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10 CHAPTER 2 Research Approach The project consisted of performing the following tasks: Each year, 3.1 billion tons of Hazmat are transported throughout the United States by truck, rail, pipeline, and water. 1. Conduct a survey and document emerging technologies (short term and long term) that have potential application More than 800,000 Hazmat shipments are transported daily to Hazmat transportation safety and security. 500,000 daily shipments involve chemical and allied products 2. Develop criteria for selecting the most promising tech- 300,000 daily shipments involve petroleum products nologies. 10,000 daily shipments involve hazardous and medical waste 3. Develop a preliminary list of the most promising technolo- 94 percent of individual shipments are carried by truck gies based on the aforementioned criteria. 5 percent of individual shipments are carried by air 4. Develop a detailed work plan for more in-depth exploration Less than 1 percent of individual shipments are carried by of the most promising technologies. rail, pipeline, and water; however, these shipments are the 5. Submit an interim report documenting Tasks 1 through 4 largest (3) for review by the HMCRP Project 04 panel. 1.2 million trucking companies operate 15.5 million trucks 6. Upon approval by HMCRP Project 04 panel, execute the including 42,000 Hazmat trucks work plan developed in Task 4 and develop recommen- 10 million licensed commercial vehicle drivers include dations for advancing the most promising technologies. 2.7 million Hazmat drivers (4). 7. Prepare a final report documenting the entire research effort. To appreciate the significance and departure point for iden- tification of emerging technologies applicable to Hazmat trans- The following sections describe the approach followed portation, it is appropriate to be aware of existing safety and through the project's task progression. Definitions of acronyms security systems as well as current and planned research. are found in Appendix A. The following discussion of these topics is intended to be illustrative, not all inclusive. Within the past decade, the transportation industry includ- 2.1 Research and ing Hazmat transport has undergone a remarkable technolog- Information Gathering ical revolution. Carriers and shippers have adopted a number To understand the challenge of protecting Hazmat ship- of new technologies to optimize their productivity and min- ments, consider first the U.S. transportation system which imize the costs of their operation. Many new technologies encompasses the following: for transportation have been developed in recent years, and others are in planning or development stages. Advances in 452 commercial airports motor vehicle technologies are edging closer to the time when 361 major seaports the technologies will be able to drive the vehicle. Sensors pro- 3.9 million miles of public roads vide information to systems that improve both performance 140,000 miles of major railroads and safety. Engine and performance information can be read 25,000 miles of commercial navigable waterways remotely. In-vehicle sensors can be tied to the vehicle's system million miles of pipelines, including 2.2 million miles of in a way that allows automatic adjustment of settings accord- hazardous liquid and natural gas pipeline (2). ing to the vehicle's speed, steering, and road surface conditions.

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11 With adaptive cruise control, vehicles equipped with radar nally developed in the Hazmat Truck Security Pilot. The North can look hundreds of feet ahead for safe positioning or colli- American Transportation Security Center program aims to sion warning. An adaptive cruise control (ACC) system can track motor carrier shipments of security-sensitive materials. adjust speed and following distance with collision warnings It seeks to build a functional prototype of a Hazmat truck and automatic triggering of brakes. While ACC works only at tracking center and take the tracking center into full opera- speeds of greater than 25 mph, the next version, called Full tional status through an implementation program (10). Speed Range ACC, will work if the vehicle is traveling very The TSA has delineated voluntary security practices (referred slowly or is even stopped (5). There are systems to warn of to as Security Action Items or SAIs) that they recommend lane drift, side collision alert, or the presence of another be implemented to increase the security of certain highway vehicle in the visual blind spot (6). Roll alert sensors can help security-sensitive materials transported by motor vehicles (11). prevent tank trucks, such as those that carry Hazmat, from TSA has conducted research on tracking of bulk Toxic Inhala- turning over. tion Hazards (TIH) transported by rail and event-based alerts One prominent development effort is the U.S. Department (12). TSA has also conducted research on technology alterna- of Transportation's (U.S. DOT's) IntelliDriveSM initiative tives to Hazmat placarding (13). TSA has instituted grant (NOTE: use of the term IntelliDriveSM is with U.S. DOT's per- programs for motor and rail carriers to encourage more wide- mission). This initiative includes the establishment of tech- spread use of GPS-based locating and alerting systems. nologies that wirelessly link vehicles with the transportation The freight rail industry has been involved with much pub- infrastructure and with value-added services using, among lic and private research. A substantial amount of research has others, dedicated short range communications (DSRC) and gone into improving rail tank car container integrity, includ- commercial cellular networks. Significant research has been ing the Next Generation Rail Tank Car effort being conducted devoted to the study and application of communications tech- by a joint project team involving Dow Chemical Company, nologies that would support wireless data exchange and the Union Pacific Railroad, and Union Tank Car Company (14). integration of vehicles with the national transportation infra- The Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEM- structure. This communication between vehicle and roadside TREC) assists emergency responders in dealing with incidents (and more recently, advances in the capability of vehicle-to- involving Hazmat and dangerous goods, and also helps ship- vehicle communication) make it possible that this research will pers of hazardous materials comply with government regu- lead to advances in Hazmat transportation safety and security lations (15). The partnerships between CHEMTREC and for motor carriers (7). CSX Railroad involving CSX's Network Operating Work- If the IntelliDriveSM initiative is successful in integrating station (NOW) system have produced a working model of wireless communications as commonplace on Hazmat vehi- cooperation for response to rail Hazmat incidents. There cles in the future, events that are happening with the vehicle are additional agreements between CHEMTREC and Dow will be shared with other vehicles as well as the roadside. For Chemical that provide in-transit visibility for Dow's rail example, if a windshield wiper is operating, that can be an Hazmat shipments. indication of precipitation at that location. If safety systems Operation Respond Emergency Information System such as electronic stability control are activated on a vehicle, (OREISTM) is a software tool that provides emergency re- that activation can be an indication of a slick road surface. A sponders with crucial information for dealing with incidents mass of vehicles showing very low velocity will indicate traffic involving railroads and highways, including hazardous jams. The vehicle could sense a red light and warn the driver materials incidents. Among other features, OREISTM provides to take action or even stop the vehicle if the driver does not emergency responders with real-time information about appear to be reacting properly (8). the chemical contents of railcars and trucks that have been In its Hazmat Truck Security Pilot project, the Transporta- involved in an incident. The software also contains equip- tion Security Administration (TSA) researched the state-of-the- ment schematics of tank cars, bulk containers, Hazmat trucks, practice in Global Positioning System (GPS)/Global Locating and locomotives. System (GLS) tracking and alerting features (9). Concurrently, A number of reports give insight into the types of tech- the system and communication architecture and software nologies that are commercially available and in use for var- were developed. The operational possibilities of a national ious transportation modes capable of transporting Hazmat. Hazmat truck tracking center prototype, incorporating a For example, relevant highway mode publications include Universal Communication Interface (UCI) for electronic the following: exchange of manifest information, were explored. The Uni- versity of Kentucky, including the Kentucky Transportation Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Center (KTC) and its partners such as the National Institute of Vehicle Immobilization Technologies (16) Hometown Security (NIHS), are continuing the work origi- FMCSA Untethered Trailer Tracking and Control System (17)