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29 in the United States. The TWIC already had this functional- and puncture resistance (39). One related technology re- ity but is not the only transportation credential required or searched on this project involves a urethane compound devel- recognized. That technology area was not pursued because oped for the military that is sprayed on the outside of fuel while it was being identified by the project team, the HMCRP tankers that will be hauled by trucks in combat zones. If a bul- released a pre-solicitation notice that identified the concept let fired at the tank penetrates the outer metal shell, the urethane as prospective HMCRP Project 08. compound reacts with the fuel in a way that causes it to seal the The second technology area that was not retained was fast bullet hole, whereas without the coating the bullet hole would power charge and storage. One recognized problem to making have caused a leak that may have resulted in a conflagration. tracking, sensing, alerting, and communications systems more widespread is the lack of power. Like several other technolo- 2.5.3 Finalization of Most Promising gies, this is an enabling technology in that it helps to provide Emerging Technology Selections electrical power for devices of other technologies through its capability to more quickly recharge a battery than with current The preliminary most promising emerging technologies technology, However, it was determined that the technology list that was presented to the HMCRP Project 04 panel on had passed into products and was not emerging to the extent March 16, 2009, was adjusted due to the subsequent realiza- that other technology selections were. tions and peer review interaction. The final most promising These removals were not related to the peer review process, emerging technology area selections that resulted are listed in but the peer review process resulted in identifying one addi- Tables 2-16 and 2-17. tion to the list. Based on review comments, the research team Table 2-16 captures and characterizes those most prom- recognized that Container Integrity should be included among ising technology areas recommended for consideration of fur- the most promising technologies due to its importance to the ther exploration in Task 6 of the project. The technology areas chemical and transportation industries. Container Integrity is are segregated into the following groups: an umbrella category representing a variety of different solu- tions to strengthen materials, for example, to provide better Monitoring and Surveillance protection against puncture. This is a category represented by Alternative Power Generation a number of different structural improvements such as the Infrastructure following: For each entry, Table 2-16 includes a list of modes that could Specialty and treated steels potentially benefit from implementation of the technology Engineered metal structures (e.g., egg crate, honeycomb, area in addressing functional requirement gaps. Each of the lattice block, corrugated) most promising technology areas applies to multiple trans- Structural foams and adhesives portation modes. In fact, all technology areas are considered Composites and fiber-reinforced plastics to be able to support all five modes except one (plastic thin- Insulation and thermal protection film organic solar cells for the air mode). Armor and self-sealing technologies Table 2-17 provides a more detailed description of the Impact resistant coatings technology areas with their perceived importance to Hazmat Valves and fittings transportation. Railcar couplers (cushioning) 2.6 Details of Task 4: Develop Container integrity is clearly considered important to the Detailed Work Plan for More chemical manufacturing and shipping industries. As an In-Depth Exploration in Phase 2 example, the Next Generation Rail Tank Car Project is a joint industry-government initiative to improve the safety of pres- The Detailed Work Plan for a more in-depth exploration surized tank cars, also known as jacketed pressure cars. These of the most promising near- and longer-term technologies tank cars have generally consisted of a 500 pounds per square to be carried out in Phase 2 of the project was drawn up as inch (PSI) pressure tank around which is several inches of the Most Promising Emerging Technologies selections were fiberglass, outside of which is a relatively thin steel shell (the being finalized. This assessment was expected to include at jacket). These have been vulnerable to punctures, and the solu- least the following: (1) plans currently in place for develop- tion was not to simply make the steel shells thicker (which adds ment and deployment; (2) additional activities needed to weight and requires more fuel to haul). Rather, the Next Gen- bring the technology to the deployment stage and associ- eration Rail Tank Car Project has examined other industries to ated costs; (3) potential interactions with other technologies find alternative design approaches that can provide strength (both complementary and conflicting); (4) impediments to

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30 Table 2-16. Most promising emerging technology area selections. Most Promising Emerging Technology Areas Applicable Transportation Modes Monitoring and Surveillance Group Description: Networked RFID/GPS monitoring/networked Marine, Rail, Highway, Air, Pipeline ubiquitous sensors and cargo monitoring Description: Pressure gauges and chemical detection Marine, Rail, Highway, Air, Pipeline sensors Description: Fiber-optic/photonic sensors and optical scanners for monitoring of cargo, or for fixed point monitoring of Marine, Rail, Highway, Air, Pipeline infrastructure health and environment problems Description: Improved locking w/ fiber-optic seals, radio Marine, Rail, Highway, Air, Pipeline frequency, low power RFID and remote monitoring of seal array Description: Intelligent video tracking & surveillance system Marine, Rail, Highway, Air, Pipeline with capability for automated handoff to sequence of cameras Alternative Power Generation Group Description: Wireless power Marine, Rail, Highway, Air, Pipeline Description: Nanopiezoelectronics Marine, Rail, Highway, Air, Pipeline Description: Plastic thin-film organic solar cells with flexible Marine, Rail, Highway, Pipeline polymer batteries that never need to be recharged Infrastructure Group Description: Container integrity Marine, Rail, Highway, Air, Pipeline implementation; and (5) opportunities and means of address- there was a competitive or collaborative approach between ing the impediments. or among the developers. In addition, they would try to The sources for technology developments were expected determine whether the technology developers had the same to be companies; laboratories, including national laborato- technical function or market niche in mind and, if there ries; universities; and other government operations. It was were multiple technology developers, who appeared to be recognized that private technology developers would not be the leader. as inclined as government organizations to share information Any recent information published by the developers on such as funding data or details of a design that is intended to the technologies and their goals, what plans were in place become proprietary. A technology developer with a relatively for developing and deploying the technology, and what the mature technology that is getting close to being ready for the developers' needs and intentions were was also of interest. marketplace may be overly optimistic about the technology's If the technologies in question were not being developed capabilities. The technology developer may lack sufficient test for transportation applications, team members were pre- data to provide details on projected operational capability. In pared to help the developer understand how they might be general, the farther out the development in time, the more applied to Hazmat transportation (as in the case of wireless uncertainties and lack of information would be expected to power, plastic thin-film organic solar cells, and nanopiezo- be encountered. electronics, which are not being developed with primarily When making initial contact with organizations identified a transportation market in mind). Queries would also be as having a role in development of the most promising tech- made to determine how the technology development was nologies, research team members were expected to follow the being funded. script template found in Appendix F. They were also interested As part of this process, it was anticipated that team members in technology implementation best practices that appeared to would be able to establish the technology readiness level of the be prerequisites for deployment success. subject technology and consider the roadmap necessary for the It was proposed that team members conduct an online technology to reach the marketplace, such as field testing and search for the most recent information on the technol- the cost and schedule impacts associated with those additional ogy. They would seek to identify as many developers of the efforts. One area of interest in interviewing technology develop- most promising technologies as possible, including search- ers was to be in a position to identify and assess actual and ing website and contact information and bookmarking potential interactions between the selected technologies and articles or publications that were in the public domain. other technologies (whether most promising technologies or Team members would also attempt to establish whether not) that could be applied to Hazmat transport. The intent was

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31 Table 2-17. Characterization of most promising emerging technology areas. Technology Description Concept Importance to Hazmat Transportation Monitoring and Surveillance Group Networked RFID/GPS/GLS monitoring/ This refers to the concept of multiple sensors If these sensors are deployed on networked ubiquitous sensors and cargo tied into a central monitoring site where commercial vehicles carrying Hazmat, any monitoring system control functions may also exist. alerts or problems with the cargo condition Ubiquitous sensors refers to the concept of a could be detected by fixed sensors at "system of systems," possibly a nationwide locations such as truck stops, or even by sensor network. other vehicles. That detection capability could not only enable quicker response to an anomalous condition such as a chemical leak, but could also provide a real-time early-warning system for a wide array of chemical, biological, and nuclear threats across the United States. Pressure gauges and chemical detection Improved sensors that can accurately detect The capability of event-based alerts is sensors pressure changes and chemical releases with limited by sensitivity of sensors as well as very low false alarm rates. their false alarm rates. High false alarm rates are detrimental to the acceptance of any technology being implemented. As the NOTE: this is a category of two related number of Hazmat shipments being technology needs with functionally similar tracked continues to increase, the purposes, within each of which is found capability of embedded sensors to detect emerging technologies. anomalous conditions at lower thresholds and higher reliability is needed so that an alert can be automatically generated. This needed capability also applies to pipelines as well as vehicles. Fiber-optic/photonic sensors and optical Photonics refers to the generation, emission, The amount of information capable of scanners for monitoring of cargo, or for fixed transmission, modulation, signal processing, being transmitted via photonic means is point monitoring of infrastructure health and switching, amplification, detection, and great. Use of fiber-optics to replace environment problems sensing of light, that in this case carries copper wire in aircraft for control information. Fiber-optics is a form of mechanisms is being considered. Fiber- photonics. optics is being used on some warships in their combat systems and for lighting and illumination devices. Photonics has the potential to provide significant performance improvements such as increase in bandwidth, weight savings, and improved compartment integrity. Application of photonics to other types of vehicles, as well as pipelines and other fixed structures such as tunnels and bridges, may help monitor and detect anomalous conditions at reduced cost. Improved locking with fiber-optic seals, low Seals and locks, possibly with advanced The ability to protect sealed Hazmat cargo power RFID, and remote monitoring of seal encryption and other features that make them is improved by defeating sophisticated array very difficult to defeat, that can be remotely intrusion attempts and reporting their monitored for intrusion and system occurrence. functioning. Intelligent video tracking and surveillance Software capable of capturing the image of a A Hazmat vehicle carrying especially toxic system with capability for automated handoff specific vehicle and passing this image from material could be tracked by a series of to a sequence of cameras one linked camera to another so that its video cameras that automatically hand off passage is tracked, if the area of interest has the truck's image from camera to camera sufficient cameras. This technology uses the as it passes through a High-Threat Urban current generation of cameras. Area. Law enforcement could link video cameras around major cities, map video panoramas to publicly available aerial maps, and use software to provide a higher level of "location awareness" for surveillance. (continued on next page)

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32 Table 2-17. (Continued). Technology Description Concept Importance to Hazmat Transportation Alternative Power Generation Group Wireless power Wireless energy transfer or wireless power This is an enabling technology in that it transmission refers to the process that takes helps to provide electrical power for place in a system where electrical energy is sensors and other technologies that would transmitted from a power source to an be more expensive due to battery electrical load, without interconnecting wires. maintenance and replacement costs. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed but interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. Nanopiezoelectronics The combined term "nanopiezoelectronics" This is an enabling technology in that it refers to generation of electrical energy helps to provide electrical power for (electricity) at the nanometer scale (e.g., to sensors and other technologies that would Nanotechnology refers to technology involving power nano-devices) via mechanical stress to otherwise be more expensive due to manipulation of objects whose dimensions are the nanopiezoelectronic device. For example, battery maintenance and replacement approximately 1100 nanometers. The bending of a zinc oxide nanowire transforms costs. piezoelectric effect refers to applying a that mechanical energy into electrical energy; mechanical stress (e.g., deformative) to a flag with nanowire could generate power applicable piezoelectric material (e.g., certain while fluttering. ceramics, quartz, etc.) that causes production of an electrical charge. Plastic thin-film organic solar cells These solar cells are not rigid panels and can This is an enabling technology in that it be molded into a variety of shapes to occupy helps to provide electrical power for space that would not be possible for current sensors and other technologies that would conventional solar cells. They operate with be more expensive due to battery flexible polymer batteries that never need to maintenance and replacement costs. be recharged. Infrastructure Group Container integrity Improvements to containers such as rail and The chemical shipping industry considers truck tank cars, casks, and pipelines. strengthened containers a top priority. This is a category represented by a number of There are a number of approaches being different structural improvements: investigated to make large containers better able to withstand impacts without Specialty and treated steels increasing weight. Much of this work is Engineered metal structures (e.g., egg associated with the Next-Generation Rail crate, honeycomb, lattice block, Tank Car Project. corrugated) Structural foams and adhesives Composites/fiber-reinforced plastics Insulation and thermal protection Armor and self-sealing technologies Impact resistant coatings Valves and fittings Railcar couplers (cushioning) to evaluate those that could work together (i.e., complemen- NOTE: there is an effort that has been underway for the past tary), ones that would be competing in nature, or ones that several years to capture the energy used in slowing freight trains would be in apparent conflict (e.g., bandwidth issues and fre- through regenerative braking. This term refers to a mechanism quency allocations, and power allocations for equipment on that captures energy otherwise lost as heat in conventional vehicles that provide no hardwired power, such as railcars and brakes, and it stores or feeds the power back into the locomo- untethered trailers). The three technologies related to supply tive's power supply. Reportedly, the energy used in braking a of electrical power (i.e., wireless power, nanopiezoelectronics, locomotive throughout a year is about equal to the power and plastic thin film organic solar cells) automatically fell into used by 160 homes (40). However, it was not perceived that the category of complementary technologies. They are signifi- regenerative braking necessarily results in greater availability of cant developing technologies to meet the objectives of this power to devices or systems that benefit Hazmat transporta- project. Interviews with developers of technologies related to tion safety and security, so it was not included among the most cargo monitoring, sensing, detection, and alerting stated that promising technology selections. available power with which to fully use their technologies is one Team members were also seeking to determine known, of the key challenges. perceived, and expected impediments or hindrances to devel-