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97 APPEN D I X B Statewide and Metropolitan Freight Performance Metrics Examples

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98 CONTENTS 99 Introduction 99 Washington State Measures 99 Washington State Freight Forecast 99 Statewide Freight Growth for Trucks 100 Statewide Corridor Truck Travel Speeds 100 Statewide Truck-Involved Injury and Fatal Crashes 102 Statewide HighwayRail At-Grade Crashes 104 Puget Sound Metropolitan Area Measures 04 1 Puget Sound Truck Corridor Travel Speeds 107 Localized Bottleneck Analysis 109 Localized Air-Quality Measures 111 Puget Sound Region HighwayRail At-Grade Crashes 112 Endnotes

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99 Introduction Washington State Freight Forecast The following section depicts selected metrics from the The national Freight Analysis Forecast 2 (FAF2) predicts a Freight System Report Card that are populated with local and 5 percent annual rate of growth for overall freight in Wash- regional data. In this case, the State of Washington and the met- ington State between 2008 and 2035, one of the higher growth ropolitan Puget Sound region are selected. The statewide data rates in the country. Such a large and steady rate of growth represent data for the entire state, while the Puget Sound data forecasts a near tripling of overall freight volumes, from 261 reflect metrics from within the boundaries of the Puget Sound million tons annually to 975 million tons annually moved Regional Council, which encompasses metropolitan Seattle. within, into, or out of the state (see Figure B.1). Trucking has These metrics are not intended to be definitive but rather the highest forecast increase, with a forecast rate of growth of illustrative of how the measures from the report card could 6 percent. As trucking represents the largest freight sector in be replicated locally. One of the many purposes of the Freight Washington, its higher rate of growth has a disproportionate System Report Card is to provide a template of freight per- effect on this forecast. However, all modes are expected to formance measures that can be replicated at the state and grow significantly, with water freight predicted to grow at 4.5 metro politan levels. As states and metropolitan regions percent (see Figure B.2) and rail at 3.5 percent annually. adopt the framework's template, the ability to drill down into state and local freight performance will increase. Exam- Statewide Freight Growth for Trucks ples of comparative analysis that could be possible would be to develop a Top 25 list of congested freight bottlenecks The forecast rate of truck freight growth can be defined as nationally, as well as Top 25 lists within each state or even the estimated percentage increase in tonnage hauled in future within each region. As the metrics are tracked over time, the years by trucks. Tons1 shipped include the total weight of all rate of change or the effect of improvement strategies could freight transported within or between regions, and tonnage be measured on the bottlenecks. is counted each time the goods are transported.2 Not all measures have local or state counterparts. Measures The forecast estimates that freight shipments that originate that are based on inventories, such as the National Bridge outside of Washington and are destined to the state will qua- Inventory, can be replicated at the state or metropolitan druple from 2002 to 2035.3 Freight shipments being trans- levels. Measures based on surveys and estimates, such as the ported within the state are expected to rise from approxi- Cost of Logistics as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, mately 190 million tons in 2002 to 350 million tons in 2035, tend not to allow granular deconstruction down to the state while freight shipments originating within the state but are or local level. destined out of the state are projected to remain static during this time frame (see Figure B.3). The most recent forecast utilizes the FAF2.2 Commodity Washington State Measures OriginDestination database, which estimates tonnage moved The measures shown in this section represent the applica- to, from, and within 114 areas in the United States, as well as tion of a representative sample of the national measures to a several international regions.4 Tonnage is estimated by both Washington statewide system, in this case, State Freight the State of Washington. commodity Forecast type and mode of transport. The FAF 2002 base Figure B.1. Washington freight volumes. Figure B.1 Washington freight volumes. The national Freight Analysis Forecast 2 (FAF2) predicts a 5 percent annual rate of growth for overall freight in Washington State between 2008 and 2035, one of the higher growth rates in the country. Such a large and steady rate of growth forecasts a near tripling of overall freight volumes, from 261 million tons annually to 975 million tons annually moved within, into, or out of the state. Trucking has the highest

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sector in Washington, its higher rate of growth has a disproportionate effect on this forecast. However, all modes are expected to grow significantly, with water freight predicted to grow at 4.5 percent and rail at 100 3.5 percent annually. Statewide Freight Growth For Trucks Figure B.2. Washington truck and water freight forecasts. Figure B.2. Washington truck and water freight forecasts. Freight Shipments Within, To, and From Washington State 400 3 2002 350 2035 300 Millions of Tons 250 200 150 100 50 0 Within State To State From State Source: Freight Analysis Framew ork Figure Figure B.3. B.3. Washington Washington truck truck freight freight forecast. forecast. The forecast rate of truck freight growth can be defined as the estimated percentage increase in tonnage hauled in future years by trucks. Tons1 shipped include the total weight of all freight transported within or between regions, and tonnage is counted each time the goods are transported.2 The forecast year database was constructed from estimates a wide that freight variety of shipments public that originate outside Figure B.6 of Washington displays and are the I-90 truck destined travel toby rates the 3-mile seg- 3 state will quadruple sources, primarily the Commodity from 2002 Flow Survey, to 2035. while future Freightment shipments being transported in Washington. withinwith The areas the state lowerareaverage expected speeds are to rise from approximately 190 projections are based on Global Insights' economic models. million tons 5 in 2002 to 350 million tons in 2035, while urban (Puget Sound region and Spokane). freight shipments originating within the state but are destined out of the state B.7 Figure are projected shows the to remain average static speedsduring forthis time Washington data frame. by month in 2009. Overall average truck speeds are lowest in Statewide Corridor Truck January, July, and December. Travel Speeds The most recent forecast utilizes the FAF2.2 Commodity OriginDestination database, which estimates tonnage moved to, from, and within 114 areas in the UnitedB.8 Figure States, as well asthe represents several international average truck speed along the 4 regions. Figure B.4 displays the average Tonnage is estimated travel rates by both along the commodity Inter- type I-90 and mode corridor inof transport. The Washington FAF by 2002 in month base year As can be 2009. state 5 and Interstate 90database corridorswasinconstructed Washington from a wide the during variety of seen, publicaverages sources, primarily remained the Commodity fairly constant Flow Survey, across the year, with 5 month of October 2009while future projections by three-mile segments.are based on Global Insights' As is shown economic models. the exception of the December and January travel period, in Figure B.4, average travel speeds are less than 50 mph in which may be weather related. several areas, including the Seattle metropolitan area and the Figure B.9 represents the average speed by day of the week U.S./Canada border crossing. Travel rates in the Seattle area for Washington along the I-5 corridor. As can be seen, average are significantly affected by the I-5 and I-90 junction as well travel rates decreased slightly during the week and rebounded as by rush-hour passenger car traffic. over the course of the weekend. Figure B.5 displays the I-5 average truck travel rates (by 3-mile segment) in Washington during October 2009. As can Statewide Truck-Involved be seen, travel rates deviate at several locations, including Injury and Fatal Crashes 4 points within and north of the Seattle metropolitan region and at the U.S./Canada border crossing (mile markers 0160 Injury crashes involved large trucks have declined, as seen on this chart). in Figure B.10. It displays the number of large trucks6 that

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Washington during the month of October Washington 2009 by during the month three-mile of October segments. 2009 in As is shown bythe three-mile segments. As is shown in the map below, map below, average travel speeds are less than 50 average travel speeds mph in several areas, are less than including the50 mph in Seattle several areas, metropolitan including area and the Seattle metropolitan area and the U.S./Canada border crossing. Traveltherates U.S./Canada border in the Seattle crossing. area Travel rates are significantly in the by affected Seattle area the I-5 are and I-significantly affected by the I-5 and I- 101 90 junction as well 90 junction as well as by rush-hour passenger car traffic. as by rush-hour passenger car traffic. Figure B.5. I-5 speeds, north and southbound statewide. Figure B.6 displays the I-90 truck travel rates by 3-mile segment in Washington. The areas with lower average speeds are urban (Puget Sound region and Spokane). I-90 East and Westbound by Location Figure B.5. I-5 speeds, north and southbound statewide. 62.0 Figure B.4. Average Interstate speeds Figure B.4. Average Interstate speeds statewide. statewide. Figure B.6 displays the I-90 truck travel rates by 3-mile segment in Washington. The areas with 60.0 Figure B.4. Average Interstate speeds statewide. Average Speed (MPH) average speeds are urban (Puget Sound region and Spokane). 58.0 Figure B.5 displays the I-5 Figure B.5 displays the I-5 average truck travel rates (by 3- average truck travel rates (by 3- 56.0 I-5 North and Southbound by Location I-5 North and Southbound by LocationI-90 East and Westbound mileby Location segment) in Washington 60 60 mile segment) in Washington 54.0 during 62.0 October 2009. As can be during October 2009. As can be 52.0 56 56 seen, 60.0travel rates deviate at seen, travel rates deviate at Average Speed (MPH) several locations, including Average Speed (MPH) several 58.0 locations, including Average Speed (MPH) 50.0 points within and north of the 52 52 points 56.0within and north of the 48.0 Eastbound Seattle metropolitan region and Seattle metropolitan region and 54.0 at the U.S./Canada border 46.0 48 48 at the U.S./Canada border Westbound 52.0 crossing (mile markers 0160 on crossing (mile markers 0160 on 44.0 Southbound 50.0 Southbound this chart). 44 44 this chart). Northbound 3 24 45 66 87 108 129 150 171 192 213 234 255 276 297 Northbound 48.0 Eastbound 40 40 46.0 Westbound Location 3 WA 18 WA 33 WA 48 WA 78 WA 93 WA 108 WA 123 WA 138 WA 153 WA 168 WA 183 WA 198 WA 213 WA 228 WA 243 WA 258 WA 273 WA 63 WA 3 WA 18 WA 33 WA 48 WA 78 WA 93 WA 108 WA 123 WA 138 WA 153 WA 168 WA 183 WA 198 WA 213 WA 228 WA 243 WA 258 WA 273 WA 44.0 63 WA 3 24 45 66 87 108 129 150 171 192 213 234 255 276 297 Location Location Figure B.6. I-90 speeds. Figure B.7. I-5 speeds. Location Figure B.8 represents the average truck 5 speed along the I-90 corridor in Washington5 by m Figure B.7Figure B.5. shows the I-5 speeds, average speeds north and southbound for Washington data by month in 2009.AsOverall Figure average B.6. can be seen, truck I-90 averages speeds. remained fairly constant across the year, with the exception of th statewide. speeds are lowest in January, July, and December. Figure B.6. I-90 speeds. and January travel period, which may be weather related. Figure B.7 shows the average speeds for Washington data by month in 2009. Overall average tr speeds are lowest in January,I-90 July,Average and December . by Month I-5 Average Speed by Month Speed 52.8 56.0 I-5 Average Speed by Month 55.5 52.6 52.8 Average Speed (MPH) Average Speed (MPH) 52.6 55.0 52.4 Average Speed (MPH) 52.4 54.5 52.2 52.2 54.0 52.0 52.0 53.5 51.8 51.8 53.0 51.6 51.6 52.5 51.4 51.4 November December September October January February May Sep tembJuly April August March June er ember December Marc h June January ber Febr uary May July April Aug ust Sep tember Nov ember Dec ember March June Januar y Octobe r February May July April Aug ust Octo Nov Month Month Month Figure B.8. I-90 monthly trends, truck speeds. Figure B.7. I-5 speeds. Figure B.8. I-90 monthly trends, truck speeds. Figure B.9 represents the average speed by day of the week for Washington along the I-5 be seen, average travel rates decreased 6 slightly during the week and rebounded over the co weekend. I-5 Average Speed by Day of the Week 54.0

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Figure B.9 represents the average speed by day of the week for Washington along the I-5 corridor. As can be seen, average travel rates decreased slightly during the week and rebounded over the course of the 102 weekend. I-5 Average Speed by Day of the Week 54.0 53.5 Average Speed (MPH) 53.0 52.5 52.0 51.5 51.0 50.5 Monday Friday Saturday Sunday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Statewide Truck-Involved Injury and Fatal Crashes Day of the Week Injury Figure crashes B.9. involved Speeds bylarge day trucks of thehave declined, as seen in Figure B.10. It displays the number of large week. 7 trucks6 that were involved in accidents that resulted in at least one injury in Washington. Injury crashes involving large trucks have declined slightly from the high of 159 accidents in 2005 to 126 accidents in 2008. Number of Injury Crashes in Washington Involving Large Trucks 170 160 e Trucks 150 140 er of Larg 130 b 120 Num 110 100 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Figure B.10. Injuries involving trucks. Figure B.10. Injuries involving trucks. The number of large trucks involved in fatal crashes in Washington State is shown in Figure B.11. In 2008, there were 54 large trucks involved in fatal crashes in Washington. This number is reported by FMCSA were involved in accidents that butin resulted is generated using at least one the Fatality injury Analysis Reporting Statewide System (FARS). The FARS database is HighwayRail maintained by NHTSA and includes data on all vehicle crashes in the United States that occur on a public in Washington. Injury crashes involving large trucks have At-Grade Crashes roadway declined slightly from the high and of 159 involve a fatality. accidents in 2005 to 126 accidents in 2008. The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) maintains The number of large trucks involved in fatal crashes Washington in records Number of Large Trucks Involved on highwayrail in Fatal Crashes in grade crossings and crossing acci- Washington State is shown in Figure B.11. In 2008, there were dents. A highwayrail incident is Figure B.11. Washington any impact between a rail State fatal crashes 75 54 large trucks involved in fatal crashes 70 in Washington. This user and a highway user at a crossing site, regardless of sever- involving large trucks. Number of Large Trucks number is reported by FMCSA but 65 is generated using the ity. This includes motor vehicles and other highway, roadway, Fatality Analysis Reporting System55 60 (FARS). The FARS data- and sidewalk users at both public and private crossings. base is maintained by NHTSA and includes 50 data on all vehicle The FRA Office of Safety Analysis collects data on the number 45 crashes in the United States that occur on a public roadway of highwayrail incidents. Data are collected on the county, state, and involve a fatality. 40 and regional levels, date back to 1975, and are updated monthly.7 35 Figure B.12 displays the number 30 of fatalities resulting In the past fifteen years, the number of highway-rail at-grade 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 from crashes involving large trucks in Washington. In 2008, incidents that 2008 2006 2007 have occurred in Washington has there were 55 fatalities resulting from large-truck-involved declined Year by approximately 50 percent (Figure B.13). In 2009, crashes. This number is generated using the FARS database the number of incidents in the state was at its lowest point in and reported by FMCSA. over 10 years, with 32 incidents being reported. 9

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FMCSA but is generated using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). The FARS database is maintained by NHTSA and includes data on all vehicle crashes in the United States that occur on a public roadway and involve a fatality. 103 Number of Large Trucks Involved in Fatal Crashes in Washington Figure B.11. Washington 75 State fatal crashes 70 involving large trucks. Number of Large Trucks 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Figure B.11. Washington State fatal crashes involving large trucks. Figure B.12 displays the number of fatalities resulting from crashes involving large trucks in Washington. In 2008, there were 55 fatalities resulting from large-truck-involved crashes. This number is generated 9 using the FARS database and reported by FMCSA. Number of Fatalities in Large Truck Involved Crashes in Washington 100 90 Number of Fatalities 80 70 Statewide HighwayRail At-Grade Crashes 60 50 The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) maintains records on highwayrail grade crossings and 40 crossing accidents. A highwayrail incident is any impact between a rail user and a highway user at a crossing site, 30 regardless of severity. This includes motor vehicles and other highway, roadway, and sidewalk users at 1996 both 1997 public1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 and private crossings. Year The FRA Office of Safety Analysis collects data on the number of highwayrail incidents. Data are collectedFigure B.12. state, on the county, Number of fatalities and regional involving levels, date truck back to 1975, crashes. and are updated monthly. 7 Figure B.12. Number of fatalities involving truck crashes. In the last fifteen years, the number of highway-rail at-grade incidents that have occurred in Washington has declined by approximately 50 percent (Figure B.13). In 2009, the number of incidents in the state was at its lowest point in over 10 years, with 32 incidents being reported. Highway-Rail Incidents at Public and Private Crossings in Washington 90 80 70 Number of Incidents 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Year Figure B.13. Highwayrail incidents in Washington. Figure B.13. Highwayrail incidents in Washington. 10

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104 Puget Sound Metropolitan U.S./Canada border crossing. Travel rates in the Seattle area Area Measures are significantly affected by the I-5 and I-90 junction as well as peak-hour passenger car traffic. The measures shown in this section represent the applica- The charts below, including Figure B.15, display the aver- tion of a representative sample of the national measures to age truck travel rates (by 3-mile segment) in the Puget Sound a local area, in this case the Puget Sound Regional Council. region during October 2009. As can be seen, travel rates devi- ate at several locations, including points within and north Puget Sound Truck of the Seattle metropolitan region and at the U.S./Canada Corridor Travel Speeds border crossing. Figure B.15 displays the I-5 truck travel rates by 3-mile seg- The same American Transportation Research Institute ment in the Puget Sound region while Figure B.16 illustrates (ATRI) technology and methodology that was used in the I-90's travel times. The areas with lower average speeds are national case study was applied to the Puget Sound region to urban. measure truck travel times on major corridors. The intent is Figure B.17 shows the average speeds for the Puget Sound to allow the region's transportation officials to measure travel Region by month in 2009. Overall average truck speeds are time performance on their major routes. Routes within the lowest in January, July, and December but vary by less than region could be compared Puget Sound to one another Truck or compared to Corridor two miles anTravel hour. Speeds national performance. Figures B.14 to B.20 illustrate how Figure B.18 represents the average truck speed along the travel time performance The could same be ATRI technology plotted and methodology by location, direc- that was used in the national case study was applied to the I-90 corridor in the Puget Sound region by month in 2009. As Puget Sound region to measure truck travel times on major corridors. The intent is to allow the region's tion, time of day, day of the week, or month of the year. can be seen, averages remained fairly constant throughout the transportation officials to measure travel time performance on their major routes. Routes within the region Projects and countermeasures could be deployed to address year, with the exception of the December and January travel could be compared to one another or compared to national performance. The figures below illustrate how the locations and times of slowest truck travel times. Perfor- period, which is probably weather related. travel time performance could be plotted by location, direction, time of day, day of the week, or month of mance over time also could be tracked to measure rates of Figure B.19 the year. Projects and countermeasures could be deployed represents to address the average the locations speed and times ofby day of the week slowest change, or the effect of countermeasures or projects. truck travel times. Performance over time also could be tracked to measure rates of change, or the effect As can be for the Puget Sound region along the I-5 corridor. Figure B.14 maps the average travel rates of countermeasures or along the Inter- projects. seen, average travel rates decreased slightly during the week state 5 and Interstate 90 corridors in Washington during the and rebounded over the course of the weekend. Figure B.14 maps the average travel rates along the Interstate 5 and Interstate 90 corridors in Washington month of October 2009 by 3-mile segments. As is shown in Figure B.20 represents the average speed by day of the during the month of October 2009 by 3-mile segments. As is shown through the map below, average Figure B.14, average travel speeds are less than 50 mph in week along the I-90 corridor in the Puget Sound region in travel speeds are less than 50 mph in several areas, including the Seattle metropolitan area and the several areas, including the Seattle metropolitan area and the 2009. U.S./Canada border crossing. Travel rates in the Seattle area are significantly affected by the I-5 and I-90 junction as well as peak-hour passenger car traffic. Figure B.14. Travel speeds on the I-5 and I-90 Puget Sound corridors. Figure B.14. Travel speeds on the I-5 and I-90 Puget Sound corridors. The charts below, including Figure B.15, display the average truck travel rates (by 3-mile segment) in the Puget Sound region during October 2009. As can be seen, travel rates deviate at several locations, 13

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I-5 North and Southbound by Location including 60 points within and north of the Seattle metropolitan region and at the U.S./Canada border crossing. 105 56 I-5 North and Southbound by Location Average Speed (MPH) 60 52 56 Average Speed (MPH) 48 52 44 Southbound Northbound 48 40 33 WA 42 WA 51 WA 60 WA 69 WA 78 WA 87 WA 96 WA 105 WA 114 WA 123 WA 132 WA 141 WA 150 WA 159 WA 168 WA 177 WA 186 WA 44 Southbound Northbound Location 40 33 WA 42 WA 51 WA 60 WA 69 WA 78 WA 87 WA 96 WA 105 WA 114 WA 123 WA 132 WA 141 WA 150 WA 159 WA 168 WA 177 WA 186 WA Figure B.15. I-5 Northbound and southbound average speed by location. Figure B.15displays the I-5 truck travel rates by 3-mile segment in the Puget Sound region while Figure Location B.16 illustrates I-90's travel times. The areas with lower average speeds are urban. Figure B.15. I-5 northbound and southbound average speed by location. Figure B.15. I-5 Northbound and southbound average speed by location. I-90 East and Westbound by Location Figure B.15displays the I-5 truck travel rates by 3-mile segment in the Puget Sound region while Figure B.16 illustrates 56.0 I-90's travel times. The areas with lower average speeds are urban. 54.0 I-90 East and Westbound by Location Average Speed (MPH) 56.0 52.0 54.0 50.0 Average Speed (MPH) 52.0 48.0 Eastbound 50.0 46.0 Westbound 48.0 44.0 Figure B.16. I-90 East and westbound average speeds by location. Eastbound 3 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 63 69 75 81 46.0B.17 shows the average speeds forLocation Figure the Puget Sound Region by month in 2009. Overall average Westbound truck speeds are lowest in January, July, and December but vary by less than two miles an hour. Figure B.16. I-90 eastbound and westbound average speeds by location. 44.0 14 3 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 63 69 75 81 I-5 Average Speed by Month 51.5 Location 51.0 Average Speed (MPH) 14 50.5 50.0 49.5 49.0 November December March June September October May January February July April August Month Figure B.17. I-5 average speed by month. Figure B.17. I-5 Average speed by month. Figure B.18 represents the average truck speed along the I-90 corridor in the Puget Sound region by month in 2009. As can be seen, averages remained fairly constant throughout the year, with the exception of the December and January travel period, which is probably weather related.

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I-90 Average Speed by Month 106 56.0 55.5 I-90 Average Speed by Month Speed (MPH) 55.0 56.0 54.5 55.5 (MPH) 54.0 55.0 Average 53.5 Average Speed 54.5 53.0 54.0 52.5 53.5 November November December December September September October January February May July April August March June 53.0 52.5 Month October January February May July April August March June Figure B.18. I-90 Average travel speed by month. Figure B.19 represents the average speed by Month day of the week for the Puget Sound region along the I-5 corridor. FigureAs can be B.18. seen, I-90 average travel average travelrates decreased speed slightly during the week and rebounded over the by month. Figure B.18. I-90 Average travel speed by month. course of the weekend. Figure B.19 represents the average speed by day of the week for the Puget Sound region along the I-5 corridor. As can be seen, I-5 average Average travel rates Speed decreased by Day of theslightly Week during the week and rebounded over the course of the 53.5 weekend. 53.0 Speed (MPH) 52.5 I-5 Average Speed by Day of the Week 52.0 53.5 51.5 53.0 (MPH) 51.0 52.5 Average 52.0 50.5 Average Speed 50.0 51.5 49.5 51.0 49.0 50.5 Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Sunday Wednesday Wednesday Saturday 50.0 49.5 49.0 Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Sunday Saturday Day of the Week Figure B.19. I-5 average speed by day of week. Figure B.19. I-5 Average speed by day of week. Day of the Week Figure B.20 represents the average speed by day of the week along the I-90 corridor in the Puget Sound region in 2009. I-90 Average Speed by Day of the Week Figure B.19. I-5 Average speed by day of week. 52.3 Figure B.20 52.2 represents the average speed by day of the week along the I-90 corridor in the Puget Sound 16 Average Speed (MPH) region in 2009. 52.1 52.0 51.9 16 51.8 51.7 51.6 51.5 Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Sunday Wednesday Saturday Day of the Week Figure B.20. I-90 average speed by day of the week. Figure B.20. I-90 average speed by day of the week. Localized Bottleneck Analysis The following indicators quantify the severity of interstate congestion at locations within Washington.

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107 Localized Bottleneck Analysis Final production of total freight congestion values and ranking. The following indicators quantify the severity of inter- state congestion at locations within Washington. This is done Figure B.21 and Table B.1 illustrate the travel times, ratio through a calculation of the average speed of trucks operating of peak to nonpeak speeds, and a congestion index. The index in potentially high-congestion areas during 24 one-hour time represents a multiplier of delay times the number of trucks. periods during all weekdays in 2009. The I-5/I-90 interchange in Seattle, Washington, is cur- FHWA, in partnership with ATRI, measured the average rently monitored by the FPM program; this location has a speed of trucks along selected Interstate corridors through significant level of traffic congestion. The average speed for the Freight Performance Measures (FPM) initiative. For trucks at this location is 41 mph for weekday travel, and the this analysis, FPM researchers conducted an in-depth anal- peak hour speed falls to 35 mph. ysis using truck position and speed data that were derived The I-90/I-405 interchange, located in the Seattle, Wash- from wireless onboard communications systems used by the ington, metropolitan area, is currently monitored by the FPM trucking industry. The four basic steps in this analysis are as program; this location has a significant level of traffic conges- follows: tion. The average speed during non-peak travel periods is 50 mph for trucks, and average speed during peak travel periods Identification of study population: This step consists of ex- is 36 mph (see Figure B.22 and Table B.2). traction of data for commercial vehicles during all of 2009 The Seattle area I-90 "Floating Bridge" is currently moni- at a specific location from a large, anonymous database; tored by the FPM program; this location has a moderate level Application of data quality tools and techniques; of traffic congestion. Of the four freight bottlenecks identified Application of a four-step analysis process that utilizes ve- in the OregonWashington region, the Floating Bridge has hicle time, date, and speed information; and the lowest level of congestion (see Figure B.23 and Table B. 3). Final production of total freight congestion values and ranking. Figure B.21. Time-of- day speed variability at the I-5/I-90 Final production of total freight congestion values and ranking. interchange. Figure B.21. Time-o day speed variability at the I-5/I-90 interchange. Figure B.21. Time-of-day speed variability at the I-5/I-90 interchange. Figure B.21 and Table B.1 illustrate the travel I-5/I-90 Bottleneck Summary times, ratio of peak to non-peak speeds, and a congestion index. The index represents a multiplier Average SpeedTable B.1. I-5/I-90 41 bottleneckof speeds. delay times the number of trucks. Peak Average Speed 35 Figurein The I-5/I-90 interchange B.21 and Table Seattle, B.1 illustrate Washington, is the travel I-5/I-90 Bottleneck Summary times, ratio of peak to currently monitored by the FPM program; this non-peak speeds, and a Nonpeak Average Speed 44 location congestion index. The index represents a multiplier Average Speed 41 has a significant level of traffic congestion. of delay times the number of The average speed for trucks at this location is 41 trucks. Nonpeak/peak ratio 1.25 mph 35for weekday travel, and the peak hour speed Peak Average Speed The I-5/I-90 interchange in Seattle, Washington, is falls to 35 mph. currently monitored by the FPM program; this Congestion Index 407,504 Nonpeak Average Speed 44 location has a significant level of traffic congestion. The average speed for trucks at this location is 41 Nonpeak/peak ratio 1.25 mph for weekday travel, and the peak hour speed falls to 35 mph. Congestion Index 407,504

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108 Figure Figure B.22. B.22. Puget Puget Sound Sound I-90/I-405 I-90/I-405 bottleneck. bottleneck. Figure B.22. Puget Sound I-90/I-405 bottleneck. The I-90/I-405 interchange, located in the Seattle, Table I-90/I-405 Bottleneck B.2. I-90/I-405 bottleneck speeds. Summary Washington, metropolitan area, is currently monitored by the FPM program; The I-90/I-405 this interchange, location has a located in the Seattle, Average Speed 46 I-90/I-405 Bottleneck Summary Washington, metropolitan area, is currently significant level of traffic congestion. The average speed during monitored by the FPM program; this location has a Peak Average Speed Average Speed 39 46 non-peak travel periods is 50 mph for significant trucks, and average speed during peak travel level of traffic congestion. The average Peak Average Speed periods is 3936 mph. speed during non-peak travel periods is 50 mph for Nonpeak Average Speed 50 trucks, and average speed during peak travel Nonpeak/peak Speed Nonpeak Average Speed 50 1.27 periods is 36 mph. Ratio Nonpeak/peak Speed 1.27 Congestion Index Ratio 222,359 Congestion Index 222,359 19 19 Figure B.23. Puget Sound I-90 hourly travel time. Figure B.23. Puget Sound I-90 hourly travel time. I-90 Floating Bridge Bottleneck Summary The Seattle area I-90 "Floating Bridge" is currently monitored by the FPM program; this Average Speed 51 location has a moderate level of traffic congestion. Of the four freight bottlenecks

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109 Table Figure B.3. B.23. I-90 Puget Floating Sound Bridge I-90 hourly bottleneck travel time. speeds. I-90 Floating Bridge Bottleneck Summary The Seattle area I-90 "Floating Bridge" is currently monitored by the FPM program; this Average Speed 51 location has a moderate level of traffic congestion. Of the four freight bottlenecks Peak Average Speed 46 identified in the OregonWashington region, the Floating Bridge has the lowest level of Nonpeak Average Speed 53 congestion. Nonpeak/peak Speed 1.16 Ratio Congestion Index 19,052 Source: FHWA and ATRI, 2009 Bottleneck Analysis of 100 Freight Significant Highway Locations, Puget Sound Air Quality Measures. Localized Air-Quality Measures hair. Source: FHWA and ATRI, 2009 They form Bottleneck from Analysis soot of 100 and other Freight particles, Significant particularly Highway Locations, from diesel engine exhaust. The Puget Sound area is also an Puget Sound Air Quality Measures. The Puget Sound region's air-quality emission forecast "attainment area" for the pollutants volatile organic com- mirrors national trends, with overall levels of transport- pounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are the generated emissions expected to fall well below mandated primary precursors of ground-level ozone or smog. Although levels, except for carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the primary VOCs and NOx levels are reported in Figure B.26, the Puget greenhouse emission (GHE). This trend reflects long-stand- Sound region does not need to perform "conformity" analy- ing federal, state, and local efforts to control traditional air sis on its transportation programs to demonstrate that the 20 pollutants that generate smog, carbon monoxide, and par- VOCs and NOx generated by the transportation projects will ticulates. However, government efforts to reduce GHE are comply with the region's emissions budget. The region does only beginning. have to perform conformity analysis for CO and PM 2.5. The The Puget Sound region is a "non-attainment" area for CO VOC and NOx emission numbers come from an environmen- and PM 2.5. CO is carbon monoxide, a pollutant that tends tal impact statement for the region's long-range transporta- to be localized, forming to harmful levels at locations such tion plan. as depots and intersections where large numbers of vehicles As seen in Figure B.24, the transportation programs for idle or travel at low speeds. PM 2.5 are particulates smaller the three counties within the region are forecast to produce than 2.5 micrometers, or far less than the width of a human PM emissions well below the acceptable "emissions budget."8 Figure B.24. Particulate forecast.

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pollutant that tends to be localized, forming to harmful levels at locations such as depots an 110 where large numbers of vehicles low speeds. PM 2.5 are particulat The black bar represents the budget for each county and the cleaner fuels are incorporated into the region.10 As vehicles in subsequent values are of the transportation PM emissions the fleet are replaced with newer2.5 micrometers, ones, the per-vehicleor far less than t emis- forecast for 2020, 2030, and 2040. The emission forecasts sions fall significantly and producehuman hair. They the forecasts form seen in Fig- from soot are derived from the travel outputs from the region's travel particles, particularly from diesel ure B.26. The NOx emissions are produced disproportionately demand model, then used as input to EPA's emission model. by diesel engines. Significant improvements in NOx emis- exhaust. The Puget Sound area is Similar procedures are used to model CO emissions. While sions are largely attributed to much tighter NOx standards for the PM emissions are highly localized, the CO emissions are newer diesel engineers and from "attainment area" low-sulfur diesel fuel for whichthe pollutan forecast and regulated on a county level. As seen in Figure B.25, organic has been required. As a result, per-mile NOcompounds x (VOC) and n emissions from CO levels are expected to be well below the emissions bud- (NOx), which are the primary pre the diesel fleet are declining dramatically. get.9 The emissions do rise measurably beyond 2016 because In contrast to the reductions forecast and modeled for of forecast increases in vehicle miles of travel. Although CO ground-level ozone or smog. Alt the traditional pollutants of CO, PM, VOCs, and NOx, Figure Figure emissions on a per-mile basis have 241 Transportation B.25. fallen Particulate significantly, particulate theyforecast. trends emissions and NOx for CO2, which is a primary levels are greenhouse gas,reported are belo are expected to rise somewhat because of overall travel growth expected to increase. The State of Sound region does not need to pe Washington has enacted although remaining well below the emissions budget. an aggressive statute to significantly reduce vehicle miles "conformity" analysis on its transportation programs to demonstrate that the VOCs and NO As seen in Figure B.26, NOx and VOC emissions are traveled by 2050, but to date the statute has not resulted in expected to decline considerablythe transportation projects as cleaner vehicles and will comply with mandatory the region's long-term emissions or interim milestonebudget. The targets that region does are perform conformity analysis for CO and PM 2.5. The VOC and NOx emission numbers co environmental impact statement for the region's long-range transportation plan. As seen in Figure B.24 above, the programs for the three counties w are forecast to produce PM emiss below the acceptable "emissions black bar represents the budget fo and the subsequent values are of t transportation PM emissions fore 2030, and 2040. The emission for derived from the travel outputs fr travel demand model, then used a Figure Figure B.25.Transportation B.26. Transportation CO CO trends. trends. EPA's emission model. Similar procedures are used to mo emissions. WhileCarbon the PM emissions Dioxide Emissions are highly localized, the CO emission are forecast and 450 county level. As seen inand Medium Figure LargeB.25, TrucksCO levels are expected to be well below the emission 400 emissions do rise measurable beyond 2016 because of forecast increases in vehicle miles o Annual VMT (billion vehicle miles traveled) 350 Although CO emissions 79%onincrease a per-mile in CO2 basis have fallen significantly, they are expected to r because of overall travel growth although remaining well below the emissions budget. emissions CO2 Emissions (Tg) or 300 55% increase 250 in VMT C02 200 VMT 150 100 50 0 1990 2007 Year Figure B.26. Transportation VOC and NOx trends. Figure A.26. Truck carbon emissions. Estimated Future Carbon Dioxide Emissions to 2030, Freight Trucks 475 450

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111 Figure B.27. Rising carbon emissions. enforceable. Because carbon emissions are not yet control- Puget Sound Region HighwayRail lable from current internal combustion engines, the rate of At-Grade Crashes CO2 production is forecast to increase as vehicle miles of travel increase. In the forecast in Figure B.27, the total VMT FRA maintains records on highwayrail grade crossings for the Puget Sound region is predicted to increase about and crossing accidents. A highwayrail incident is any impact 9 percent by 2040, resulting in a commensurate increase in between a rail and a highway user at a crossing site, regardless CO2.11 of severity. This includes motor vehicles and other users of The above emission levels are for highway emissions only. highways, roadways, and sidewalks at both public and private There are no comparable conformity analyses for aviation, crossings. water, or rail modes. Within the emission burdens and bud- The FRA Office of Safety Analysis collects data on the gets, freight emissions are not isolated for the conformity number of highwayrail incidents. Data are collected on the analyses. Freight's contribution to the overall emissions varies county, state, and regional levels, date back to 1975, and are by pollutant. Diesel engines were disproportionate producers updated monthly.12 of NOx and particulates, with motor the automotive vehicles fleet and other users of produc- highways, roadways,In and the sidewalks last 15 years, the at both number public of highwayrail at-grade and private ing most of the CO and VOCs emissions. However, stringent crossings. incidents that have occurred in Washington State has declined new controls on new diesel engines and the removal of sulfur significantly (Figure B.28) from a high of 81 incidents in The FRA Office of Safety Analysis collects data on the number of highwayrail incidents. Data are from diesel fuel has contributed to the significant reduction collected on the county, state, and regional levels,1995. In 2008 date back and to 1975, 2009, and the number are updated of 9 monthly. incidents in the area in those emissions produced by trucks. was at its lowest point in over 10 years. In the last 15 years, the number of highwayrail at-grade incidents that have occurred in the Puget Sound region has declined by approximately 80 percent (Figure B.29) from a high of 71 incidents in 1995. In Comment [JP3 the art says Washi 2008 and 2009, the number of incidents in the area was at its lowest point in over 10 years. Sound. Should this Comment [JP4 at least 81 to me. Highway-Rail Incidents at Public and Private Crossings in Washington 90 80 70 Number of Incidents 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Year Figure B.28. Highwayrail incidents in the Puget Sound region. Figure B.278. Highwayrail incidents in the Puget Sound region. 1

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112 Endnotes 8 Figure B.24 is based on "Table 2-PM10 Analysis Results," Puget Sound Regional Council, "Appendix E: Air Quality Conformity." Transportation 1 Tons are defined as short tons (2,000 pounds) in the FAF. 2040: The Long-Range Metropolitan Transportation Plan of the Central Puget 2 The tonnage of freight can be, and often is, counted multiple times depend Sound Region, March 4, 2010, p. 9. ing on the production and consumption cycle of the freight (Source: 9 Figure B.25 is based on "Table 1-CO Analysis Results," Puget Sound Regional FAF2.2). Council, "Appendix E: Air Quality Conformity." Transportation 2040: The 3 FAF2.2, OriginDestination Data and Documentation. Long-Range Metropolitan Transportation Plan of the Central Puget Sound Re- 4 FAF2.2, OriginDestination Data and Documentation. http://www.ops. gion, March 4, 2010, p. 9. fhwa.dot.gov/freight/freight_analysis/faf/faf2_com.htm. 10 Figure B.26 is based on "Exhibit 6-8. Emissions (annual tons)," Puget Sound 5 IHS Global Insight used proprietary tonnage estimates coupled with pro- Regional Council, "Appendix E: Air Quality Conformity." Transportation prietary economic and freight models to calculate future growth rates and 2040: The Long-Range Metropolitan Transportation Plan of the Central Puget tonnage increases. Sound Region, March 4, 2010, pp. 621. 6 Large trucks are defined as trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) 11 Figure B.27 is based on "Exhibit 6-8. Emissions (annual tons)," Puget Sound of 10,000 pounds or more. Regional Council, "Appendix E: Air Quality Conformity." Transportation 7 FRA, Office of Safety Analysis. http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/OfficeofSafety/ 2040: The Long-Range Metropolitan Transportation Plan of the Central Puget Default.aspx. Sound Region, March 4, 2010, pp. 621. 12 FRA, Office of Safety Analysis. http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/OfficeofSafety/ Default.aspx.