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36 localities. Links to individual crash reports are provided. The Data systems exist for highway emissions, hazardous Association of American Railroads (AAR) produces its own material releases, and accidents involving trucks, railroads, extensive website of performance data, background papers, and air freight carriers. The Clean Air Act Amendments of and policy analyses.9 These performance data address rail- 1990 created the current air quality "conformity" process. road cost indices that track the inputs to railroad pricing, the Under that process, transportation emission budgets, which speed of trains and dwell time in yards, volumes of freight are like targets, are established through a cooperative process shipped, and various other statistics of railroad employment, involving the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), safety, efficiency, and performance. The Class I railroads are state environmental agencies, state transportation agencies, all publicly traded companies. As a result, their annual filings and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs). Public with the Securities and Exchange Commission include volu- involvement is included. The emission budgets serve as a minous financial performance information. ceiling, above which transportation emissions cannot rise. From this significant volume of data, it is possible to report The regional long-range transportation plans and short- important aspects of rail freight system condition and perfor- range transportation programs are modeled, and the emis- mance, including average railroad operating speeds, general sions estimate produced is compared to the emission bud- rail freight prices, and the magnitude of reinvestment by the gets. Emissions for the current year, the short-term program, railroads into system capital, and to measure the safety trends and the long-range plan all must meet the emission budgets. of U.S. railroads. Included in the models are the trips generated by trucks using the highway system. The analysis of vehicle emission factors has led to a number of truck-related emission-control strate- Ports and Waterways Data gies to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulates (PM .10 Data regarding port volumes and the quantity and type and .25), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The con- of cargo imports and exports are available to generate some formity process was not designed as a performance measure- performance trends for U.S. ports. However, the Maritime ment system, but it includes the elements of one. It has goals, Administration (MARAD) reported to Congress that it was targets, an accepted architecture and technical protocols, and unable to measure the performance of ports because of a a reporting and quality-assurance process. The outputs of the lack of common metrics, a lack of a performance reporting conformity process indicate whether highway freight move- process, and a lack of definitions as to how ports should be ments are contributing adequately to air quality goals. measured in terms of performance, preparedness of national Similarly, the data from the hazardous materials releases emergencies, or for efficiency.10 and for crashes allow for high-level trend analysis as well Condition statistics are produced by the U.S. Army Corps as for granular drilling down into performance at the local, of Engineers (USACE) for the maritime transportation sys- regional, or state level. Although the data for both crashes tem of inland waterways, locks, and dams and for the tonnage and hazardous releases have some well-documented report- they accommodate each year. ing flaws, they are available for continuous reporting of performance. The types of performance measures that could be pro- Highway Condition Data duced from the externality data sources include freight emis- Highway condition data are mature and abundant, but sions by truck and rail, broken down by major category of highway performance data regarding travel speeds and reli- pollutant; crashes by both highway and rail modes; and haz- ability are less available. The FHWA's National Bridge Inven- ardous material release incidents. tory records current and past conditions of bridges for all states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. The FHWA's High- Emerging but Incomplete way Performance and Monitoring System (HPMS) tracks National Measures pavement conditions and estimated congestion levels on the highway network. It also makes planning-level estimates of Considerable federal efforts have been undertaken to mea- levels of service. sure many aspects of freight system performance, although an official set of federal freight performance measures does not exist. The Freight Analysis Framework and the Trans- Freight Externality Data portation Services Index provide considerable information One of the more robust areas for freight system measure- about short-term freight volumes and long-term estimates ment is in the area of externalities. The data regarding exter- of freight volumes, origins, and destinations. U.S. Depart- nalities appear to be among the most comprehensive, well- ment of Commerce data regarding economic output by sec- defined, and granular of the freight data. tor also can contribute significantly to approximating freight