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70 BACKGROUND QUESTIONS 1. Where/when is standard frost deicing performed? At a remote location, following scheduled departure time 2. Who performs standard frost deicing? Contractor 3. Where/when will spot frost deicing be performed? At the gate, prior to scheduled departure time 4. Who will perform spot frost deicing? Operator 5. How much glycol is used for frost deicing annually? 400,000 liters 6. How many frost deicings are conducted annually? 2,400 7. What percentage of frost deicings will use a spot frost deicing procedure? 50% 9. Relative to a standard frost deicing, how much glycol will be used for a spot frost deicing? 40% 8. Will new/different equipment (i.e. trucks) be required for spot deicing? yes This page is complete. Please go to the next page (Costs). Figure 26. Sample background page. Figure 29--Breakeven Schedule Page: This page shows the to spot deicing for frost removal. However, changes to ARP initial investment will be recouped in year two. 4737 were proposed and accepted at the May 2009 meeting This case study uses typical parameter values to examine the of the SAE G-12 Aircraft Ground Deicing Methods Subcom- costs and benefits of relocating frost deicing from a remote cen- mittee. These changes are expected to be adopted for the tral deicing facility to the gate. Even with the one-time capital 200910 winter operating season, and should provide ade- costs for new deicing equipment, this examination shows cost- quate guidance for operators wishing to implement spot recovery within one year, and substantial operational savings deicing for frost removal. thereafter. This is an interesting situation, involving a significant reduction in aircraft block time and engine run time. For this Experimental tests were conducted to quantify the required operator, using a spot deicing procedure for frost deicing is a amount, strength, and temperature of fluid to conduct spot financially sound and environmentally advantageous decision. deicing for frost operations. The following conclusions were drawn from the tests: Conclusions, Recommendations, The application of fluid at a minimum rate of 1/3 L/m2 and Suggested Research (approximately 1/3 quart per 10 ft2) can be used as a guide to The conclusions, recommendations, and suggested research field operations; resulting from this task are provided in this section. Application of fluid mixed to an 18F (10C) freeze point buffer is adequate for the spot deicing application; The fluid should be applied at a temperature not less than Conclusions 140F (60C) at the spray nozzle; The review of current government and industry regulations, Unless further testing is conducted and proves otherwise, guidance material, and standards related to spot deicing for spot deicing should be used only for non-active frost condi- frost removal found that: tions; and Additional testing with positive results would be needed Changes to FAA and aircraft manufacturer guidance mate- before spot deicing could be approved for active cold-soak rials were not required; and frost deicing. SAE ARP 4737, the premier document referenced by all major air carriers nationally and internationally for aircraft A group of key individuals from the deicing industry de/anti-icing methods, was lacking guidance material related were surveyed to gather a more thorough and detailed

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71 CAPITAL COSTS - NEW EQUIPMENT a) Cost of new equipment required for spot deicing $ 500,000 b) Cost of new access equipment for spot deicing inspector $ 200,000 FIXED COSTS - ONE TIME SETUP COSTS a) Cost to gain in-house approval from all affected branches to proceed $ 2,000 b) Cost to develop, publish and approve new procedures $ 2,000 c) Cost to include new procedures in airline deicing program, get approval $ 3,000 d) Cost to develop training materials for spot deicing $ 5,000 e) Cost to move frost deicing from remote location to gate $ 5,000 FIXED COSTS - ANNUAL Costs for standard frost deicing : a) Equipment maintenance costs (annual) not applicable b) Equipment operation costs (annual) not applicable Costs for frost deicing if spot deicing implemented (assume mix of standard/spot operations) : a) Equipment maintenance costs (annual) $ 5,000 b) Equipment operation costs (annual) $ 15,000 c) Additional flight crew training costs employees 50 x cost per employee $ 800 $ 40,000 d) Additional ground crew training costs employees 40 x cost per employee $ 200 $ 8,000 VARIABLE COSTS Costs for standard frost deicing : a) Contractor cost (per deicing) $ 200 b) Block time costs (per deicing) $ 400 c) Glycol cost (per deicing) liters 200 x cost per liter $ 4 $ 800 d) Staff cost (per deicing) not applicable e) Inspector cost (per deicing) not applicable f) Cleanup cost (per deicing) not applicable Costs for spot frost deicing : a) Contractor cost (per deicing) not applicable b) Block time costs (per deicing) not applicable c) Glycol cost (per deicing) liters 80 x cost per liter $ 4 $ 320 d) Staff cost (per deicing) $ 100 e) Inspector cost (per deicing) $ 100 f) Cleanup cost (per deicing) $ 350 This page is complete. Please go to the next page (Results). Figure 27. Sample costs page.