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Index Accessibility theory, 54 Administration on Aging, 123 Adolescents, 36, 37, 47, 6065, 95, 108, 195 Advertising, 4, 8, 12, 25-26, 36, 39~0, 53, 144, 156, 159, 185 child-focused, 188, 204-205, 225 fish, 153-154 fruit and vegetable marketing, 147-149 public service announcements, 26, 205, 206 regulation, 188-190, 204, 225 tax on, 204 Age factors, 47, 211 dietary guidelines, general, 86, 91, 107 Agency coordination, 8, 117-119, 124, 136, 218 Alcoholic beverages, 88, 103-104, 204, 206, 216-217 American Academy of Pediatrics, 109, 199 American Cancer Society, 22, 193, 202 American Culinary Federation Educa- tional Institute, 161 American Dietetic Association, 97, 123, 199-200, 205 American Heart Association, 2, 21, 22, 189-190, 193, 202 American Home Economics Association, 199-200 American Institute of Nutrition, 199-200 American Public Health Association, 180, 199-200 229 Associations, see Professional associa- tions; Voluntary organizations and activities Attitudes and beliefs, 4, 5, 9, 22, 33, 40, 41, 47-49, 141-142, 143-144 change, 72, 74-75, 211 toward fats, 41, 48, 49, 50 of professionals, 26 public opinion, 6, 47-49, 168 research, 212 theories, 33, 50-58, 60-61, 211, 225-226 see also Preferences Awards and prizes, 145, 162, 176 Behavioral factors, see Eating behavior; Risk factors Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs Beverages, 39, 46, 90 alcoholic, 88, 103-104, 204, 206, 216- 217 Breeding methods, 151, 153 Bureau of Prisons, 134 Cafeterias, see Restaurants and cafeterias Calcium, 95-96, 107-108, 216, 217 California, 64, 67, 99, 120, 204 Cancer American Cancer Society, 22, 193 chemical toxins and, 23-24 fats and, 48, 101

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230 obesity, 103 protein and, 101 Carbohydrates, 85-86, 98-99, 215 Cardiovascular disease, 48, 52, 63, 67 68, 69, 98, 103, 124, 176 Center for Science in the Public Interest, 202 Certification, see Licenses and permits Cheese, 95, 107, 186-187, 189 Chemical toxins, 23-24, 59, 149, 154, 170 Children, 7, 12, 219 adolescents, 36, 37, 47, 64-65, 95, 108, 195 advertising aimed at, 188, 204-205, 225 calcium, 107-108 carbohydrate consumption, 99 child-care programs, 12, 198-200, 224 cholesterol, 146-147 computer diet analysis, individuals, 197-198, 224 eating behavior, 14, 64-65 family influences, 36,37, 63, 71,198, 199 fluoride, 109, 216, 217 iron, 217 mass media, 15, 59, 188, 204-205, 225 peer influence, 63, 64-65, 72 preference behavior, 35, 36-37 special needs, 84, 91, 126 Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children, 122, 148 standards, 12, 198, 199-200, 224 task forces, 198-200, 224 see also Elementary and secondary education Cholesterol, 20, 41, 49, 62, 68, 98, 155, 186, 188 ethnic cuisines, 86 dietary guidelines, 85, 86, 91, 92, 95, 97, 120, 216, 217 hypercholesterolemia, 178 National Cholesterol Education Program, 20, 113, 178 standards, 146-147 state government intervention, 120 Colleges, see Universities and colleges Commodity Donation Programs, 127 Communication/persuasion model, 50, 60-61 Community-based programs, 12, 26, 72-74, 112, 200, 225 child-care programs, 12, 198-200, 224 education, 15, 68-69, 71-74, 90, 127, 172, 184, 198-200, 202-203, 206 federal cooperation with, 113-114, 119, 121 INDEX Finland, 63, 68 food services, 161-162 health professionals, role, 13, 170, 172, 179, 180, 203, 225 health promotion, 15, 63, 67, 68, 69, 70,71, 198-199 mass media, 71, 156, 184, 200, 202, 203, 206, 207, 225 Stanford studies, 63, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 Computers and computer science data banks, 200, 201-202, 225 diet analysis, individuals, 197-198, 224 Consumer Reports, 202 Consumers and consumption, 185 acquisition environment, 3-4, 25, 27; see also Food supply attitudes, 4, 5, 9, 22, 26, 33, 40, 41, 47-49, 50-58, 60-61,72, 74-75, 142-143, 143-144, 187, 211, 212 calcium, data, 107 data, general, 4, 42-47, 105 eggs, data, 43, 44, 154-155 fats, data, 44, 71, 89, 90-98, 103, 158 fats, reduction in consumption, 71, 89, 90-98, 103, 178, 215 fish, data, 44, 154 fruits and vegetables, data, 43, 45, 46, 158 grains and legumes, data, 45, 46, 102, 149 long-term trend surveys, 21, 35-36, 47-49, 210-211, 225 manuals for, 97, 200-201, 224 meat, 44, 158 milk products, 44 public opinion, 6, 47-49, 168 research on, 9, 47~8, 65-66, 116, 151, 155, 157, 158, 201-202, 203, 205,212 restaurant use, 158 salt, data, 105 see also Public information; Recom mended Dietary Allowances Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals, 42 Cooperative Extension Service, 90, 125-126, 193, 174, 192, 206 Correctional institutions, 131, 134 Costs and cost analysis, 28-29, 113 food assistance programs, 122 diseases, 168-169, 179 educational interventions, 71, 72-73, 145, 196, 224

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INDEX private sector, general, 142, 145, 149, 159, 179 research, 9, 16, 17, 143, 181, 210, 212-213, 226 see also Prices Culinary Institute of America, 161 Cultural influences, 36, 41, 121, 125, 126, 211 ethnic cuisines, 86, 124, 211 Dairy products, see Milk and milk products Data banks, 200, 201-202, 225 Demography, 47 educational attainment, 5, 23, 60 see also Age factors; Minority groups; Sex differences; Socio- economic status Department of Agriculture, 2, 20, 117 Child and Adult Care Food Pro- gram, 199-200, 224 Cooperative Extension Service, 90, 125-126, 193, 174, 192, 206 educational efforts, 12, 125, 195, 196- 197, 201 food assistance programs, 121, 122- 123, 126-127 food supply data, 42 dietary guidelines, 2, 19, 20-21, 87, 113, 117, 118, 122-123, 133, 180, 218 interagency coordination, 117-119, 124, 136 labeling, 128, 190 meat grading, 151-152 Nutrition Education and Training Program, 12, 125, 196-197, 224 poultry grading, 153 price supports, 129, 219 regulations, 93, 121-123, 128, 130, 186, 190, 219 research, 135-136, 220 Department of Commerce, 153-154 Department of Defense, 133-134, 136, 220 Department of Health and Human Services, 2, 117 dietary guidelines, 2, 19, 20-21, 113- 114, 117, 118, 123-124, 133, 180, 218 elderly persons, 123-124 food assistance programs, 121, 124, 125 interagency coordination, 117-119, 124, 136 regulations, 123-124, 218 research, 135-136, 162, 204, 220 see also specific constituent agencies 231 Department of Veterans Affairs, 8, 16, 118, 132-133, 136, 220 Designing Foods, 130 Diabetes, 97, 103, 124 Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk, 1, 2, 6, 19, 20, 84-86, 177, 211, 215-216 Diets, healthful, 29 Dietary guidelines, general, 19, 23, 84-109 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2, 20, 21, 113, 118, 133, 180, 217 Dietitians, see Nutritionists and dietitians Diseases and disorders, 1, 2, 5, 17, 136, 140, 168 cancer, 22, 23-24, 48, 101, 103, 193 cardiovascular disease, 48, 52, 63, 67-68, 69, 98, 103, 124, 176 cost of, 168-169, 179 diabetes, 97, 103, 124 diet and, evidence, 19, 22-23, 60-62 hypertension, 48, 49, 68, 103, 104, 124, 178 minority groups, 22-23 nutrient deficiency, 18, 22, 84, 124 obesity, 1, 18, 23, 61, 97, 102-103, 124 research, 223 see also Risk factors Eating behavior, 1, 3, 4, 5, 26, 33-42, 33- 75 children, 14, 64-65 cultural influences, 36, 41, 121, 125, 126, 211 historical perspectives, 42~7 knowledge and, 14, 16, 22, 40, 47-49, 53-58, 61-62, 190-191 long-term, 21, 35-36, 47-49, 210-211, 225 professional training on, 171 research, 8, 9, 16, 210-211 social influences, general 5, 6, 23-25, 34, 35-39, 55-75, 71-73, 211 theories, 50-58 see also Preferences Economic factors, 113 advertising, 39, 204 competition, 141-142 food selection, 38, 46-47, 86, 113, 211 food service establishments, 158 food supply/demand, 185, 186 see also Costs and cost analysis; Financial factors; Prices; Poverty; Socioeconomic status

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232 Education, 3, 4, 12, 25-26, 69-74, 184-207 Agriculture Department, general, 12, 125, 195, 196-197, 201 community-based, 15, 68-69, 71-74, 90, 127, 172, 184, 198-200, 202-203, 206 cost factors, 71, 72-73, 145, 196, 224 evaluation of, 70, 75, 125, 179 health care professionals, 169, 170, 179 health educators, 174, 196 knowledge versus behavior, 14, 16, 22, 40, 47-49, 53-58, 61-62, 190-191 legislation, 27, 223-224 military personnel, 133 national, 178, 196-197, 202 private sector, 27, 144-146, 156-157, 202 research, 201-202, 203, 205, 212, 223 in restaurants, 14, 15, 65-66 risk factors, general, 71, 195, 203, 204, 206, 211 small-group, 62, 68, 69-70 social learning model, 55-56, 60-61, 62, 72 work-site food services, 14, 15, 60, 65, 66-67, 162, 203 see also Elementary and secondary education; Nutritionists and diet- itians; Public information; Universities and colleges Educational materials, 27, 62, 67-68, 121, 144, 193, 200, 222, 223 point-of-purchase, 146, 156-157, 159-160, 162, 201, 203, 221 see also Publications Eggs, 43, 44, 92, 87, 154-155 Elderly persons, 7, 47, 123-124, 219 Elementary and secondary education, 1, 4, 11, 12, 14, 26, 60, 184, 192, 194-196, 197-198, 223 adolescents, programs for, 64-65, 195 home economics, 174, 195 institutional food service, 7, 16, 66, 113, 120, 121-122, 196-197, 203 Nutrition Education and Training Program, 12, 125, 196-197, 224 parental involvement, 71 private sector role, 27, 194 teacher education, 12, 125, 196, 223-224 Employee programs, 163 see also Work-site food services Evaluation, 133, 135 educational interventions, 70, 75, 125, 179 nutritional monitoring, 179 INDEX Exercise, 87, 102-103, 216 Expanded Food and Nutrition Educa- tion Program, 125-126 Family influences, 36, 37, 63, 71, 198, 199 Fast foods, 46, 90, 106, 158, 160 snack foods, 46, 96-97 Fats consumer attitudes, 41, 48, 49, 50 consumption data, 44, 71, 89, 90- 98, 103, 158 dietary guidelines, 2, 4, 19, 20, 85, 86, 88, 90-98, 103, 120, 216, 217 ethnic cuisines, 86, 124 fast foods, 90 federal food assistance, 126-127 milk products, 129, 150-151 poultry as other meats, 46, 94 reduction in processed foods, 3, 9, 39, 40, 48, 49, 95-96, 143, 146-147, 151-152, 153, 155, 157, 160, 187 reduction in consumption, 71, 89, 90-98, 103, 178, 215 standards, 146-147 state government intervention, 120 Federal Bureau of Prisons, 134 Federal government, 1, 7, 13, 112-113, 114-136, 218-219 community-based action, coopera- tion with, 113-114, 119, 121 contract procurement, food services, 127, 134-135 historical perspectives, 18-21 institutional food services, 7-8, 16, 114-115, 130-135, 220 interagency coordination, 8, 117-119, 124, 136, 218 labeling, 127-128, 186-187, 188-189, 219 price controls and supports, 8, 29, 126, 129, 219, 221 private sector cooperation, general, 7, 114, 116, 117, 119, 122, 143, 144, 148, 151, 153, 169 publications, 90; see also specific publications regulations, 93, 121-124, 128-130, 133-134, 185-186, 218-219 research, general role in, 8, 117, 120, 129, 130, 132, 133, 135-136, 201- 202, 212, 220 states, cooperation with, 112, 113-114, 117, 119-120, 121, 125

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INDEX surplus food distribution, 13, 218-219 technical assistance, 27, 28, 117, 122, 123, 135 see also specific departments and agencies Federal Trade Commission, 128, 185, 188 "Feeling Good," 207 Fiber content, 9, 144-145 Financial factors, 28 awards and prizes, 145, 162, 176 health professionals, 10-11 mass media, 15 private sector incentives, 24, 179 see also Costs and cost analysis; Prices Fish and seafood, 38, 44, 88, 93, 94, 149, 153-154 5 A Day For Better Health, 204 Fluoride, 109, 216, 217 Food and Drug Administration, 48-49, 59, 118, 143, 185 fortified products, 155, 163.nl labeling, 128-129, 186-187, 188-189, 190 milk fat, 150-151 RDAs, 108-109 research, 201-202 standards waivers, low-fat foods, 147, 151 Food and Nutrition Board, 21, 145, 172, 180, 187 Food assistance programs, 119, 120, 121- 123, 124-127, 218, 219 School Lunch Program, 7, 121-122 Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, 124 Food industry, 27, 28, 140-163 educational materials, 194 fat reduction in processed foods, 3, 9, 39, 40, 48, 49, 95-96, 143, 146-147, 151-152, 153, 155, 157, 160, 187 fortified products, 116, 151, 155-156 frozen foods, 86, 94, 105, 186 government contractors, 127, 134-135 packaging and containers, 40, 86, 95, 105-106, 133 processed foods, 3, 9, 15, 16, 27, 28, 105-106, 143, 145, 147, 155, 195, 211-212, 226 professional training, 14, 123, 125, 132, 159, 161 research, 3, 9, 15, 16, 143, 147, 155, 181, 211-212, 226 snack foods, 46, 96-97 supplements, dietary, 108-109, 116, 170, 216 trade/industry organizations, 145, 153, 157-159, 161, 181 233 see also Food Marketing Institute; Institutional food services; Labeling; Regulations; Restau- rants and cafeterias; Super- markets; Work-site food services Food Label Education Coalition, 145 Food Marketing Institute, 47, 141-142, 143, 145, 146, 156-157 Food preparation, 89, 93, 224 personnel education, 14, 123, 125, 132, 159, 161, 162 restaurants, 25, 89-90, 158 Food Stamp Program, 7, 122-123, 124-125 Food supply, 15-16, 25, 27, 28, 40, 146, 155, 186, 226 access to, 86, 116, 185, 186 alteration, 3, 25, 42, 50 cultural factors, 36, 41, 121, 125, 126, 211 see also Food assistance programs Foods health promoting, 29 nutritionally desirable, 29 Fortified products, 116, 151, 155 156 4-H Program, 126 Frozen foods, 86, 94, 105, 186 Fruits and vegetables consumption data, 43, 45, 46, 158 dietary guidelines, 20, 23, 85-86, 88, 90, 98-100, 108, 215 pesticide residues, 23-24, 149 private sector role, 147-149 restaurants, 159 Gender differences, see Sex differences General Accounting Office, 124-125, 186-187 General Services Administration, 16, 13~135 Geographic factors, 16, 211 Indian reservations, 124 neighborhood stores, 86 regional, 67-68, 149, 154, 203, 225 rural areas, 16, 158 urban areas, 16 Giant Foods, Inc., 156, 202 Government role, 7-8, 13, 27, 112-136, 218-220 bureaucracy, 113 multiple intervention approach, 112, 113-114 professionals, relations' wish, 170, 179-180, 192-193 as role models, 24

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234 see also Federal government; Food assistance programs; Policy is- sues; Regulations; Standards; State government Grains and legumes availability, 40, 86 breads, 20, 100, 102 consumption data, 45, 46, 102, 149 dietary guidelines, 20, 85, 88, 96, 99, 100, 102 federal food assistance, 126-127 private sector role, 149 promotion of, 144-145, 149, 204-295 Health belief model, 54 Health educators, 174, 196 see also Nutritionists and dietitians Health professionals, 9-11, 13-14, 24, 84, 90, 120, 127, 168-181, 193, 199, 221-223 community-based programs, role in, 13, 170, 172, 179, 180, 203, 225 federal agency employees, 132 health educators, 174, 196 health promotion, 10-11, 12, 148, 149, 169-170, 179, 222 insurance, 179 legislation, 170, 180, 199-200, 222 licensing, 10, 177-178, 222 nurses, 173-174 physicians, 169, 170, 172-173, 177 private sector cooperation, 144, 162, 169 regulations, role in, 13-14, 222 research role, 10, 170, 180-181 as role models, 24, 170, 179, 180 see also Nutritionists and diet- itians; Professional education Health promotion, 1, 3, 5 community-based, 15, 63, 67, 68, 69,70, 71, 198-199 government role, general, 8, 13, 115, 120 grains and legumes, 144-145, 149 health professionals, role, 10-11, 12, 148, 149, 169-170, 179, 222 national programs, 29, 113, 178 public sector role, 144-146 restaurants, 60, 159, 200 see also Education; Multiple interven- tion approach; Public information Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, 20, 113-114 Healthy People: the Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion, 19 INDEX Heart disease, see Cardiovascular disease Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 178, 204 Home economics, 174, 195 Human Nutrition Information Service, 90 Hypertension, 48, 49, 68, 103, 104, 124,178 Ice cream, 95 Imports, 23, 120, 219 Indian Health Services, 125 Individual factors, 42, 71, 85 freedom of choice, 114-115, 131, 190 inter-individual differences, 87 leadership, 63, 179, 192, 205, 206, 222, 225 role models, 24, 27, 170, 180 see also Attitudes and beliefs; Eating behavior; Preferences Institute of Food Technologists, 205 Institutional food services, 9, 16, 158, 161-162 child-care programs, 12, 198-200, 224 correctional institutions, 131, 134 federal, 7-8, 16, 114-115, 130-135, 220 governmental, general, 27 military personnel, 133-134, 220 personnel training, 171-172 schools, 7, 16, 66, 113, 120, 121-122, 196-197, 203 see also Work-site food services Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications, 130 Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research, 117-118 Interdisciplinary approach, see Multidisciplinary approach International perspectives, 19, 118 imports, 23, 120, 219 Iron, 217 Kellogg Company, 144-145 Labeling, 7, 13, 14, 27, 89, 119, 143, 145, 146-147, 189-191, 221 Agriculture Department, 128, 190 federal role, 127-128, 186-187, 188 189, 219 "health" foods, 189-190 identity and grading, 9, 13, 27, 93, 127, 128-130, 146-147, 151-152, 153, 219, 221 supermarket shelf labeling, 156

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INDEX Laws, see Legislation Leadership, 63, 179, 192, 206, 222, 225 media spokespeople, 205 Legal issues freedom of choice, 114-115, 131, 190 see also Regulations; Standards Legislation, 1, 7, 13, 119-120, 127-130, 218, 219 Child Care Development and Improvement bills, 199 educational, 27, 223-224 farm bill, 120 health professionals, role, 170, 180, 199-200, 222 state, 27, 119, 120, 223-224 Legumes, see Grains and legumes Licenses and permits, health profes- sionals, 10, 177-178, 222 Literacy, 60 Local activities, see Community-based programs Low-calorie/low-fat foods, 3, 9, 39, 40, 48, 49, 95-96, 143, 146-147, 151- 152, 153, 156, 157, 160, 187 Low-Cost Food Plan, 123 Lung diseases, 22, 48, 156, 176 Marketing, 186, 204, 225 cereals and grains, 144 145, 149, 204, 205 consumer research, 9, 47~8, 65-66, 116, 151, 155, 157, 158, 201-202, 203, 205 fish, 153-154 Food Marketing Institute, 47, 141- 142, 143, 145, 146, 156-157 fortified products, 155-156, 163.nl fruits and vegetables, 147-148 meat, 151 milk products, 150 regional, 149, 154 see also Advertising; Labeling Mass media, 4, 12, 14-15, 27, 58-60, 63,67-68, 203-207, 225 children, 15, 59, 188, 204-205, 225 community-based, 71, 156, 184, 200, 202, 203, 206, 207, 225 evaluation of, 70 food preference influences, 36 fruit and vegetable marketing, 147-148 health care professionals, role, 179,203 historical perspective, 206 minority groups, 15, 60 national programs, 67-68 235 negative influences, 23-24, 53 public service announcements, 26, 205, 206 regional factors, 67-68 research on, 67-68, 147, 211 spokespeople, 205 task forces, 207, 225 see also Advertising; Publications Meat and meat products animal products, nutritional at- tributes, 130, 219 consumption data, 44, 158 dietary guidelines, 85, 88, 89, 92, 93-94, 98, 101-102 historical perspective, 42-43, 36 labeling, 189 organ meats, 94 price, 38, 46, 151 standards, 27, 129-130, 147, 151-153 see also Fats; Poultry Meat Nutri-Facts, 157 Media, see Mass media Men, 99, 107 Microwave ovens, 40, 89, 97 Military personnel, 133-134, 220 veterans, 8, 16, 118, 132-133, 136, 220 Milk and milk products, 44 cheese, 95, 107, 186-187, 189 dietary guidelines, 85, 86, 88,.92, 94- 95, 98, 102, 107-108 fats in, 129, 150-151 food aid programs, 121-122 Food and Drug Administration, 150-151 historical perspective, 43 ice cream, 95 private sector role, 150-151 price supports, 129, 150-151 standards, 121-122, 151 yogurt, 95, 107, 190 Minerals, 108-109, 116 see also Calcium; Floride; Iron Minnesota Heart Health Program, 65, 69 Minority groups blacks, 23 ethnic cuisines, 86, 124, 211 Hispanics, 23 mass media, 15, 60 Native Americans, 7, 23, 124-125 nutrition-related diseases, 22-23 Moderate-Cost Food Plan, 123 Multidisciplinary approach child-care programs, 198-200, 224

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236 public education, 12 task forces, 198-200, 207, 223, 224, 225 Multiple intervention approach, 72-75 government role, 112, 113-114 health professionals, 169-170, 179 Stanford community-based study, 63, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 National Agricultural Library, 195 National Cancer Institute, 2, 21, 59 cooperation with private sector, 144 145, 156 National Cholesterol Education Program, 20, 113, 178 National Fish and Seafood Promotional Council, 153 National Food Processors Association, 145 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 48, 156, 176 National High Blood Pressure Education Program, 178 National Institutes of Health, 131 National Nutritional Monitoring System, 8, 136, 220 National programs, 5, 26 leadership, 192-193 education, 178, 196-197, 202 mass media, 67-68 surveys, 8, 42, 47, 136, 220 see also Federal government National Restaurant Association, 158, 159 Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys, 42 Native Americans, 7, 23, 124-125 Nurses, 173-174 Nutrient Data Bank, 201 Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 19, 20, 217 Nutrition Education and Training Program, 12, 125, 196-197, 224 Nutritionists and dietitians, 70, 84, 90, 162, 171-172, 180, 191, 192, 193, 195, 222 American Dietetic Association, 97, 123, 199-200, 205 training, general, 123, 171-172 Nuts, 96 Obesity, 1, 18, 23, 61, 97, 102-103, 124 Organ meats, 94 Packaging and containers, 40 canned foods, 86, 95, 105-106 Pawtucket Heart Health Study, 69 INDEX Peer influence, 63, 64-65, 72 Pesticides, 23-24, 149 Physicians, 169, 170, 172-173, 177 Point-of-purchase information, 146, 156 157, 159-160, 162, 201, 203, 221 Policy issues, general, 7, 26-27, 199, 212, 226 animal products, nutritional attributes, 130, 219 educational, 200 health professionals, role, 180 inconsistencies, 119 see also Legislation; Regulations; Standards Political factors, 87, 113, 131 Poultry, 23, 152-153 dietary guidelines, 88, 92, 93, 94 Poultry Nutri-Facts, 157 Poverty, 22-23, 29.nl, 47, 60, 86, 121, 124, 125-126, 131, 158, 211, 217 fruit and vegetables and, 148 see also Food assistance programs Preferences, 8, 33, 34-47, 116, 117 children, 35, 36-37 freedom of choice issues, 28, 114-115 historical perspectives, 42-47 taste perception, 34, 35, 36, 187 Pregnancy, 104, 107, 109, 122, 217 Preventive medicine, see Health promotion Prices federal role, 8, 29, 126, 129, 219, 221 food choice and, 38, 46-47, 86, 113, 211 geographic factors, 16 government publications, 119 milk, federal supports for, 129, 150-151 private sector, influence, 9, 29, 146-147 Prisons, see Correctional institutions Private sector, 1, 8-9, 27, 140-163, 220-221 costs and cost analysis, general, 142, 145, 149, 159, 179 defined, 140 education, cooperation in, 144, 169 elementary and secondary education, 27, 194 federal cooperation with, 7, 114, 116, 117,119,122,143,148,151,153,169 financial incentives, 24, 179 fruits and vegetables, 147-149 grains and legumes, 149 health professionals, cooperation with, 144, 162, 169

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INDEX industry organizations, 145, 153, 157- 159, 161, 181 milk and milk products, 150-151 prices, 9, 29, 146-147 research, 147, 155, 181, 211-212, 226 travel services, 200 see also Food industry; Food Market- ing Institute; Food supply; Institutional food services; Volun- tary organizations and activities Professional associations, 205 government, relations with, 170, 179-180, 192-193 health care professionals, 97, 109, 123, 179-180, 199-200, 205, 222 industry organizations, 145, 153, 157-159, 161, 181 professional education, 169 promotional campaigns, 12, 148, 149 public information/education, 192- 193, 196, 199-200, 202-203, 205, 225 state-level, 196, 206 see also specific associations Professional education, 126 food preparation personnel, 14, 123, 125, 132, 159, 161, 162 health care, personnel, 10, 125, 132, 169, 172-174, 175-178, 181, 198, 203, 221-222, 223-224 Nutrition Education and Training Program, 12, 125, 196-197, 224 nutritionists and dietitians, general, 123, 171-172 teachers, 12, 125, 196, 223-224 Professionals, see Nutritionists and dietitians; Health professionals Project LEAN, 178, 204 Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for the Nation, 19 Protein, 85-86, 101-102, 216 Psychological factors, 5, 23, 28-29, 34 theories, 50-58 see also Attitudes and beliefs; Preferences; Social influences Publications, 60, 62, 87, 90, 117, 118- 119, 155, 193, 202 consumer manuals, 97, 200-201, 224 point-of-purchase, 146, 156-157, 159-160, 162, 221 see also Educational materials; specific published reports Public education, see Elementary and secondary education 237 Public Health Service, 10, 176, 221 Public information, 1, 4, 5-6, 8, 11-12, 14-15, 24, 25-26, 42, 90, 144-146, 168, 184-207, 223-225 data banks, 200, 201-202, 225 government role, general, 21, 48-49, 114, 125-126, 219 knowledge vs behavior, 14, 16, 22, 40, 47-49, 53-58, 61-62, 190-191 national programs, 29, 113, 178 point-of-purchase, 146, 156-157, 159-160, 162, 201, 203, 221 private sector role, 27, 144-146, 156 157, 169, 202 professional associations, 192-193, 196, 199-200, 202-203, 205, 225 telephone services, 155, 156, 174, 203 work-site food services, 14, 15, 60, 65, 66-67, 162, 203 see also Advertising; Labeling; Marketing; Mass media Public opinion, 6, 168 Public sector, see Federal government; Government role; State goverment Public service announcements, 26, 205, 206 Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, 201 Quality control, 135 see also Regulations; Standards Quantitative guidelines, 20 Recommended Daily Allowances, 191 supplements, 108 Recommended Dietary Allowances, 3, 5- 6, 7, 15, 21, 84-109, 215-217, 220-221, 222 advertising and, 204 information on, general, ll, 197, 200, 201 private sector role, 9, 144-147 research, 16-17 supplements, 216 Regional factors, 158, 225 mass media, 67-68 marketing, 149, 154 professional education, 203 Regulations, 1, 7, 13, 27, 127-130, 200, 219 advertising, 188-190, 204, 225 Agriculture Department, 93, 121 123, 128, 130, 186, 190, 219 childhood nutrition, 12, 188 federal, general, 93, 121-124, 128 130, 133-134, 185-186, 218-219; see

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238 also Food and Drug Administration Federal Trade Commission, 128, 185,188 Health and Human Services Depart- ment, 123-124, 218 health professionals, role, 13-14, 222 imports, 23, 120, 219 military personnel, food services, 133-134 see also Labeling; Licenses and per- mits; Standards Research and development, 5, 16-17, 28, 210-213, 225-226 academic, 10, 176 Agriculture Department, 135-136, 220 animal products, nutritional at- tributes, 130 behavioral, 8, 9, 16, 33, 34-47, 60-75, 210-211, 212, 222-223 consumer, 9, 47-48, 65-66, 116, 151, 155, 157, 158, 201-202, 203, 205, 212 cost analysis, 9, 16, 17, 143, 181, 210, 212-213, 226 diseases, 223 eating behavior, 8, 9, 16, 210-211 educational, 201-202, 203, 205, 212, 223 federal role, general, 8, 117, 120, 129, 130, 132, 133, 135-136, 162, 201- 202, 212, 220 government role, general, 7, 212 Health and Human Services Depart- ment, 135-136, 162, 204, 220 health professionals, role, 10, 170, 180-181 mass media, 67-68, 147, 211 milk price supports, 129 National Nutritional Monitoring System, 8, 136, 220 processed foods, 3, 9, 15, 16, 143, 147, 155, 181, 211-212, 226 private sector, general, 147, 155, 181, 211-212, 226 supermarkets, 47~8, 147, 157 work site, 66-67 see also Evaluation; Longitudinal studies and programs; Theories Restaurants and cafeterias, 3-4, 16, 89- 90, 158-162 food preparation techniques, 25, 89- 90, 158 health-promoting foods in, 60, 159, 200 nutrition education in, 14, 15, 65-66 see also Fast foods Risk factors, 3, 5, 17, 85, 98, 101, 140, 168-169 INDEX alcoholic beverages, 88, 103-104, 204, 206, 216-217 diet analysis, individuals, 197-198, 224 education and, 71, 195, 203, 204, 206, 211 non-dietary, general, 21, 71, 195 public perceptions, 47-49 "sin" tax, 204 smoking, 21, 22, 23, 65, 68, 204 see also Obesity Role models governmental, 27 health professionals, 24, 170, 179, 180 leaders as, 63, 179 mass media, 205 Safety, 143-144, 218 Salt, 4, 9, 34, 89, 104-107, 155, 157, 186, 198, 216, 217 fast foods, 90, 160 hypertension and, 49, 104, 124 School food services, see Institutional food services: schools School Lunch Program, 7, 121-122 Scientists Institute for Public Information, 205 Seafood, see Fish and seafood Sex differences, 39, 86, 92, 99 see also Men; Women Small-group education, 62, 68, 69-70 Snack foods, 46, 96-97 Social influences, 5, 6, 23-25, 34, 35-39, 71-73, 211 cultural, 36, 41, 121, 125, 126, 211 ethnic cuisines, 86, 124, 211 family, 36, 37, 63, 71, 198, 199 leadership, 63, 179, 192, 205, 206, 222, 225 peer influence, 63, 64-65, 72 political factors, 87, 113, 131 professional training on, 171 public opinion, 6, 47-49, 168 support system programs, 62-64, 68 Social learning model, 55-56, 60-61, 62, 72 Society for Nutrition Education, 195, 199- 200 Socioeconomic status, 5, 47, 123, 211 see also Minority groups; Poverty Sodium, see Salt Special diets, 84, 97, 219 Special Supplemental Food Program for Wo- men, Infants, and Children, 122, 148

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INDEX Standards, 7, 9, 13, 221 childhood nutrition, 12, 198, 199-200, 224 cholesterol, 146-147 elderly persons, nutrition, 123-124 fats, 146-147 food assistance programs, 122 fortified foods, 163.nl health professionals, role, 180, 198, 222 identity and grading, 9, 13, 27, 93, 127, 128- 130, 146-147, 151-152, 153, 219, 221 meat, 27, 129-130, 147, 151-153 military rations, 133 milk, 121-122, 151 negative aspects, 142-143 poultry, 153 see also Labeling Stanford Five-City Project, 69, 70, 71 Stanford Three-Community Study, 63, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 State government, 1, 7, 113-114, 121, 196, 200 educational legislation, 27, 223-224 federal cooperation with, 112, 113- 114, 117, 119-120, 121, 125 legislation, 27, 119, 120, 223-224 licensing, health professionals, 10, 177-178, 222 milk product standards, 151 professional associations at state level, 196, 206 teacher education, 12-13, 224 see also Elementary and secondary education; specific states Sugars, see Sweets Supermarkets, 3, 15, 65-66, 204-205 corporate educational programs, 156, 202 point-of-purchase information, 146, 156-157, 162, 201, 203, 221 research, 47~8, 147, 157 shopper attitudes, 51-52, 54-55 Supplements, dietary, 108-109, 116, 170, 216 The Surgeon GeneraZ's Report on Nutrition and Health, 1, 2, 19, 20, 216-217 Surplus food distribution, 13, 120 see also Food assistance Sweets, 9, 34, 35, 36, 88, 89, 127, 217 Task forces child care, 198-200, 224 educational, 223 media, 207, 225 Taste perception, 34, 35, 36, 187, 211 Taxes, 204 239 Technical assistance, 27, 28, 117,122, 123,135 Television, see Mass media Theories, 5 attitudes and behavior change, 33, 50-58, 60-61, 211, 225-226 communication/persuasion model, 50, 6001 health belief model, 54 social learning model, 55-56, 60-61, 62 Third-party payers, 179 Thrifty Food Plan, 122 Trade/industry organizations, 145, 153, 157-159, 161, 181 see also Food Marketing Institute Travel industry, 200 Trends Consumer Attitudes ~ the Supermarket, 47~8, 157 Universities and colleges, 225 academic research, general, 10, 176 food services, 161 health care professions, education, 10,125, 132, 169, 172-174, 175- 178, 203, 221-222, 223-224 nutrition education, general, 12, 195-195, 197-198, 203-204, 224 Urban areas, 16 Vegetables, see Fruits and vegetables Vending machines, 4 Vitamins, 108-109, 116 Voluntary organizations and activi- ties, 4, 27-28, 90, 114, 116, 117, 119, 148, 150, 160, 179 cancer, 22, 193, 202 diabetes, 97 heart diseases, 2, 21, 22,189-190, 193, 202 lung diseases, 22 see also specific organizations Weight gain/loss, 71-72, 102- 103,216, 217 Women, 92, 95, 99, 104, 107, 109,122, 217 pregnancy, 104, 107, 109, 122, 217 see also Sex differences Work-site food services, 8-9, 16, 162-163 educational practices, 14, 15, 60, 65, 66-67, 162, 203 federal agencies, 7-8, 16, 114-115, 130-135, 220 point-of-purchase information, 162 Yogurt, 95, 107, 190