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27 cutting technology grouping. If a technology was associated sponded to the higher priority technology need areas. This with a designated high priority functional requirement need was the final step in designing criteria for selection of the area, it is represented as a " " in the cell that marks that most promising emerging technologies. intersection of row and column. If it was associated with a medium or low priority need area, it is represented as an 2.5 Details of Task 3: Select Most "x." The tally of total high priority " 's" and total medium- Promising Technologies That low priority "x's" provided the rationale for how the tech- Address Important Technology nology need areas were prioritized in Table 2-14, yielding Need Areas the technology need area ranking. 2.5.1 Select the Preliminary Most Promising Emerging Technologies 2.4.9 Determine Technology Importance The database of emerging technologies prepared by the by Need and Priority team was reviewed for technologies whose applications are In the "technologies by need and priority" spreadsheet (not directed at the identified important technology need areas. herein due to size), the technology need areas appeared as There were several long spreadsheets referenced in the pre- rows in priority order. In each row was the set of technology vious subsections that were used to break out individual needs identified by mode or cross-cutting area and the associ- technologies and determine how many high priority needs ated row number in the "technology by area and redundancy" and total needs were associated with each technology. While spreadsheet. If the technology needs were high priority func- those spreadsheets are not included herein, all selected tech- tional requirement needs, they retained that designation. The nologies were grouped to appear in a single screen view. number of total high priority and total medium-low priority That is shown as Table 2-15, which illustrates how the tech- "hits" by technology need area was the same number that was nology areas with the highest number of high priority tech- on the prioritization of need areas spreadsheet described in nology needs emerged as the most promising emerging Section 2.4.8. technology selections. (NOTE: The 12 technology need areas identified in Sec- tion 2.4.7 and prioritized in Section 2.4.8 were useful as a 2.4.10 Conduct Technology Breakout framework for breaking out the most promising emerging and Importance technologies. The numbers of high priority and medium- In the "technology breakout and importance" spreadsheet low priority markings in the Table 2-14 technology need areas (not herein due to size), 72 individual technologies were listed do not match the numbers in the corresponding Table 2-15 across the top. These technologies included some redundan- technology need areas, and some of the Table 2-15 technol- cies. In each row, which represented a technology need area, ogy need areas do not have entries. The reason in both cases the cell that intersected with each separate technology was is that the Table 2-15 information is based on discrete tech- assigned either a high priority designation or medium-low pri- nology areas that were identified from the screening process ority designation. The information with which to make these described in Sections 2.4.1 through 2.4.7. References to the assignments came from the "technologies by need and prior- most promising technology areas (or just "technology areas") ity" spreadsheet. Some technologies were described in slightly in the remainder of this report represent a departure from, different ways in the screened research list and so it was im- and should not be confused with, the previous nomenclature portant to note that and consolidate those marks. A prom- of "technology need areas.") inent example is the technology area that was listed as It is important to note that while all of the most promis- biometrics-based identity management, which also included ing technology areas identified are generic (i.e., not prod- Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) cre- ucts), only some are specific single technologies (e.g., plastic dentialing and the Transportation Worker Identification thin-film organic solar cells and intelligent video tracking Credential (TWIC), improved locking mechanisms with and surveillance system). Others are described in terms of smart card ID credentialing, universal authentication prac- a grouping within which there are several related or inte- tices using biometrics-based credentialing, and universal grated technologies perhaps working as a system (e.g., the ID card. Any technology that received three or more sym- categories of advanced locks and seals with remote mon- bols for high priority was designated a preliminary most itoring and networked RFID with GPS/GLS, ubiquitous promising technology selection and was emphasized on the sensors and cargo monitoring). The container integrity spreadsheet. As expected, the selections generally corre- technology category is a collection of technologies that have
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28 Table 2-15. Technology areas with the most high priority needs. Intelligent Video Tracking Fixed Point Monitoring of Plastic Thin-Film Organic and Surveillance System Ubiquitous Sensors and Scanners for Cargo and w/ F/O1 Seals, RF2, and Monitoring/Networked Nanopiezoelectronics Pressure Gauges and Identity Management/ Networked RFID/GPS Low Power RFID and Fiber-Optic/Photonic Sensors and Optical w/ Flexible Polymer Chemical Detection Container Integrity Universal Security Improved Locking Biometrics-Based Cargo Monitoring Prioritized Wireless Power Technology Infrastructure Technologies Need Area (Below) Solar Cells Credential Batteries Sensors RMSA3 1. Cargo and Infrastructure Condition Sensors x 2. Vehicle and Cargo Integrity 3. Operator Access Control xx 4. Vehicle Location Status xx 5. Alert/Incident Notification Systems 6. Innovative Power Sources for Vehicle Components x x 7. Overcoming Communication Gaps 8. Advanced Cargo Locks and Seals 9. Cargo Content Identification 10. Screening and Inspection x 11. Operator Condition Monitoring Systems 12. On-Scene Response Capability Key: = high priority functional requirement need x = medium to low priority functional requirement need 1 F/O = fiber-optic 2 FR = radio frequency 3 RMSA = remotely monitored sealing array the same goal of strengthening containers, especially large sions supported?" The peer reviewers were provided with a tanks. standardized format to record their thoughts and observa- tions. In that format, there were a number of other questions whose responses were helpful as lessons learned or improved 2.5.2 Peer Review perspective with which to better reach the intended audi- The results of the Preliminary Most Promising Emerging ence for the project's results. In general, peer reviewers be- Technologies with supporting spreadsheets were provided to lieved that the process and the findings were appropriate. a group of reviewers from industry and government. These Results of the peer review in the format provided appear in reviewers were sought for the benefit of their background, Appendix E. experience, and perspective on the research approach and its NOTE: The preliminary list of most promising technolo- findings. (NOTE: There is TRB guidance on the peer review gies that was briefed to the HMCRP Project 04 panel on process used to determine whether technical and scientific March 16, 2009, and that was provided to the peer reviewers papers are worthy of publication. It was explained to the peer included two technology areas that were not retained in the reviewers that the material they were provided for review final list. The first was biometrics-based identity management represented findings at an earlier phase of the process. This tied to a universal credential for transportation workers. The peer review was valuable because of the project's need to select concept is that there would be a single, universally recognized a few technologies from a very large number, and to do so in credential that establishes (a) identity; (b) eligibility to access a logical, reasoned approach.) secure areas; and (c) eligibility to obtain or hold transportation- The overarching question for which peer review comments related licenses, credentials, and other government certifica- were sought was "Is the research valid, and are the conclu- tions, required of persons who transport Hazmat by all modes