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30 CHAPTER 3 Performance Measurement Experience in the Public Sector The research for this project included an extensive review Migration of Performance Measures of public-sector use of performance measures. Appen- from the Private to Public Sectors dices AD describe: (1) freight-specific performance mea- sures in use by state transportation departments, (2) the A major turning point in the migration of performance measures published by federal agencies, (3) the availability measures from the private to the public sectors occurred with of performance m etrics by individual modes, and (4) a sum- the 1992 publication of Osborne and Gaebler's Reinventing mary of the performance measures relating to environmental Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming and safety issues. the Public Sector.1 Osborne and Gaebler posited several pri- Several summary points can be made based upon the mary points that have become widely accepted now in the review described in the appendices. First, although public- public sector: sector performance measurement has matured and expanded significantly, the number of freight-specific performance What gets measured gets done. measures remains limited. The few states that included If you can't measure results, you can't tell success from freight performance measures in their performance report- failure. ing suites typically had fewer than four freight measures. The If you can't see success, you can't reward it. measures tended to be captured from existing data sources. If you can't reward success, you're probably rewarding Second, no consensus as to which freight measures were most failure. important to states was evident. No two states had selected If you can't see success, you can't learn from it. the same measures. It was not possible from an examination If you can't recognize failure, you can't correct it. of the state freight measures to identify a common cohort If you can demonstrate results, you can win public support. of measures that were generally agreed on. Third, consid- erable ambivalence exists among states about performance Osborne and Gaebler identified the parameters of public- measurement. Although many embrace it, some expressed sector performance measures. They accordingly offered the concern that it will be difficult to capture accurate, consis- following recommendations: tent, and meaningful measures across such a diverse set of states, modes, and issues. Several state officials expressed Use both quantitative as well as qualitative measures. Some concern that, if the measures were not accurate, consistent, important results are impossible to quantify. and meaningful, the measures would not lead to improved Watch out for creaming, or the tendency to select the easily decision making. Fourth, performance measures related to accomplished while avoiding the difficult. freight system condition are more available than measures of Anticipate powerful resistance to accountability. freight system performance. Fifth, performance data related Involve stakeholders in developing measures. to externalities, such as emissions and crashes, are among the Subject measures to periodic review and evaluation. most complete performance data available. Don't use too many or too few measures.