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5 Transport Canada (TC); copy of the survey, list of survey respondents, and detailed sur- Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE); vey results are provided in Appendixes E, F, and G respectively. Association of European Airlines (AEA); and Other. Focus Group A summary of the document was prepared, including an The focus group was assembled from two sources: key con- assessment of the positive and negative aspects of the docu- tacts in the aviation industry and ACRP Project 10-01 panel mentation. A summary of the review of each of the 22 regula- members. tory, government and industry documents has been provided Industry contacts were selected for inclusion in the focus in Appendix B. group based on their knowledge, experience, and decision- In addition to performing a general review, each document making authority related to aircraft ground operations in win- was assigned a rating relative to current aircraft ground deicing ter conditions, specifically de/anti-icing fluid usage. A concerted practices. The ratings varied from high to very low. Those doc- effort was made to include individuals representing various uments that were updated in a timely manner (usually yearly or interests in the industry including: de/anti-icing fluid manufac- whenever significant changes in ground deicing practices or turers, deicing equipment manufacturers, air carriers (of vari- requirements occurred) were assigned a high rating, whereas ous sizes), airframe manufacturers, deicing service providers, those documents that were seriously outdated or were not airport authorities and regulators. While most individuals specifically directed at ground deicing issues, were assigned rat- selected were based in North America, several Europeans were ings from medium to very low, depending upon the relevance also included in the focus group. of their information content. The document ratings appear in ACRP Project 10-01 panel members were included in the Appendix C. focus group to allow panel members to share their experience and knowledge. Aircraft Ground Deicing Patents Survey A general review of aircraft ground deicing-related patents was performed to identify potential deicing optimization A survey was developed to gather information from the focus technologies and procedures for future study. Patent-related group. A copy of the survey is included in Appendix E. information was gathered from two Internet websites: Survey Administration and Response; and The survey was provided to the focus group via email and the responses organized in a database. A search for aircraft ground deicing-related patents pro- In total, the survey was sent to 37 individuals, including duced over 400 U.S. patents and applications. An abstract 24 industry contacts and 13 ACRP Project 10-01 panel mem- of each of the 400 patents was reviewed, and 52 hard-copy ver- bers. Nineteen individuals submitted completed surveys, sions of the patents (in Adobe Acrobat PDF) were downloaded and one individual provided general comments. The overall for more extensive review. An abstract of each of the 52 patents response rate was 54% (20 of 37). reviewed in detail is provided in Appendix D. The response rates by inclusion source and interest group Most of the patents reviewed applied to de/anti-icing fluid are shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. At least one response formulation, de/anti-icing vehicle configuration, ice detection was received from each interest group. A complete list of focus sensors, deicing sprayers, onboard deicing systems, and non- group members who completed the survey is included in glycol deicing technologies. Only a few potential technolo- Appendix F. gies and procedures were identified for further examination from the patent review. These included the use of non-glycol Survey Results de/anti-icing fluid formulations and the use of laser technol- ogy for deicing aircraft. The detailed survey results are provided in Appendix G. The application of survey results is discussed in the following Focus Group Survey section. A focus group was organized to gain industry insights and Binary Decision Analysis Model feedback on current and future aircraft de/anti-icing fluid opti- mization practices. The methodology employed to assemble the The Binary Decision Analysis Model was used in the deter- focus group and conduct the survey are summarized herein. A mination of which technologies and procedures should be