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HMCRP HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 4 Sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Emerging Technologies Administration Applicable to Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety and Security

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of March 2011.

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM HMCRP REPORT 4 Emerging Technologies Applicable to Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety and Security William H. Tate BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE Columbus, OH Mark D. Abkowitz VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY Nashville, TN Subscriber Categories Aviation Highways Marine Transportation Motor Carriers Pipelines Railroads Environment Freight Transportation Safety and Human Factors Security and Emergencies Terminals and Facilities Vehicles and Equipment Research sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE HMCRP REPORT 4 RESEARCH PROGRAM The safety, security, and environmental concerns associated with Project HM-04 transportation of hazardous materials are growing in number and ISSN 2150-4849 complexity. Hazardous materials are substances that are flammable, ISBN: 978-0-309-21314-1 explosive, or toxic or that, if released, produce effects that would threaten Library of Congress Control Number 2011927850 human safety, health, the environment, or property. Hazardous materials 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. are moved throughout the country by all modes of freight transportation, including ships, trucks, trains, airplanes, and pipelines. The private sector and a diverse mix of government agencies at all levels are responsible for controlling the transport of hazardous materials and for COPYRIGHT INFORMATION ensuring that hazardous cargoes move without incident. This shared goal Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining has spurred the creation of several venues for organizations with related written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously interests to work together in preventing and responding to hazardous published or copyrighted material used herein. materials incidents. The freight transportation and chemical industries; Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this government regulatory and enforcement agencies at the federal and state publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the levels; and local emergency planners and responders routinely share understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. information, resources, and expertise. Nevertheless, there has been a long- It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- standing gap in the system for conducting hazardous materials safety and for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or security research. Industry organizations and government agencies have reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. their own research programs to support their mission needs. Collaborative research to address shared problems takes place occasionally, but mostly occurs on an ad hoc basis. NOTICE Acknowledging this gap in 2004, the U.S. DOT Office of Hazardous The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Hazardous Materials Materials Safety, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, the Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the Federal Railroad Administration, and the U.S. Coast Guard pooled their approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. resources for a study. Under the auspices of the Transportation Research The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this Board (TRB), the National Research Council of the National Academies report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. appointed a committee to examine the feasibility of creating a cooperative The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to research program for hazardous materials transportation, similar in concept procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved to the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and the by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). The committee concluded, The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the in TRB Special Report 283: Cooperative Research for Hazardous Materials researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Transportation: Defining the Need, Converging on Solutions, that the need for cooperative research in this field is significant and growing, and the The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research committee recommended establishing an ongoing program of cooperative Council, and the sponsors of the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein research. In 2005, based in part on the findings of that report, the Safe, solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) authorized the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) to contract with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP). The HMCRP is intended to complement other U.S. DOT research programs as a stakeholder-driven, problem-solving program, researching real-world, day-to-day operational issues with near- to mid- term time frames. Published reports of the HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR HMCRP REPORT 4 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor HMCRP PROJECT 04 PANEL Danny Simpson, CN Railway, Homewood, IL (Chair) Richard C. Bornhorst, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Cheryl A. "Cherry" Burke, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI George R. Famini, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD Kathleen T. Kovach, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY C. A. "Chip" Lidicker, CF Industries, Inc., Deerfield, IL Randolph Martin, DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE Charles H. Hochman, PHMSA Liaison James Simmons, PHMSA Liaison Francisco Gonzalez, III, Federal Railroad Administration Liaison Ann Purdue, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP) Project HM-04 by Battelle, the contractor for this study. Mr. William Tate, Principal Research Scientist at Battelle, Columbus, Ohio, was the Project Director and Principal Investigator and an author of this report. The other author of this report was Dr. Mark Abkowitz, Professor of Civil & Environ- mental Engineering at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Other contributors were the Ameri- can Transportation Research Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Atlanta, Georgia, led by Mr. Dan Murray; Visionary Solutions, LLC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, led by Mr. Dan Hoglund; Mr. Don Loftis of Olin Chlor Alkali Products, Charleston, Tennessee, and Dr. Arthur Greenberg, Senior Research Scientist at Battelle, Columbus, Ohio. The work was done under the general supervision of Mr. Tate.

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FOREWORD By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board HMCRP Report 4: Emerging Technologies Applicable to Hazardous Materials Transporta- tion Safety and Security describes near-term (less than 5 years) and longer-term (510 years) technologies that are candidates for enhancing the safety and security of hazardous materi- als transportation for use by shippers, carriers, emergency responders, or government reg- ulatory and enforcement agencies. Using extensive reviews of the literature and interviews with numerous technology providers, the research identifies emerging generic technolo- gies that hold the greatest promise of being introduced during these near- and longer-term spans. It also identifies potential impediments (e.g., technical, economic, legal, and insti- tutional) to, and opportunities for, their development, deployment, and maintenance. The research focused on all modes used to transport hazardous materials (trucking, rail, marine, air, and pipeline) and resulted in the identification of nine most promising emerg- ing technologies. Shipments of U.S. DOT-regulated hazardous materials may pose risks to the public if they are accidentally or intentionally released. The long-term safety records of these shipments is excellent, due in large part to the efforts of shippers, carriers, and receivers working closely with federal, state, and local agencies responsible for regulation, enforcement, and emer- gency response. Technological advancements have been important in minimizing the occurrence and consequences of accidental releases by improving industry and government capabilities in areas such as shipment handling, packaging, monitoring, and emergency response. Ensuring that hazardous materials shipments are also secure from terrorist attacks and deliberate releases likewise requires the concerted efforts of government and industry-- aided by technology. Under HMCRP Project 4, Battelle Memorial Institute was asked to (1) conduct a thor- ough survey and document all emerging technologies that have potential application to haz- ardous materials transportation safety and security in the near and longer terms; (2) develop criteria for the selection of the most promising technologies; (3) develop a preliminary list of technologies considered to be most promising; and (4) develop recommendations for advancing the most promising technologies for the safe and secure transportation of haz- ardous materials. The final result is a commentary on each of the nine most promising emerging technology areas, an examination of the individual technology developments within them, and the projected paths of the technologies to the marketplace, including needs and perceived obstacles.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 9 Chapter 1 Background 9 1.1 Project Objectives 9 1.2 Problem Statement and Discussion 10 Chapter 2 Research Approach 10 2.1 Research and Information Gathering 12 2.2 Assumptions and Observations 14 2.3 Details of Task 1: Conduct Survey and Document Potential Emerging Technologies 15 2.4 Details of Task 2: Develop Criteria for Selection of Most Promising Technologies 27 2.5 Details of Task 3: Select Most Promising Technologies That Address Important Technology Need Areas 29 2.6 Details of Task 4: Develop Detailed Work Plan for More In-Depth Exploration in Phase 2 33 2.7 Details of Task 5: Submit Interim Report Documenting Tasks 1 through 4 33 2.8 Details of Task 6: Execute Task 4 Work Plan and Develop Recommendations for Advancing the Most Promising Technologies 34 2.9 Details of Task 7: Prepare Final Report Documenting Entire Research Effort 35 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 35 3.1 High-Level Commentary on a 15-Year Timeline 36 3.2 Caveats on the Technology Developer Research Interview Process, Findings, and Analysis 37 3.3 Individual Technology Characterization 48 3.4 Technology Evaluation Results 55 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Recommendations 55 4.1 Conclusions 58 4.2 Recommendations 61 Appendix A Acronyms 65 Appendix B Initial Research Interview Summary and Guideline 68 Appendix C Summary of Key Results from Initial Research Interviews 81 Appendix D Modal Screening Process

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116 Appendix E Synopses of Peer Reviews 119 Appendix F Developer Interview Research Template 122 Appendix G References Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.