are still prominent. These negative aspects include, but are not limited to: 1. A thorough literature review and information collection on current aircraft ground de/anti-icing optimization High costs associated with the use of glycol; procedures and technologies. Environmental concerns (toxicity, biodegradability); 2. An analysis of data developed in work element #1 to iden- Aircraft delays and airport throughput issues in deicing tify specific procedures and technologies for further eval- events; uation in Phase II of ACRP Project 10-01.