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OCR for page 12
12 FMCSA Expanded Satellite-Based Mobile Communications Hazmat is often stolen for its value, not for terrorist pur- Tracking System Requirements (18) poses (e.g., cyanide used for gold mining, increasing thefts FMCSA Hazardous Materials Safety and Security Opera- of gasoline as costs rise). tional Test (19), especially its technology compendium The majority of promising technologies in the future are TSA Hazmat Truck Security Pilot/National Truck Tracking expected to evolve from current technologies that are capa- Center Prototype (20) (an update to the FMCSA technology ble of multiple functionalities and enhancements. compendium) Most new technologies with promise for Hazmat trans- International Truck & Engine Corporation Homeland portation are not DOD derivatives; they are coming from Security for the Trucking Industry (21). commercial product development. Some technologies that were not designed specifically for The HMCRP Project 04's objective took a distinctly dif- Hazmat may still offer large benefits to Hazmat (e.g., anti- ferent direction from much of the prior research in that it rollover technology). is focused on technologies that are not yet in the commer- Safety and security are given essentially equal treatment in cial marketplace. The project solicitation directs that "This the project solicitation; however, efficiency, cost, and safety research reviewed generic technologies and did not evaluate are well ahead of security as the main reasons why technolo- specific name-brand products." Therefore, the technologies gies are implemented for Hazmat transportation in the being sought are in some stage of development whether by a current environment. company, laboratory, university, or consortium. The HMCRP If security can be added on top of safety, it is easier than Project 04 searched for these technology developments out basing a business decision on security alone. There are few to a 15-year horizon. It also looked at technologies that can pure security tools on the market. benefit all five transportation modes: highway, rail, marine, Hazmat security is not driving the market for technology-- air, and pipeline. (NOTE: the terms highway mode and truck high value is. mode are used somewhat interchangeably in this document, as However, if a significant incident were to occur involving the are the terms marine and maritime.) The HMCRP Project 04 intentional release of a high consequence substance, the rela- panel emphasized that the team should not limit its research tive importance of security would be dramatically and quickly to the United States. escalated. [NOTE: this primarily refers to intentional release of a bulk quantity of a substance such as those classified as Certain Dangerous Cargo (CDC), Especially Hazardous 2.2 Assumptions and Observations Cargo (EHC), Poison Inhalation Hazard (PIH), and TIH]. At the HMCRP Project 04 kickoff meeting, participants Logistics is now the largest part of product cost in the TIH covered a number of aspects of Hazmat transportation and Hazmat industry. from that drew observations that helped frame project under- A high rate of false alarms/false positive alerts can kill a new standing for the eventual research approach. Discussions technology. among team members and with an outside Hazmat author- ity produced dozens of observations pertinent to the task. On the basis of these assumptions and observations, any Among the more significant of these are the following: candidate emerging technology to be considered under this task was assumed to fall into one of three categories: Evolutions to current products are as valid as new develop- ments and would be expected to be more numerous than Evolutionary (i.e., an incremental performance improve- new developments. ment to an existing product) Some Hazmat transportation occurs in closed systems with Revolutionary (i.e., something not seen before, such as cer- many existing controls. This applies to the air mode as well tain biometrics-based identity management applications) as surface transportation under controlled measures such Application of a technology used in, or being developed for, as the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Transporta- another industry but not currently adapted to transportation. tion Tracking System (DTTS) or the DOE's Transportation Tracking and Communications (TRANSCOM) System. The team sought to clarify the thrust and boundaries of the Packaging of multiple technologies can produce a poten- research, by clarifying a number of key assumptions prior to tially large benefit. fully implementing the research approach. Those assumptions, A technology that can provide benefits across multiple which were subsequently accepted by the HMCRP Project 04 modes is attractive. panel, are as follows: There may be vulnerabilities and gaps, with some larger than others; the most important of these gaps warrant pri- While the team will not confine its research to the United ority consideration. States when looking for emerging technology developments,

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13 for this project the focus for technology use is Hazmat trans- carriers and transportation industry representatives, as well portation within the United States and by extension Canada, as appropriate Federal agencies." since it is so similar. This documentation included a matrix consisting of the The Hazmat transportation phase that the emerging tech- DOT Hazard Class (33 listings); Threshold Quantity (which nologies are intended to protect is in-transit--even if not is "any quantity" for some substances such as Division 1.1-1.3 moving. (This usually means the Hazmat is in the cus- explosives); Tier Level (1 or 2); and SAIs including the cat- tody of someone other than the manufacturer, shipper, egories of General Security, Personnel Security, Unauthorized or customer. However, it is possible that the product could Access (detection and prevention), and En-Route Security be not moving but still in the custody of the shipper, for (see 49 CFR 171.8 for definitions of these hazard classes and example, at a consolidation point, intermodal exchange, or threshold quantities). In May 2009, TSA added another cat- simply stored enroute for a period of time.) Thus, the team egory of Hazmat that was originally intended to be among did not seek technologies applicable to safety and security the Tier 2 HSSMs. of Hazmat manufacture, storage, loading/unloading, and While TSA's recommendations only apply to the highway disposal, although those phases could also benefit from tech- mode, the HMCRP Project 04 team believed that the matrix nologies meant for in-transit shipments. provided a comprehensive list and recognized TSA's Hazmat The definition of serious consequence potential (the signifi- Class listing as the team's assumption of the types and quan- cance of which is discussed in Section 2.4.4) does not include tities of Hazmat that apply to this project. the factor of likelihood of occurrence. [NOTE: among the total 23 SAIs in the TSA documenta- Consequence potential is defined for the United States and its tion, several appear to relate directly to technologies. Two rules and regulations. An example of where this might differ are within the category of Unauthorized Access (Access Con- outside of the United States is in the pipeline transportation trol System for Drivers and Access Control System for Facil- of flammable substances. In the United States, regulations ities Incidental to Transport; access control as defined here would not permit the pipeline to pass under a high-density may include a biometric component.) Five of the SAIs are residential area as it might in a developing country. within the category of En-Route Security (Seals, Locks, Trac- Certain existing technologies that are in use by other tor Activation Capability, Panic Button Capability, and Trac- industries--but have not been adopted by transportation-- tor and Trailer Tracking Systems). Tractor activation requires are valid candidates for consideration. Strictly speaking, this driver identification by login and password or biometric data category of technologies was not addressed by the project to drive the tractor (truck). "Panic Button" technology enables solicitation, but rather was considered applicable as "due a driver to remotely send an emergency alert notification mes- diligence" to ensure that the most promising technologies sage either via Satellite or Terrestrial Communications, and use are considered. the remote Panic Button to disable the vehicle. Tractor and Trailer Tracking Systems are intended to incorporate satel- The team adopted two additional assumptions. First, the lite and land-based wireless GPS communications systems, team considered that to "identify emerging technologies geofencing and route monitoring capabilities, and the ability that hold the greatest promise of being introduced . . . " to remotely monitor trailer "connect" and "disconnect" events. (from the project solicitation) is comparable to "identify While the SAIs include measures such as plans, programs, pro- emerging technologies that will have the greatest effectiveness tocols, policies and procedures, processes, and training, other if introduced. . . . " Second, the team defined the type and technologies that may be inferred from the items are supply quantity of Hazmat for which emerging technologies for chain tracking and route planning]. safety and security is a concern for this project, as follows: Currently, implementation of technologies within the sup- In June 2008, TSA's Transportation Sector Network Man- ply chain is predominantly based on the expectation of return agement (TSNM) Highway and Motor Carrier Division pub- on investment (ROI) within a supply chain context. In the lished a list of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Highway Security-Sensitive for-profit sector, if a technology will not increase efficiencies, Materials (HSSMs) with applicable Voluntary SAIs (22). The reduce costs, or provide a competitive advantage, it is not vol- HSSMs were divided into Tier 1 and Tier 2 materials accord- untarily implemented outside of tests. However, that crite- ing to the risk to national security while being transported in rion could change overnight if a security incident of national commerce because of the potential use of the material in an importance occurred in which bulk Hazmat fell into the act of terrorism. The documentation notes that "The volun- wrong hands and was successfully used as a weapon of mass tary security practices have been developed by TSA Office destruction. This situation must be considered. of Transportation Sector Network Management, Highway (NOTE: In the report, the related disciplines of emergency and Motor Carrier Division after consultation with individ- management, incident response, and first response are referred ual stakeholders including chemical manufacturers, chemical to under the single term emergency response.)