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36 and keeping the most dangerous materials away from cheap enough to include with the product (regardless of trans- population centers while enabling better efficiencies." port mode), does not adversely react in end-use, but activates Mid Range (69 years) when a leak exposes it to shear-stress flowing through a crack "In the mid-range, technologies that capture informa- coupled with a trigger reaction driven by oxygen. While not tion will reign. They will more easily compile data and viable today, with the rate of technology progression, this has seamlessly collect and integrate information. This infor- potential on a 15-year timeline. (NOTE: the research team mation can include items such as protective equipment had a dialogue with several individuals involved in this type and response planning needed." of development, but could not determine any more specific Long Range (1015 years) expectation for maturity.) "In the longest range, technologies will answer ques- Likewise, "parallel" in this context could be viewed in terms tions not yet asked. Response technologies and infor- of market drivers and the impact of globalization. Changes mation and communications technologies will move to in market drivers and globalization are already evident, for a predictive nature such as predicting the characteristics example in select market sectors such as the commodities of a Hazmat release, what equipment will be needed for and environmental sectors. Examples here include the scarcity response, and where and how it needs to be used. This of steel--much less quality steel at reasonable prices, which will would include better information on the effects of sub- no doubt drive the evolution of current materials concepts. stances that get missed during a Hazmat release, such as Opportunities in this regard will evolve through the use of com- during a train derailment. In the longest range, neural posite systems (not reinforced polymers but rather thinner networks will assist with predictive modeling." steel used within a reinforcing scheme). Alternatively, they will evolve through development of new or replacement materials Relatively few technologies are specialized for intermodal for use in lieu of steel. transfer, but some ongoing initiatives will apply squarely to Several modes of transportation share similar underlying that. These include the concept of electronic shipping papers traits. For example, tank cars for trains and similar tanks in to supplement hardcopies being explored in the ongoing trucks and barges involve segments that are more or less cylin- HMCRP Project 05 and the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials drical shells with end-caps of various forms. Cylinders used to Safety Administration's (PHMSA's) Hazardous Materials-- transport gases at a smaller volume-scale likewise share these Automated Cargo Communications for Efficient and Safe aspects, as do the end-capped pipeline segments with windows Shipments (HM-ACCESS) initiative (42). Also included is and wings. Indeed, the overarching importance of container the concept of the common security credential embodied in integrity to the chemical and transportation industries was the HMCRP Project 08, which was solicited during the period underscored by one of our peer reviewers, which led team of this project's research. (NOTE: The common security cre- members to re-think this assessment. dential was one of the HM Project 04's Preliminary Most There are parallel themes in several categories, including Promising Technology selections, but the team considered its threat prevention, leak detection (and control), anomaly detec- identification as an HMCRP project to preclude the concept tion, characterization (and assessment), anomaly remediation from further exploration in Task 6.) and repair, alternative fuels, and environmental aspects includ- It is important whenever possible to consider emerging tech- ing pipelining in challenging areas. Even so, these aspects may nologies in parallel fields, and how these might evolve over reflect existing work supporting regulatory drivers rather than the time horizon, or their potential impact on issues involv- a comprehensive listing of global industry drivers. ing other modes. (NOTE: "parallel" is used here in the sense of how a technology that is primarily intended for a certain application, perhaps for a certain transportation mode, can 3.2 Caveats on the Technology be useful for other applications and other modes that have Developer Research Interview some common characteristic. For example, while the pipeline Process, Findings, and Analysis mode is much different from any of the four other modes of Similar to the manner in which the project's assumptions transportation, the concept of parallel technologies can still were delineated in Section 2.2, and to amplify on the Sec- relate to the materials used.) This relationship must be viewed tion 2.8 comments relating to the technology developer inter- more broadly in regard to materials science and engineering, view process, the following caveats are offered relating to the energy sources and conversion, environmental drivers, minia- technology developer research interview process, findings, turization (e.g., nanotechnology), sensors, monitoring and and analysis: controls technology, systems simulation technology, and microencapsulation. Researchers attempted to identify every technology devel- For example, the cross between nanotechnology and micro- oper of each most promising emerging technology, but they encapsulation could give rise to a leak control scheme that is do not represent that all were identified.