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40 CHAPTER 5 Freight Stakeholder Preferences In the earlier tasks, the literature was reviewed to analyze skepticism that measurement of the ports of its diverse mem- the evolution of performance measurement in the private bers would be meaningful. AAPA's position was the ports and public sectors, with a particular emphasis upon freight have such significant variability that comparing performance performance measurement. Sources of data also were exam- to means or averages would be suspect. Responses to surveys ined to determine what measures were possible. and interview requests from individual ports were low. The next phase consisted of several related efforts to deter- State transportation officials were very interested in high- mine the interests of key stakeholders in freight performance way system performance at the local and regional level. They measures. To capture private-sector interests, a survey was displayed markedly less interest in national highway mea- conducted of members of the CSCMP and interviews were sures, or in measures related to modes for which they lack conducted with private-sector freight companies. To assess oversight. National transportation officials were interested in public sector interests, a survey was conducted of all 50 state national measures, while other national agencies such as the transportation agencies, and interviews were conducted with EPA were interested in the air-quality areas for which they public sector organizations, such as AASHTO and the FHWA. have jurisdiction. In short, interest in freight performance Each aspect of the freight system creates a potential stake- measurement was as varied as are the roles of the respon- holder who may have an interest in measuring and managing dents. The eight trucking company officials interviewed each the freight system. These stakeholders cut across nearly all recommended a different set of measures as being important public and private sectors because of the symbiotic relation- to them, even though they are all in the same industry. No two ship between the agencies and corporations that build freight state DOTs that have identified freight performance measures networks and the shippers who use them. have adopted the same measures. The CSCMP survey pro- Significant diversity of interest in freight performance duced great variation among recommended measures. Like- measurement was documented. Among private-sector firms, wise, among the state DOTs surveyed, substantial variation the cost, timeliness, and reliability of their own supply chains in proposed measures was evident. Generally, public-sector were of intense interest, whereas they expressed considerably officials were interested in policy, planning, and investment less interest in measures of system condition or externali- measures, whereas private-sector respondents were most ties. Private-sector logistics officials and trucking executives interested in cost and operational measures. Beyond those expressed keen interest in their own fleets, customers, and generalities, it was difficult to identify precise measures that vendors but less interest in government-provided metrics. appealed to a broad cross section of stakeholders. Two-thirds of private-sector respondents indicated that they never sought government-provided freight performance Private-Sector Perspectives measures. Performance measures are important enough to the members of the Association of American Railroads (AAR) The great diversity of private-sector stakeholders is evident that it produces extensive rail system performance indicators from earlier tables and descriptions of the substantial diver- compiled from the Class I railroads. The trucking industry's sity that exists within the U.S. economy. Nearly every category research arm, ATRI, is working closely with FHWA to pro- of firm would have some interest in freight system perfor- duce measures of truck speed and reliability. However, the mance. Those interests, however, would be quite diverse, American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) expressed even within similar categories of industries. A very localized