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4 3. Preparation of an interim report summarizing the results Aircraft De/Anti-Icing Fluid Research; of Task 1, a comprehensive discussion of each of the pro- Aircraft De/Anti-Icing Fluid Testing; cedures and technologies recommended for further eval- Application of Holdover Time Guidelines; uation, and an outline of an experimental plan. Holdover Time Determination Systems; Aerodynamic Penalties of Clean or Partially Expended De/ Phase II has these work elements: Anti-icing Fluid; and Aircraft Ground Deicing Exploratory Research. 1. Design of the experimental plan to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of procedures and technologies approved Subsequent to the classification exercise, a thorough review by ACRP in Phase I and conduct of the experiments. of each technical report was performed to examine and identify 2. Identification of additional opportunities for further potential technologies and procedures for use in de/anti-icing research. optimization. Particular attention was paid to identify potential 3. Preparation of this final report summarizing the results quick hits--optimization technologies and procedures that are and recommendations of the research. ready to implement now or that are already in use, but could be improved upon readily. Research Approach For each technical report reviewed, the optimization tech- nology or procedure was listed along with a list of the positive This section describes the approach and methodologies and negative attributes of the optimization technology or pro- employed in Phase I. cedure and general comments from the review. A summary of the review of each of the 37 technical reports is provided in Literature Review and Data Examination Appendix A. A complete listing of all literature reviewed is given at the APS performed a literature review to identify technologies end of this chapter. and procedures that could potentially optimize the use of aircraft de/anti-icing fluids and, thus, reduce environmental Regulatory, Government and Industry impact while maintaining or even enhancing the safety of air- Documentation, Guidance Material, craft operations in de/anti-icing conditions. The literature and Standards review consisted of: Twenty-two regulatory, government, and industry docu- Aircraft ground deicing technical reports, produced on ments were reviewed. The preponderance of these documents behalf of the Transportation Development Centre (TDC) of were from the FAA, and addressed many of the activities TC, the FAA, and aviation industry product manufacturers; associated with aircraft icing to include ground icing, ground Regulatory, government and industry documentation, deicing programs, in-flight icing, aircraft ice protection and guidance material, and standards; and use of infrared deicing facilities. Similar ground deicing docu- Aircraft ground deicing patents. ments were reviewed from TC and from the Association of European Airlines (AEA). One document from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), entitled Preliminary Aircraft Ground Deicing Technical Reports Data Summary--Airport Deicing Operations (Revised), was Thirty-seven aircraft ground deicing technical reports were reviewed. Other documents reviewed were those used by reviewed. In the initial step, the reports were grouped into foreign air carriers and included documentation from the Joint these areas of interest to facilitate the presentation of report Aviation Authorities (JAA), International Organization for review findings: Standardization (ISO), International Civil Aviation Orga- nization (ICAO) and New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority. Deicing Procedures--Fluid Freeze Point Buffer Require- Also, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) document ments; Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4737, Aircraft Aircraft Anti-Icing Fluid Characteristics; Deicing/Anti-icing Methods with Fluids, which serves as the Ice Detection Sensors; industry standard for methodologies on aircraft deicing, Alternative Deicing Approaches: was reviewed. In the Bibliography of Chapter 2, the regulatory, Hot Water; government and industry documentation, guidance material, Forced Air Systems; and standards reviewed were grouped in the following manner: Warm Fuel; Mobile Infrared System; and U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA); Tempered Steam. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA);