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38 Table 24. Summary of test events. Separation # of Average Average Event Predominant Date Location Distance Tests Temp Wind Speed # Weather (ft) (C) (kph) 1 Feb 1, 2008 YUL 4,232 16 -5.3 32 Snow, Ice Pellets 2 Feb 5, 2008 YUL 4,232 13 -4.4 21 Snow 3 Feb 9, 2008 YUL 5,052 9 -3 12 Snow 4 Feb 13, 2008 YUL 4,167 18 -9.3 19 Snow 5 Feb 15, 2008 YUL 4,232 11 -5.3 15 Snow 6 Feb 26, 2008 YUL 7, 017 10 -4.2 33 Snow 7 Mar 5, 2008 YUL 7, 017 5 -8.1 43 Snow 8 Mar 8, 2008 YUL 7,933 16 -2.1 29 Snow, Fog 9 Mar 13, 2008 YUL 13,390 10 -7.9 20 Snow 10 Dec 9, 2008 YMX 28,500 24 -11.5 11 Light Snow 11 Dec 12, 2008 YMX 28,500 17 -7.1 9 Light Snow 12 Jan 8, 2009 SYR 8,300 9 -3.2 21 Light Snow 13 Jan 8, 2009 SYR 8,300 32 -5.3 25 Light Snow 14 Mar 26, 2009 DEN 27, 800 35 -9.9 32 Light Snow 15 Apr 4, 2009 DEN 27,800 17 -0.1 22 Light Snow Total: 242 Summary of Test Events Pan delta: Measured weight (in grams) of precipitation collected during the test, for each of the four rate pans; Fifteen test events were completed over the course of the Closest to mean: Two "closest to mean" pans chosen for two winter seasons. Table 24 summarizes the events and the further analysis; conditions present for each event. The table provides a Average variance: Average variance (in grams); description of the test dates, location of the tests, separa- Average variance: Average variance (in percent); tion distances between sites, number of tests conducted Temp: Outside air temperature during the test session for each event, along with the weather conditions (average (in C); temperature, wind speed, and predominant precipitation Wind dir: Direction of wind on rate pan (in 10's deg); condition). Wind speed (kph): Wind speed (in kilometers per hour); Visibility: Visibility (in km); and Test Data Log Weather: Description of snow intensity. The log of test data collected over the two winters and sub- The test data logs for the remaining 14 events are included jected to analysis is included in Appendix B. in Appendix B. These test logs contain all the data collected Each row in this log contains data specific to one test set and subjected to analysis. and records data collected at both test locations during an event. The log of data is separated by event and sorted sequen- tially by calendar date as the tests were conducted. Table 25 ex- Scatter Diagram of Logged Data cerpts the details of tests that were conducted for Event #1 on Figure 13 provides a depiction of the precipitation data February 1st, 2008 at YUL airport with a separation distance collected at short distances in both winters as a scatter dia- of 4,232 ft. gram. The x and y coordinates for each point reflect the pre- Following is a brief description of the column headings cipitation rates measured at Site 1 and Site 2. The best-fit line used in the test log: drawn through the points shows limited scatter. Figure 14 shows a similar scatter plot of the medium separation dis- Set no.: Sequential number given to the test set. Sequenc- tance data; the data collected at SYR during the lake-effect ing was restarted at number 201 for the second season. event is shown with a different symbol. Figure 15 charts the Certain tests that were removed from the analysis are not precipitation data collected at the long separation distances included in this log; (YMX and DEN). Time before: Time at start of test; The charts clearly show that the precipitation rate differ- Time after: Time at end of test; ences increase as a function of site separation distance.

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Table 25. Example of detailed test log, Event #1. EVENT #1 FEBRUARY 1, 2008 MONTREAL (YUL) (4,232 ft Separation) SITE A: Marshall Road Snow Dump Facility (45 27' 28" N 73 44' 14" W) SITE B: APS Test Facility (45 28' 6" N 73 44' 28" W) SITE 1 SITE 2 Variance Analysis MSC Data Difference Variance in Wind Set Time Time Pan Delta (g) Closest to Mean (g) Pan Delta (g) Closest to Mean (g) Between Temp. Wind Sp Visibility Weather Avg. Best Direction No. Before After Avg. Best Avg Avg Absolute 1 2 3 4 AVG Best 1 Best 2 1 2 3 4 AVG Best 1 Best 2 % (C) (10's deg) (kph) (km) Best Best Value (g) 1 13:00 13:10 61.4 60.6 59.2 59 60.1 60.6 59.2 59.9 62.2 61 53.4 52.2 57.2 61 53.4 57.2 2.7 4.60% -7.1 5 33 0.8 Moderate Snow 2 13:20 13:30 86.8 81.6 79.6 78 81.5 81.6 79.6 80.6 79 77 71.6 71.6 74.8 77 71.6 74.3 6.3 8.10% -6.7 5 33 0.8 Moderate Snow 3 13:50 14:00 87.6 91 86.8 87.4 88.2 87.6 87.4 87.5 87 87.2 86.8 89.2 87.6 87.2 87 87.1 0.4 0.50% -6 5 26 0.8 Moderate Snow 4 14:10 14:20 129 125 121 119 124 125 121 123 135 133 135 134 134 135 134 134 11.3 8.80% -5.7 5 26 0.8 Moderate Snow 5 14:40 14:50 103 103 106 103 104 103 103 103 114 113 114 116 114 114 114 114 10.8 9.90% -5.4 7 30 3.2 Snow ,Ice Pellets 6 15:00 15:10 59.6 60.8 58.2 62 60.2 59.6 60.8 60.2 68 66.8 68.6 69.4 68.2 68 68.6 68.3 8.1 12.60% -4.9 7 30 3.2 Snow ,Ice Pellets 7 15:20 15:30 61.6 60 59.2 60 60.2 60 60 60 64.6 62.8 66.2 66.8 65.1 64.6 66.2 65.4 5.4 8.60% -4.9 7 30 3.2 Snow ,Ice Pellets 8 15:40 15:50 52.6 56.8 53.8 53.6 54.2 53.8 53.6 53.7 44 43.8 44 44.8 44.2 44 44 44 9.7 19.90% -5 5 33 1.6 Snow 9 16:00 16:10 93.6 90.4 88.8 90.2 90.8 90.4 90.2 90.3 77.6 78.6 80.8 79.2 79.1 79.2 78.6 78.9 11.4 13.50% -5 5 33 1.6 Snow 10 17:40 17:50 54.6 55.6 53.6 55.8 54.9 54.6 55.6 55.1 50.6 50.8 51.6 52.2 51.3 51.6 50.8 51.2 3.9 7.30% -5.2 6 32 1.2 Snow 11 18:00 18:10 99.6 98.8 99.6 98.6 99.2 98.8 99.6 99.2 102 102 101 103 102 102 102 102 2.8 2.80% -5 6 32 1.2 Snow 12 18:20 18:30 98.8 100 102 99.6 100 100 99.6 99.9 107 110 109 110 109 110 109 109 9.2 8.80% -5 6 32 1.2 Snow 13 18:40 18:50 93 93.8 92.8 93.2 93.2 93.2 93 93.1 105 107 107 108 107 107 107 107 14.1 14.10% -4.9 6 30 2 Snow ,Ice Pellets 14 19:00 19:10 104 103 104 103 104 104 103 103 119 120 118 121 119 120 119 119 16 14.40% -4.9 6 30 2 Snow ,Ice Pellets 15 19:30 19:40 118 117 116 117 117 117 117 117 119 120 120 124 121 120 120 120 2.9 2.40% -4.9 6 37 2.4 Snow ,Ice Pellets 16 19:50 20:00 113 111 110 111 111 111 111 111 121 120 123 123 122 121 123 122 10.4 8.90% -4.9 6 37 2.4 Snow ,Ice Pellets 17 20:10 20:20 102 104 101 104 103 102 104 103 110 111 113 113 112 111 113 112 8.8 8.20% -4.8 6 37 2.4 Snow ,Ice Pellets

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40 60 Short Distance (4,167 to 5,052 ft.) Scatter Plot 67 Points 2 R = 0.98 50 40 Rate Site 2 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Rate Site 1 Figure 13. Precipitation rate comparison data for short separation distances. 60 Medium Distance (7,017 to 13,390 ft.) Scatter Plot with Lake Effect Separated 82 Points 50 R2 = 0.93 40 Rate Site 2 30 20 R2 = 0.31 10 Medium Distance (7,017 to 13,390 ft.) Lake Effect (8,300 ft.) Linear (Medium Distance (7,017 to 13,390 ft.)) Linear (Lake Effect (8,300 ft.)) 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Rate Site 1 Figure 14. Precipitation rate comparison data for medium separation distances.