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1 SUMMARY Emerging Technologies Applicable to Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety and Security Introduction Project Objectives The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a list of near-term (less than 5 years) and longer-term (515 years) technologies that are candidates for use in enhancing the safety and security of hazardous materials (Hazmat) transportation, as applied by shippers, carriers, emergency responders, or government regulatory and enforcement agencies; (2) identify emerging technologies that hold the greatest promise (in terms of effectiveness) of being introduced during these near- and longer-term spans; and (3) identify potential impedi- ments to and opportunities for their development, deployment, and maintenance (e.g., tech- nical, economic, legal, and institutional). The time frames for near term and longer term were considered to be the periods of 2009 to 2013 and 2014 to 2023, respectively. Problem Statement and Discussion A significant challenge in the planning and conduct of this project was to identify a research methodology that recognized and captured the needs of the various transportation modes, and then in the wide universe of technologies, to find the emerging ones that appear to best meet those needs. An additional challenge was the reality that, by definition, these technolo- gies would not already be in the marketplace. Rather, they would be found in the research departments of companies, government laboratories, universities, and consortia. Some would not be far along in development; moreover, for the emerging technologies farthest out on the development horizon, there would not be nearly as much concrete information to go on. Once the most promising emerging technologies were identified, finding their devel- opers, obtaining enough pertinent information, and making judgments about the perceived characteristics of the path to the marketplace for each of the technology areas were themselves challenges that had to be met. Background Research and Information Gathering To appreciate the significance and departure point for emerging technologies, it was appro- priate to be aware of existing systems as well as current and planned research. A number of prior and current initiatives relating to transportation safety and security in general and Hazmat transportation in particular were examined. These included development efforts, tests, studies, reports, capabilities, and tools. Within the past decade, the transportation industry, including Hazmat transport, has undergone a remarkable technological revolution. Carriers and shippers have adopted a number of new technologies to optimize productivity

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2 and minimize the costs of operation. Many new technologies applicable to transportation have been developed in recent years, and others are in planning or development stages. Con- sider, for example, that advances in motor vehicle technologies are edging closer to the time when the technologies will be able to drive the vehicle. Assumptions and Observations Discussions among research team members (hereafter, the "team") and with outside Hazmat authorities produced many observations pertinent to the project, which resulted in assumptions that helped frame project understanding for the eventual research approach. These were shared with the project panel to ensure that the boundaries of the unfolding research were properly defined. On the basis of these assumptions and observations, any candidate emerging technology to be considered under this task was assumed to fall into one of three categories: Evolutionary (i.e., an incremental performance improvement to an existing product) Revolutionary (i.e., something not seen before, such as certain biometrics-based identity management applications) Application of a technology used in, or being developed for, another industry but not cur- rently adapted to transportation (e.g., impulse radar, which has been used for oilfield exploration and could be used for vehicular target tracking in conjunction with predic- tive software algorithms). Project Approach The project obtained information relevant to all five Hazmat transportation modes iden- tified in the solicitation--highway, rail, marine, air, and pipeline. (NOTE: the terms high- way mode and truck mode are used somewhat interchangeably in this document, as are the terms marine and maritime.) After basic data on emerging technologies were gathered and compiled, the team developed a systematic analysis approach to produce a short list of most promising emerging technologies from the universe of technology candidates. The process started with a definition of functional requirements that are considered necessary to provide safe and secure transport on a given transportation mode. For each mode, an assessment was made as to the extent to which current practices meet the stated requirements, taking both existing technology capability and its market penetration into consideration (Functional Requirement Gap Rating). Separately, based on the volume of Hazmat transport on each mode (proxy for event likelihood) and the potential consequences associated with a signif- icant safety or security incident (proxy for serious consequence), a determination was made as to which modes warranted greater development attention as a result of their associated risk (Mode Importance Rating). The results of the Functional Requirement Gap Ratings and Mode Importance Ratings were then combined to determine the corresponding technology development priorities (Technology Development Priority Rating). Within each technology development priority, more specific technology needs were then defined (Technology Need Areas) and each pre- viously identified technology was associated with each need area to which it aligns. Those technologies that fell into the priority need areas were then considered on the "short list" of technology candidates, and the technologies that were tied to the greatest number of prior- ity need areas were consequently designated as "most promising." Figure S-1 illustrates the selection process.

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3 Research Technologies Screen Technologies Extract Screened Technologies for Each of Five Modes Define Functional Requirements for Each Mode Evaluate Ability of Mode to Satisfy Technical Capability Need and Functional Requirement Functional Requirement Market Adoptability Need Gap Rating Modal Activity Level and Determine Modal Risk Mode Importance Rating Serious Consequence Potential Establish Functional Requirement Functional Requirement Gap Rating Technology Development Priority and Mode Importance Rating for Each Mode Determine Technologies by Need and Priority Break Out Technologies by Importance Select Preliminary Most Promising Finalize Most Promising Emerging Technologies Peer Review Emerging Technologies List Figure S-1. Process for selecting most promising technologies. Findings Table S-1 provides a characterization of the nine most promising emerging technology areas that resulted from that process. They are segregated into three functional groups: Monitoring and Surveillance Alternative Power Generation Infrastructure It is interesting to note that the Alternative Power Generation group, with its three tech- nology areas, as well as certain technology areas within the Monitoring and Surveillance group, contains most promising emerging technologies that were not developed primarily for transportation applications, yet they are clearly relevant to enhancing Hazmat trans- portation safety and security. To gain a better understanding of the development status and expectations in these tech- nology areas, technology developers in these respective areas were identified and contacted. Recognizing that many technology developers are sensitive to providing public information, the goal of this effort was to at least gain a representative outlook from each of the nine tech- nology areas. Consequently, 23 interviews were conducted with technology developers (see Table S-2).

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4 Table S-1. Characterization of most promising emerging technology areas. Technology Description Concept Importance to Hazmat Transportation Monitoring and Surveillance Group Networked radio frequency identification This refers to the concept of multiple sensors If these sensors are deployed on commercial (RFID)/Global Positioning System or Global tied into a central monitoring site where vehicles carrying Hazmat, any alerts or Locating System (GPS/GLS) system control functions also may exist. problems with the cargo condition could be monitoring/networked ubiquitous sensors Ubiquitous sensors refers to the concept of a detected by fixed sensors at locations such as and cargo monitoring "system of systems," possibly a nationwide truck stops, or even by other vehicles. That sensor network. detection capability could not only enable quicker response to an anomalous condition such as a chemical leak, but could also provide a real-time early-warning system for a wide array of chemical, biological, and nuclear threats across the United States. Pressure gauges and chemical detection Improved sensors that can accurately detect The capability of event-based alerts is limited sensors pressure changes and chemical releases with by sensitivity of sensors as well as their false very low false alarm rates. alarm rates. High false alarm rates are detrimental to the acceptance of any technology being implemented. As the NOTE: this is a category of two related number of Hazmat shipments being tracked technology needs with functionally similar continues to increase, the capability of purposes, within each of which is found embedded sensors to detect anomalous emerging technologies. conditions at lower thresholds and higher reliability is needed so that an alert can be automatically generated. This needed capability also applies to pipelines as well as vehicles. Fiber-optic/photonic sensors and optical Photonics refers to the generation, emission, The amount of information capable of being scanners for monitoring of cargo, or for fixed transmission, modulation, signal processing, transmitted via photonic means is great. Use point monitoring of infrastructure health and switching, amplification, detection and sensing of fiber-optics to replace copper wire in aircraft environment problems. of light, that in this case carries information. for control mechanisms is being considered. Fiber-optics is a form of photonics. Fiber-optics is being used on some warships in their combat systems and for lighting and illumination devices. Photonics has the potential to provide significant performance improvements such as increase in bandwidth, weight savings, and improved compartment integrity. Application of photonics to other types of vehicles, as well as pipelines and other fixed structures such as tunnels and bridges, may help monitoring and detection of anomalous conditions at reduced cost. Improved locking with fiber-optic seals, low Seals and locks, possibly with advanced The ability to protect sealed Hazmat cargo is power RFID, and remote monitoring of seal encryption and other features that make them improved by defeating sophisticated intrusion array. very difficult to defeat, which can be remotely attempts and reporting their occurrence. monitored for intrusion and system functioning. Intelligent video tracking and surveillance Software capable of capturing the image of a A Hazmat vehicle carrying especially toxic system with capability for automated handoff specific vehicle and passing this image from material could be tracked by a series of video to a sequence of cameras. one linked camera to another so that its cameras that automatically hand off the truck's passage is tracked, if the area of interest has image from camera to camera as it passes sufficient cameras. This technology uses the through a High-Threat Urban Area. current generation of cameras. Law enforcement could link video cameras around major cities, map video panoramas to publicly available aerial maps, and use software to provide a higher level of "location awareness" for surveillance. Alternative Power Generation Group Wireless power Wireless energy transfer or wireless power This is an enabling technology in that it helps transmission refers to the process that takes to provide electrical power for sensors and place in a system where electrical energy is other technologies that would be more transmitted from a power source to an expensive due to battery maintenance and electrical load, without interconnecting wires. replacement costs. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed but interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible.

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5 Table S-1. (Continued). Technology Description Concept Importance to Hazmat Transportation Nanopiezoelectronics The combined term "nanopiezoelectronics" This is an enabling technology in that it helps refers to generation of electrical energy to provide electrical power for sensors and (electricity) at the nanometer scale (e.g., to other technologies that would otherwise be Nanotechnology refers to technology involving power nano-devices) via mechanical stress to more expensive due to battery maintenance manipulation of objects whose dimensions are the nanopiezoelectronic device. For example, and replacement costs. approximately 1 to 100 nanometers. The bending of a zinc oxide nanowire transforms piezoelectric effect refers to applying a that mechanical energy into electrical energy; mechanical stress (e.g., deformative) to a flag with nanowire could generate power applicable piezoelectric material (e.g., certain while fluttering. ceramics, quartz, etc.) that causes production of an electrical charge. Plastic thin-film organic solar cells These solar cells are not rigid panels and can This is an enabling technology in that it helps be molded into a variety of shapes to occupy to provide electrical power for sensors and space that would not be possible for current, other technologies that would be more conventional solar cells. They operate with expensive due to battery maintenance and flexible polymer batteries that never need to be replacement costs. recharged. Infrastructure Group Container integrity Improvements to containers such as rail and The chemical shipping industry considers truck tank cars, casks, and pipelines. strengthened containers a top priority. There This is a category represented by a number of are a number of approaches being different structural improvements such as investigated to make large containers better able to withstand impacts without increasing Specialty and treated steels weight. Much of this work is associated with Engineered metal structures (e.g., egg the Next-Generation Rail Tank Car Project. crate, honeycomb, lattice block, corrugated) Structural foams and adhesives Composites/fiber-reinforced plastics Insulation and thermal protection Armor and self-sealing technologies Impact resistant coatings Valves and fittings Railcar couplers (cushioning) Table S-2. Type of technology developers interviewed. Technology Area Respondents Interviews Company National Laboratory Networked RFID/ubiquitous National Laboratory 5 sensors and cargo monitoring Company National Laboratory Pressure gauges and chemical Company 5 detection sensors Company (4 related but separate technologies) Fiber-optic/photonic sensors and Company 1 optical scanners National Laboratory Advanced locks and seals 2 Company Intelligent video tracking and Company 2 surveillance Company Company Wireless power 2 Company Nanopiezoelectronics University 1 Company Plastic thin-film organic solar cells Company 3 Company U.S. DOT Research Organization Container integrity 2 Company Total 23

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6 Table S-3. Technology maturity comparison. Short 25 610 Category Term Years Years Totals Networked RFID/ubiquitous sensors and cargo monitoring 3 2 5 Pressure gauges and chemical detection sensors 2 3 5 Fiber-optic/photonic sensors and optical scanners 1 1 Advanced locks and seals 1 1 2 Intelligent video tracking and surveillance 1 1 2 Wireless power 2 2 Nanopiezoelectronics 1 1 Plastic thin-film organic solar cells 1 2 3 Container integrity 1 1 2 Totals 11 7 5 23 Based on this survey sample, Table S-3 shows the relative maturity of each technology area in terms of developmental timeframe. (NOTE: While the solicitation defines "longer-term" technologies as maturing in the 615 year horizon, no developing technologies were identified that appear to be maturing in the latter half: the 1115 year horizon. This perhaps indicates the motivation that developmental organizations have to bring technologies to maturity in a timely manner. It could also indicate that in today's world of rapid technology change, planning too far in the future may simply carry too much risk of being overtaken by agile competitors. Con- sequently, the long-range horizon in subsequent tables is truncated at 10 years instead of 15.) Figure S-2 provides a development roadmap for each of the nine most promising emerg- ing technology areas based on the survey sample. The columns to the right of the technol- ogy area correspond to the five technology development levels defined by the team: Level 1--basic technology principles have been observed Level 2--equipment and process concept formulated Level 3--prototype demonstrated in laboratory environment Level 4--technology product operational in limited real-world environment Level 5--technology product fully operational in real-world environment The length of the bar portrays the relative maturity of the technology area. This involves some interpolating and averaging because a given technology area is usually represented by more than one technology, and developing products may reach the marketplace at dif- ferent times. The black part of the bar is intended to show the team's perceptions of where the majority of development has progressed to date, while the gray part of the bar shows advance entries approaching or having reached the marketplace. Conclusions The team characterized the development status in each of these areas, as well as the future outlook for each technology in reaching and being adopted in the marketplace. This led to the following summary observations: Surveillance and Monitoring Group Potential benefits are new capabilities to detect and report out of normal conditions and improved measures to deter unauthorized access.

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Technology 1. Basic technology 2. Equipment and 3. Prototype 4. Product operational 5. Product available for Development Level principles observed process concept demonstrated in in limited real-world commercial use (to right) formulated laboratory environment environment Networked RFID, ubiquitous sensors and cargo monitoring Pressure gauges & chemical detection sensors Fiber-optic/photonic sensors & optical scanners Advanced locks & seals Intelligent video tracking & surveillance Wireless power Nanopiezoelectronics Plastic thin-film organic solar cells Container integrity Figure S-2. Development roadmap for the nine most promising emerging technologies.

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8 Challenges that need to be overcome include making the systems more user friendly, more affordable with low life cycle costs, compliant with power and bandwidth stan- dards, and capable of reading with high reliability at lower detection thresholds, in a rugged environment, with very low false positive alarm rates. If development continues along the anticipated path, this capability should be substan- tially available in the marketplace in the near term (within 5 years) for the majority of most promising technologies examined, with a number of chemical detection sensors maturing in the longer term (610 years). Alternative Power Generation Group Potential benefits are electrical power available to sensors and communications devices that would not otherwise be put into use without that supply, and the potential to reduce the size of batteries or even eliminate them. Challenges that need to be overcome include manufacturing at larger scale, certain physical application requirements, and integration with other technologies. If development continues along the anticipated path, this capability should be substan- tially available in the marketplace in the near term. Infrastructure Group Potential benefits are stronger Hazmat containers (especially large tanks) that are more resistant to punctures or able to seal some leaks caused by punctures. Challenges that need to be overcome include providing the extra strength for an afford- able price within acceptable weight and size limitations. If development continues along the anticipated path, this capability should be substan- tially available in the marketplace in the near term (based largely on current program goals for technologies that are in addition to the most promising technologies examined). One of the factors that continue to inhibit more widespread technology deployment is that a demonstrated business case is lacking for some transportation segments to invest more in technologies primarily for the sake of safety and security. Because technology adoptability is fundamentally cost-based, market penetration usually does not happen until the products are mass-produced or otherwise become affordable. For example, recent research indicates that the emerging use of sensors may provide major benefits to transportation efficiency (1); if this is the case, then products using sensor technology are likely to be embraced by industry. As a cautionary note, however, commercially available sensors may operate with limited potential to enhance Hazmat transport safety and security today. Until the technology exists that can satisfy functional requirements such as withstanding harsh climates, being resistant to tampering, and working with very low false alarm rates, additional development will be needed before the Hazmat transportation market will respond. Recommendations It is hoped that the project findings will help the HMCRP and its stakeholders gain a better understanding of the most promising emerging technologies to improve Hazmat transporta- tion safety and security. Consequently, this will aid the public and private sectors in making informed decisions about emerging technologies that they may wish to deploy. Moreover, it is conceivable that the information from the report could in some ways help accelerate devel- opment of certain technologies if the common interest among groups is recognized.