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14 2.3 Details of Task 1: Conduct 917 abstracts, approximately one-third of which were of high or Survey and Document Potential medium importance. Emerging Technologies In several of the searches, terms such as developments, future, new, novel, state-of-the-art, advances, trends, and A more in-depth characterization of steps followed in the emerging were used to identify papers which addressed new project tasks is provided. and forthcoming technologies. Also, using search terms that included all modes and safety and security, freight, cargo, 2.3.1 Literature Review and shipment as key words increased the relevance of the abstracts obtained. The literature search for this project focused on gathering publications, data, and other sources to identify relevant infor- mation concerning potential emerging technologies. Conduct- 2.3.2 Patent Searches ing a literature review for HMCRP Project 04 proved to be a There were 188 patents granted since 2004 that were iden- challenge. During the literature review process, the first few tified through the search as being possibly relevant. In these keyword searches produced a large amount of useful quality results, the abstract of a technology associated with a patent information, yet also included many articles that were not rel- was generally brief and not particularly informative. Conse- evant to the project. Consequently, the team devised a list of quently, the patent descriptions did not significantly benefit simple terms that should be included in the search for new and the intent, or add to the process, of the literature review. emerging technologies. This list was segmented into categories, base keywords, modes, and technology. The search was con- fined to English language publications. For currency and rele- 2.3.3 Interviews vance, the baseline for the search was established as research A total of 34 interviews were conducted involving 49 inter- published on or after January 1, 2007. viewees from 24 organizations that included personnel rep- This literature search was performed by the Battelle Techni- cal Information Center. Searches were approached consistently resenting regulators, security agencies, national laboratories, with a scan of databases in the DIALOG system covering the research consulting organizations, academics, carriers and their files in the categories "Transportation" and "Electrical Engi- associations, manufacturers, shippers, technology providers, neering." A single, comprehensive search statement was used and emergency responders/incident managers. Interviewees to determine the approximate numbers of results in the var- included representatives of all Hazmat transportation modes, ious databases within those categories. and within any one mode there typically was a variety of per- After ranking the files by the number of potential results, spectives on emerging technologies for Hazmat transporta- databases in which to perform the search were selected. tion safety and security. The majority of the interviews were Among the files searched were Transportation Research Infor- conducted by telephone, and overall the interviewees were mation Services (TRIS), the National Technical Information helpful in providing names and contact information for other Service (NTIS), Energy Science and Technology to cover qualified candidates. government-funded research and collections of informa- The interviews served to validate the lists of functional tion, and Motor Industry Research Association (MIRA) to requirements that were concurrently developed by the team cover the global automotive industry. Other databases rep- as part of the research approach. The interviews also sought resenting the secondary literature in areas such as electrical to understand interviewees' perspectives on the technolo- engineering, communications and information technologies, gies available to fill perceived gaps and obstacles to wider and related fields were also considered appropriate. This deployment of technologies for Hazmat safety and security. included the following: Interviewers had a standard format with which to guide the discussions, but the best use of the interviewees' time often · TEME-Technology and Management turned out to be letting them expound on areas in which they · Ei Compendex® held strong beliefs or opinions. · Civil Engineering Abstracts Appendix B contains the template used for initial research · SciSearch® Cited Ref Sci interviews, and Appendix C presents a synopsis of the inter- · ANTE: Abstracts in New Technology and Engineering view results. · CMP Computer Full Text · Mechanical and Transport Engineer Abstracts 2.3.4 Subject Matter Expert (SME) Research These databases contained pertinent information for extract- The team had a designated lead for each of the five trans- ing new technologies. The findings consisted of approximately portation modes (i.e., highway, rail, marine, air, and pipeline).