Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 38


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 37
37 Repeated good faith attempts were made to contact every Level 3--prototype demonstrated in laboratory environ- technology developer identified, but attempts did not always ment result in an interview. Level 4--technology product operational in limited real- Among the interviews conducted, not all were ultimately world environment considered valid for the project's objectives. Level 5--technology product fully operational in real-world The sample size is not large. environment Among the technology developers whose interviews were considered valid, not all results provided the same level The following subsections consist of a narrative for each of of detail. the 23 interviews conducted with technology developers. Information in interview responses was not independently verified. Within a technology area with multiple interviews, the level 3.3.1 Technology Developer of readiness can and does vary. Narrative 1--Company Technologies mature at different rates. Technology Area. Networked RFID, ubiquitous sensors There is some overlap between capabilities of certain tech- and cargo monitoring nology areas (such as photonic sensors and organic thin- film solar cells). Product Description and Use. The technology is two-way A technology need can sometimes be satisfied in more than wireless monitoring capabilities between battery-operated sen- one way. sors and readers for outdoor applications. It uses active RFID While the project's research design sought to minimize sub- for real-time monitoring of cargo and vehicle and allows two- jective interpretation through the functional requirement/ way command and control and data collection of sensor status gap analysis approach, the research team does not represent and location. Information is transmitted to remote monitor- that the findings, conclusions, and recommendations are ing centers. The system provides an immediate alert for any totally objective. Indeed, some subjectivity is inevitable in a change in cargo status, including movement off-route (using project of this type. geofencing). In real-time, it helps identify a person in connec- tion with a specific operation in the field, and it sends an alert in the event of tampering. This permits fast response, visibility 3.3 Individual Technology of operations in the field, and information flow to allow orga- Characterization nizational optimization. It claims easy connectivity to public Sections 3.3.1 through 3.3.23 contain narratives for each of networks and security systems. It is said to be Federal Commu- the interviewees with respect to their developing technologies. nications Commission (FCC) and Underwriters Laboratories Each narrative includes the following information: (UL) compliant. Its primary market is carriers working with customs authorities and revenue-collecting government agen- Product description and use (i.e., eventual product) cies as well as commercial fuel distribution companies. Technology readiness level Development path Technology Readiness Level: 45. Product is fully oper- Challenges to successful implementation ational in a real-world environment while spiral development Overall assessment continues. Development Path. Part of the development challenge These narratives are meant to provide key points of each involved advancing unique sensing capabilities in real-time technology's status, from which the results are compiled and and in severe outdoor conditions. The product development summarized in terms of future development expectations. requires final evaluation with users and setup of final standards NOTE: for simplification, the team used a modification of and procedures. the widely used nine-level National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) TRL grading scheme in assessing Challenges to Successful Implementation. No partic- the level of maturity of the technologies discussed with their ular impediments to implementation were noted. The cost to developers. The team's modification, more fully defined in the acquire and operate the product depends on implementation, Appendix F technology developer interview template, recog- and the developer feels the payback time to customers would nizes the following five technology development levels: be approximately 3 to 6 months. Level 1--basic technology principles have been observed Overall Assessment. It appears that this product has Level 2--equipment and process concept formulated entered the marketplace and offers the potential for enhancing

OCR for page 37
38 Hazmat transportation safety and security. However, insuffi- less sensor and actuator networks that report location via GPS cient information was provided on user cost and other char- and sensor data such as temperature, humidity, and radiation acteristics associated with product implementation to judge detection. Products are compatible with a wireless network market adoptability. protocol. The technology enables both security and remote monitoring of many types of customers. Access control is via 3.3.2 Technology Developer Narrative both RFID and biometrics. Security is enabled via intrusion 2--National Laboratory detectors, biometrics, and active RFID sensors monitoring a location. Remote monitoring of a distribution network Technology Area. Networked RFID, ubiquitous sensors is enabled via field-deployed RFID units with sensor and and cargo monitoring GPS technology. Detectors report emergencies to a dispatch location. The primary target market is clients that require Product Description and Use. The technology is involved security and asset management. with a wide range of security systems for Hazmat, using loca- tors and tracking devices. The devices are for shipments carry- Technology Readiness Level: 45. The developer has an ing high-security level shipments (i.e., radioactive materials). existing product base but is always in the process of bringing The technology provides increased security through location new products to Level 5 maturity. detectors at the vehicle or package level. Development Path. Continued packaging of capabilities Technology Readiness Level: 35. Different products and reduction of costs is key. User costs vary by product, rang- are at various development stages (on average, 25 years). ing from under $100 to thousands of dollars per unit. Development Path. Those technologies not already in the Challenges to Successful Implementation. There are marketplace will be subjected to demonstrations in a limited always technological, manufacturing, and regulatory risks real-world environment, followed by making the product fully that need to be monitored and addressed in future product operational. In general, each product is anticipated to cost the development, and the developer tracks those. user "a few thousand dollars" to obtain and operate. Overall Assessment. Many of these technology products Challenges to Successful Implementation. These systems have been developed initially for other target markets, yet are generally not user-friendly. Hence, if something goes wrong they appear to be readily transferable to meet the needs of the or breaks, a special technician is needed. Also, there are con- Hazmat transportation industry. cerns as to whether the products are sturdy enough to withstand the harsh conditions of daily use. Interactions could be positive or negative on the systems, so the developer is prepared to work 3.3.4 Technology Developer Narrative with customers to customize their systems to work together. 4--National Laboratory Technology Area. Networked RFID, ubiquitous sensors Overall Assessment. Products in this technology area are and cargo monitoring evolving to the point where they are continuing to add capa- bility while making user benefit/cost more attractive. Improv- Product Description and Use. The technology is passive, ing product durability and maintenance appears to be the next unpowered sensing and monitoring technology that can take hurdle to overcome. many different forms. These applications could include cargo tampering and leak detection (currently used) and analysis of 3.3.3 Technology Developer Hazmat or biochemical threats (potential uses). Passive tags Narrative 3--Company that can detect unauthorized access to cargo can be very useful. The technology uses also include infrastructure monitoring Technology Area. Networked RFID, ubiquitous sen- sors and cargo monitoring such as pipeline leaks (e.g., an oil drilling company could attach tags to drill pipes). Another form of infrastructure mon- Product Description and Use. The technology involves itoring in which there has been interest is bridge monitoring several systems including (1) RFID units for physical access (i.e., embedded strain gauges in bridges and passive chips that control and customized RFID (passive, semi-active, and active) could provide information to inspectors who would only need enabled sensors for distribution; (2) passive infrared (IR) and to drive by the area). Current customers include NASA, the microwave intrusion detection systems for home and military aerospace industry, and government agencies including DOE security detection; (3) biometrics using advanced fingerprint and DOD. A sophisticated device that this organization has scanners for vehicle ignition and access control; and (4) wire- developed is a micro-chemical lab that can detect Hazmat or

OCR for page 37
39 bio-agents, and in principle it could be configured to work with the three finalists of the RFID Journal's "Most Innovative Use passive, unpowered sensing and reporting technology. For of RFID award." example, such integration could help emergency responders remotely identify leaked Hazmat at the scene of an incident. Technology Readiness Level: 4. The product has been operational in several on-the-road field demonstrations with Technology Readiness Level: 4. The technologies are staged incidents. essentially at the pilot demonstration level. Development Path. More extensive field trials are under- Development Path. This path requires third parties that way. Large-scale industrial production of tags, readers, and are interested in using this technology in their product appli- other system components are needed for product to become cations and can deliver it to the marketplace at a reasonable fully operational, in addition to training of personnel and cost. This process could take several years before coming establishment of infrastructure. These developments are to fruition. Whereas probably millions of dollars have been expected to occur within the coming year. Anticipated user spent on battery-powered tags, much less has been spent for costs are several thousand dollars for the fixed system, which passive tags, and much more would need to be spent to bring includes one RFID reader and one communication transpon- them to market. For analog cell networks, probably only a der. Each transportation package would be fitted with a tag tiny percent of what would be needed for development has costing between $100 and $200 each. been spent to date. Challenges to Successful Implementation. Between Challenges to Successful Implementation. Development $500,000 and $1 million is needed to bring the technology into costs are substantial, and therefore may require a forcing the marketplace. There is continued interaction with industry function (e.g., regulation) to make available the appropriate on development of sensors to expand the RFID functionality. resources. Use of battery power, rather than wireless, is the cur- rent technology for reading information from 100 meters away. Overall Assessment. This technology product offers an This requires user monitoring and replacement of batteries. intriguing hybrid solution to the immediate problem associ- ated with making reliable wireless power available in track- Overall Assessment. Eventually both the development ing shipments in transit. The wireless problem is overcome funds and technology advancement will provide a solution for because of the short transmission distance from the package using this type of product, operating within a wireless network. to the reader (located in the truck cab), allowing the sensors It is only a matter of time before this occurs, likely within the to be powered by long-life batteries that can run for several next couple of years. years before needing replacement. 3.3.5 Technology Developer Narrative 3.3.6 Technology Developer 5--National Laboratory Narrative 6--Company Technology Area. Networked RFID, ubiquitous sensors Technology Area. Pressure gauges and chemical detec- and cargo monitoring tion sensors Product Description and Use. The technology is for mon- Product Description and Use. The technology involves itoring and tracking high-value items in transportation and the embedding of sensors in products to detect chemical storage using RFID tags equipped with sensors. The trans- releases. Of the more than 140 products the technology porting vehicle is tracked and the state of its cargo's health is developer has produced, three in particular are applicable monitored and reported. Package manifest and event history to Hazmat transportation: (1) chemical sensors that can detect is stored in tag memories and relayed by satellite and secure the presence of chlorine, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, sulfur Internet to a command center. In case of an incident, a GIS- compounds, nitrogen, and several other materials; (2) photo based report is immediately issued to assist with emergency ionization detectors useful for identifying hydrocarbons, response. The focus to date has been on truck transportation styrene, gas, or diesel in units of parts per billion; and (3) scin- and storage of sensitive nuclear materials for the DOE. The tillation sensors that can detect gamma or neutron rays. These technology has interacted with vehicle tracking technologies products are compatible with an open platform that allows and satellite and cellular communication technologies. It has integration with third party providers. successfully completed initial integration of its RFID technol- ogy and a well-known tracking and communication system. Technology Readiness Level: 45. Some of these prod- In 2010, this system was selected by industry judges as one of ucts are fully operational in a real-world environment, while

OCR for page 37
40 others are at the stage of being operational in a limited real- uct development and testing is needed before it can compete world environment. Those products currently at Level 4 are in the marketplace. However, this technology offers the poten- anticipated to be at Level 5 within the coming year. tial to achieve improved performance over what is being used in conventional sensors. Development Path. Acquisition costs are product- dependent. However, the average payback time to the cus- tomer is estimated to be 3 months. 3.3.8 Technology Developer Narrative 8--Company: Technology No. 2 Challenges to Successful Implementation. There were Technology Area. Pressure gauges and chemical detec- none specified, other than acknowledging that sensors have a tion sensors finite life and will need to replaced over time. Product Description and Use. The technology is color Overall Assessment. This technology developer's prod- metric barcodes used to detect homemade explosives and ucts are in the marketplace already, with additional products precursors for various forms of explosives. The product is nearly ready for commercial use. If these products can accu- targeted for security use in conflict areas. rately detect chemical releases with very low false alarm rates, it represents a promising Hazmat transportation safety and Technology Readiness Level: 2. The equipment and pro- security enhancement. Given the large number of Hazmat cess concept has been formulated. shipments warranting active monitoring, the capability of embedded sensors to detect anomalous conditions at low Development Path. Proceeding with a prototype demon- thresholds and high reliability will benefit shippers, carriers, strated in a laboratory environment, testing the technology emergency responders, and government officials. product in a limited real-world environment, and having the product fully operational in a real-world environment is 3.3.7 Technology Developer Narrative expected to be a 69 year development process. It is anticipated 7--Company: Technology No. 1 that once available, the unit cost to the user will be roughly $100 to obtain the product and less than $100 to operate it. Technology Area. Pressure gauges and chemical detection sensors Challenges to Successful Implementation. Funding in the amount of approximately $3 million will be necessary to Product Description and Use. The technology is nanowire bring this product to the marketplace. technology used to detect chemical, biological, and radiolog- ical threats while cargo is in transport. The company's primary Overall Assessment. Color metric barcoding is in an early target markets are shipping container manufacturers, carriers, development stage, requiring several years of effort before and seaports. products relying on this technology will become commercially available. When it reaches that point, the benefits derived Technology Readiness Level: 2. The equipment and pro- from product use will be primarily enhanced security from cess concept has been formulated. terrorist attacks, although applications to support Hazmat Development Path. Proceeding with a prototype demon- transport safety could possibly evolve. strated in a laboratory environment, testing the technology product in a limited real-world environment, and having 3.3.9 Technology Developer Narrative the product fully operational in a real-world environment is 9--Company: Technology No. 3 expected to be a 69 year development process. It is anticipated that once available, the unit cost to the user will be roughly Technology Area. Pressure gauges and chemical detec- $300 to obtain the product and $100 to operate it. tion sensors Challenges to Successful Implementation. Funding in Product Description and Use. The technology is gas chro- the amount of approximately $10 million will be necessary to matography integrated into systems that detect agents, pri- bring this product to the marketplace. The technology will marily chemicals and explosives. The primary target market also have to be designed to be interactive with communication is buildings with heating, ventilating, and air conditioning devices. (HVAC) systems. Overall Assessment. The development and use of nano- Technology Readiness Level: 2. The equipment and pro- wire technology is in its early stages, and therefore more prod- cess concept has been formulated.

OCR for page 37
41 Development Path. Proceeding with a prototype demon- 3.3.11 Technology Developer strated in a laboratory environment, testing the technology Narrative 11--Company product in a limited real-world environment, and having Technology Area. Fiber-optic/photonic sensors and the product fully operational in a real-world environment is optical scanners expected to be a 69 year development process. It is antici- pated that once available, the unit cost to the user will be Product Description and Use. The technology is fiber- roughly $100 to obtain the product and less than $100 to optic sensors as well as optical scanning systems. Fiber-optic operate it. sensors can be used for many Hazmat needs; their use depends on the amount of Hazmat and the sensor sensitivity, dynamic Challenges to Successful Implementation. Funding in range, and resolution. Also, avoiding false signals is one of the the amount of approximately $3 million will be necessary to critical parameters, whatever the application medium. Fiber- bring this product to the marketplace. optic sensors and optical scanners can be placed in space or on Overall Assessment. As the use of gas chromatography ground; they can be hand-held, surface-mounted, or embedded for this purpose is just being conceptualized, the emergence of into structures. a commercially available product is not likely to occur for Technology Readiness Level: 12. This technology devel- many years. Once in the marketplace, the product's use will be oper studies the problem and designs the proper sensors for limited to building infrastructure, unless the technology can appropriate applications. As soon as the proof of concept is be integrated with other products to serve transport vehicles completed and a prototype is developed and tested, it is deliv- and sensitive cargo. ered to the customer. 3.3.10 Technology Developer Narrative Development Path. There will be development of a series 10--Company: Technology No. 4 of fiber-optic sensors depending on the sensitivity required for each application, and costs are based on sensitivity. The range Technology Area. Pressure gauges and chemical detec- can vary considerably. Optical scanner costs also vary based on tion sensors the size and whether they are hand-held or large lab testers. The Product Description and Use. This technology is a scanners' range can also vary considerably for mass produc- 24/7 indoor air monitoring system that is capable of detect- tion, and the cost depends on the mass production numbers. ing aldehydes, oxidizers, acids, and bases. Information can Challenges to Successful Implementation. There are no be transmitted via wireless communication. The primary special needs identified in the development. In general, as target market is buildings and other facilities that are impor- with any early stage developments, financial support is the tant to homeland security. critical issue. Technology Readiness Level: 4. The technology product Overall Assessment. This appears to be a very flexible and is operational in a limited real-world environment. versatile technology. Fiber-optics is recognized for the quan- Development Path. It is expected that the technology tity and quality of data it is capable of transmitting. It has product will be fully operational and commercially available promise for not only vehicle and cargo monitoring but also within the coming year. The anticipated user cost is approx- infrastructure, such as identifying the type and concentration imately $80,000. of toxic gas in a tunnel or the degree of movement of bridge support structures. Challenges to Successful Implementation. No challenge or impediment was identified. 3.3.12 Technology Developer Narrative Overall Assessment. At such a high user cost, it would 12--National Laboratory appear that the demand for this product will be limited to Technology Area. Advanced locks and seals large organizations with sizeable fixed infrastructure. Some shippers (chemical manufacturers) may fall into this category. Product Description and Use. The technology is a Secure However, unless the technology is customized for smaller, Sensor Platform (SSP) provides a framework of functionality mobile operations, and made available at an affordable cost, to support the development of low-power autonomous sensors its adaptation by the Hazmat transport industry is likely to be primarily for nuclear safeguards. This framework provides four extremely limited. primary functional blocks of capabilities required to implement

OCR for page 37
42 autonomous sensors. These capabilities are security-based tion (NNSA) Office of Nuclear Verification. The first use of communication protocol for radio frequency and hardwire this framework has been the development of the RMSA, mediums; active, passive, and indicative security features for which is a monitoring system for a large number of active secure housings; power management for extended battery- fiber-optic seals providing worldwide, secure and remote powered autonomous operation; and cryptographic pro- access to the array of seals. Its originating national labora- cesses providing Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-based tory is going through the production process with a commer- authentication and encryption as well as a public key cryptog- cial partner and is on the verge of providing a prototype raphy option. Using this framework establishes a common set system to the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). of functional capabilities for seamless interoperability of any Two other sensor developments based on the SSP are the tiny sensor based on the SSP concept. The SSP communication gamma-ray spectrometer and the authenticated switch. Both protocol stack can readily support wired or wireless commu- are autonomous and battery powered. nication by simply replacing the physical layer. The entire protocol stack has been optimized to minimize the energy Development Path. SSP future trends include stronger required for effective communication. Its original basis is as cryptology; greater resistance to tampering; and higher con- a high-end security and safeguard system providing sensors fidence of detection while still maintaining low cost for wide to remotely monitor nuclear processes and nuclear material deployment, longer autonomous operation, more supported storage. Many of the sensors used for that purpose cannot sensor technologies, and more user interfaces to provide choices rely on existing infrastructure for power or communications for monitoring and review platforms. Initially, costs for the and therefore must be self-contained. RMSA system components are anticipated to be approximately The sensor monitoring system configuration consists of a $500 or less in volumes above 500 for the fiber-optic seal, and host computer, a translator, many sensor platforms, and data the translator would cost approximately $6,000 if tamper- management tools for data collection and verification. The indicating and $1,500-$2,000 for a non tamper-indicating sensors and the translator store and forward all collected data. commercial version. This capability creates redundant data stores, allowing recov- ery of sensor data to support the requirement for complete data Challenges to Successful Implementation. The SSP tech- sets. Examples of possible sensors are magnetic, glass break, nology is specifically designed to have low life cycle cost, but passive IR, IR break beam, authenticated switch, fiber-optic it is initially a more expensive solution than the commer- receiver, fiber-optic loop seal, vibration, and microwave. All cial marketplace can deploy for Hazmat shipments. The SSP of the SSP-based sensors are active devices. They detect and has been designed for large, dry, outdoor storage of large num- report out-of-normal conditions in near real time. The SSP bers of adjacent spent fuel containers. It provides deterrence framework provides three categories of security features. These by detection. It is currently designed to give alerts to a control are active tamper monitoring to protect secret cryptographic center in near real time. Achieving mobility will require some keys, intrinsic features for forensic examination, and a passive additional R&D (for example, connecting to a GPS/GLS device feature which causes the initiation of an active tamper. Data with terrestrial or satellite communications, possibly with a are encrypted and authenticated at the sensor. Authentication camera triggered by an authenticated switch). This would not and encryption are based on National Institute of Standards have a big hardware impact but could involve software licenses and Technology (NIST) standards. Power management uses and royalties. Finally, there may be RF emission restrictions in techniques such as multiplexed sensors, high-energy density some nuclear facilities. battery technologies, and wake-on-radio features. A current example of an SSP sensor application is the RMSA Overall Assessment. The SSP and its RMSA application which inherits all of the SSP core capabilities as described. have resulted from a lot of thought and research. Security of The RMSA uses a low life cycle cost fiber-optic seal sensor. containers has remained a vexing problem. Many different The fiber optic material is inexpensive 1-mm plastic fiber that seals (including tamper-indicating seals) have been defeated can be cut in the field in loop lengths up to 50 meters. The fiber by vulnerability assessment researchers, often with surprising loop is actively monitored with light pulses. The seal uses the speed. Security of some particularly dangerous or high-value unlicensed RF bands to periodically communicate its status Hazmat shipments could be improved by defeating sophisti- and immediately communicate alerts. Each seal can store sev- cated intrusion attempts and reporting their occurrence. As eral years' worth of transmitted messages. the cost of this technology comes down, carriers of cargo such as explosives and bulk TIH may find that the SSP's ability Technology Readiness Level: 4. The SSP framework to protect sealed Hazmat cargo with low maintenance, high has been in development for several years with the primary confidence in collected information, and lower staff-hours sponsor being the National Nuclear Security Administra- for inspection make it affordable.

OCR for page 37
43 3.3.13 Technology Developer Narrative Technology Readiness Level: 45. Acquisition and oper- 13--Company ation cost and ROI are currently difficult to determine because this technology developer works through a dealer and quanti- Technology Area. Advanced locks and seals ties can range from a few hundred to a few thousand. Product Description and Use. The technology is locks Development Path. Incremental improvements to a and seals that can be remotely monitored for intrusion and proven technology are being made by this company. Every system functioning. transportation mode can conceivably benefit by advanced Technology Readiness Level: 45. The technology prod- video surveillance and monitoring features that are primarily uct is fully operational in a real-world environment, although security-related but could also include safety monitoring. user evaluations and development of standards and proce- Challenges to Successful Implementation. There are no dures are ongoing. discernable impediments to developmental versions reach- Development Path. Although user cost will depend on ing the marketplace. Privacy issues could be one potential the type of system implementation, average customer payback impediment, but proliferation of video surveillance in mod- time is estimated to be between 3 and 6 months. ern society has been rapid, particularly after 9/11, and privacy issues have not come into play when this technology is used Challenges to Successful Implementation. No challenges for security surveillance. When video surveillance is coupled or impediments were identified. with knowledge of aspects of human behavior, it can be done in a way that focuses on what a person does, not who they are. Overall Assessment. In its current form, this product If typical activity patterns for a given area are known, intelli- appears to be limited in function to being a device for detect- gent video analytics can help detect and alert when something ing product tampering and providing alerts, while lacking breaks the pattern, such as an object left in a field of view. The advanced encryption and other features that make seals and tracking feature can be employed to virtually follow someone locks difficult to defeat. with suspected malicious intent without their realizing they are being followed. 3.3.14 Technology Developer Overall Assessment. Intelligent video surveillance has Narrative 14--Company great promise to increase its role as the "eyes and ears" of Technology Area. Intelligent video tracking and sur- remote and unmanned site surveillance. It has a decision sup- veillance port role in that it not only sees what is occurring but can help decide whether the occurrence is cause for alarm. It also pro- Product Description and Use. The technology is secu- vides a type of forensics in that it records and time- and date- rity and safety cameras that capture images, replicate them to stamps events. a hard drive and compresses them, then give them to the user interface to view online recorded images. Intelligent video analytics provides a length of a queue line by counting people, 3.3.15 Technology Developer recording features by frames based on tripwire, detecting cam- Narrative 15--Company era blinding attempts, and conducting image stabilization. Technology Area. Intelligent video tracking and sur- This can also be in High Definition 1080p. (NOTE: 1080p is veillance a very high resolution video format and screen specification intended to deliver a smoother image that stays sharper dur- Product Description and Use. The technology is video ing motion.) This technology can be used to detect a person content analysis software that processes and fuses live surveil- presenting an illicit card at a secured door that could either lance camera images for automatic recognition of suspicious trigger an alarm, or alternatively, let that person have access events or malicious activities at a site based on a multi-layer and trip video cameras to automatically record images of intelligence. The main specialty of this system is site-wide his/her movement. The technology can be used to protect identity tracking, accomplished by processing and fusing container ports and other sites with imports and exports. Cam- the information from all connected cameras, and tracking eras can capture tag numbers on trucks and tail numbers on people, vehicles, and other objects from camera to camera. airplanes with a time and date stamp on the image. The tech- Identity tracking in this context means that by receiving infor- nology can conduct entry/exit monitoring of restricted areas mation from a (third party) access control system or other and any other areas without restriction, such as for a remote, primary source of identities, users can attach names or other usually unoccupied pipeline facility. information to the tracked people, so the system at the end

OCR for page 37
44 not only knows that there is somebody there, but also knows tery powered to be wirelessly charged, or power sensors for who it is. The system can also be used not only to analyze but monitoring structural health in all infrastructure. Industries to predict behaviors. will save money by eliminating frequent battery changes. Technology Readiness Level: 3. The development of this Technology Readiness Level: 4. In 2007, the developer technology originally targeted the physical security market, released the first version of this technology. In 2009, it released above all the video surveillance/CCTV segment. Besides a num- a second generation, and now has released volume production ber of security-related potential use cases of identity tracking and new components of the technology. technology, the developer is currently focusing on customer behavior analysis in retail. An example is not only analyzing Development Path. The developer is currently using a dis- purchases, but also predicting the behavior of customers in tributor to evolve the technology into different applications. It shops, providing invaluable data for optimizing product also has training and supportability plans implemented and an placement. active mechanism in place to make product improvements in response to customer suggestions. Development Path. Besides further research and devel- Challenges to Successful Implementation. The FCC reg- opment, appropriate test sites should be chosen to accomplish ulates and limits a certain amount of power broadcast, so the piloting. As this is a new technology providing services not technology has to be FCC-compliant. As power levels and dis- previously in the market, its capabilities should be first dis- tances of transmission increase, FCC regulation could take on seminated to raise attention and generate demand. more importance. Challenges to Successful Implementation. Privacy issues Overall Assessment. Wireless power has the potential to can apply to any video surveillance system. As the main ben- supply electricity to sensors and communications devices efit of the system is the increased level of security on a site by from a distance and without the need for power cords. It can mitigating certain risks, it is challenging to estimate payback be used to recharge batteries, and the number and size of bat- time because it highly depends on the prevalence and sever- teries needed by a device using wireless power can be reduced. ity of malicious events and the damage they may cause. Overall Assessment. This is a technology that can work 3.3.17 Technology Developer in conjunction with access control, can incorporate iden- Narrative 17--Company tity management, and provide decision support. It would be feasible to track a Hazmat vehicle from camera to camera as Technology Area. Wireless Power the vehicle passes along a highway through a HTUA, as well Product Description and Use. The technology uses as tracking a person such as an intruder in a seaport or rail advanced material science and proprietary software algo- switching yard. The software appears to works with current, rithms to identify, profile, and adapt wireless power delivery standard cameras. to various loads in varying configurations. This is an enabling technology in that it helps to provide electrical power for sen- 3.3.16 Technology Developer sors and other technologies that would be more expensive Narrative 16--Company due to battery maintenance and replacement costs. Simple examples include wirelessly charging and powering hand-held Technology Area. Wireless Power scanners and other devices and wirelessly charging and power- ing flashlights and other security devices to enable them to Product Description and Use. The technology is wireless be "always ready" portable lighting for emergency responders, power and radio frequency energy harvesting, converting radio police, firefighters, soldiers, and so forth. Another use is waves into direct current (DC) power. This is an enabling tech- in-vehicle charging and power delivery for charging and pow- nology in that it helps to provide electrical power for sensors ering sensors and other devices in adverse climates and condi- and other technologies that would be more expensive due to tions. There is the potential for specialized software applications battery maintenance and replacement costs. The application to enable devices using intelligent communications. Wireless is for commercial industrial and defense industries. It sup- power technologies can power a room--a "wireless coffee plies power that various sensing and communicating devices shop" has been demonstrated in which a laptop and cell phone might not otherwise have. It eliminates cords and reduces were kept charged through this technology. battery needs. Wireless transmission could be used to power safety warning sensors to detect unsafe or toxic substances, Technology Readiness Level: 45. Several new patents allow GPS/GLS devices attached to a vehicle that may be bat- have been granted to the technology developer, who is help-

OCR for page 37
45 ing to drive development of interoperability standards as a by the environment. It can also be used to power sensors, locks, founding member of the Wireless Power Consortium. and other technologies associated with pipelines using the gas flow (turbulence) to trigger the device to produce electricity. A Development Path. The initial market is low power con- flag with these materials could produce electricity as it flutters sumer electronics with additional medium and high power in the wind. applications that benefit industries forthcoming. Application- specific uses may require additional research and development. Technology Readiness Level: 12. The technology has already been used to store a charge in a capacitor and power Challenges to Successful Implementation. Shielding may an LED. The developer believes 25 years is a plausible time- be required to prevent interference in certain radio bands. Sup- frame for product maturity. ply chain development may be needed for certain form factors and applications. It remains to be determined how the technol- Development Path. About 2 to 3 years is needed to com- ogy is impacted by magnetic energy. From a safety and regu- mercialize the technology, and millions of dollars will be needed latory standpoint, short distance and even some long distance to reach Level 5. Although not cited as an impediment, it is wireless power meet requirements. IEEE runs the standards acknowledged that 2 to 3 million dollars in additional invest- program that covers wireless technology. ment is needed in commercialize the technology. Overall Assessment. This is a promising technology. "Uni- Challenges to Successful Implementation. A previous versal power" at its best can eliminate cords and connections obstacle was that only a low voltage could be produced, but and give load power. Applications can range from milliwatts to following a technical breakthrough, 3 to 4 volts can now be kilowatts. It is conceptually possible to have a sensor embedded produced. Another impediment includes making the system in packaging that remotely relays information that the level of a more robust and optimizing the design. liquid or solid is getting low, by receiving a signal and then responding. The sensor would be in the packaging itself and Overall Assessment: This is an environmentally friendly could be detected by being in proximity to a device. If a railcar technology that capitalizes on motion or strain to provide holds materials, the device could power a receiving coil on the power to certain devices where there otherwise would be none. railcar, then the railcar could ping materials carried internally. It can produce power inside a vehicle where solar power is not Distance depends on power levels--several railcars back from available. This represents an extremely promising technology a device on a locomotive might be attainable, and it is even development in that it will enable tracking and monitoring of possible to "daisy-chain" a signal down a line of railcars. hazardous materials shipments to occur without the cost of battery maintenance and replacement. Moreover, this may create an opportunity to improve the precision of real-time 3.3.18 Technology Developer status if GPS/GLS transmissions can be sent with greater fre- Narrative 18--University quency due to less concern for the amount of battery power Technology Area. Nanopiezoelectronics being consumed. Product Description and Use. The technology uses devices made of a common, inexpensive, very thin plastic 3.3.19 Technology Developer and zinc oxide to produce power for sensors, actuators, and Narrative 19--Company other uses from externally applied strain (force, pressure, or Technology Area. Plastic Thin-Film Organic Solar Cells small physical motion). The devices convert motion to elec- tricity, which can be used or stored in a battery or capacitor. Product Description and Use. The technology is a third This is an enabling technology in that it helps to provide elec- generation, thin-film, flexible, organic photovoltaic material trical power for sensors and other technologies that would that is printable on plastic. This is an enabling technology in otherwise be more expensive due to battery maintenance and that it helps to provide electrical power for sensors and other replacement costs. Safe (non-toxic), low-cost, biodegradable technologies that would be more expensive due to battery materials are used. Primary markets include the electronic maintenance and replacement costs. It allows the conversion industry especially emphasizing microelectromechanical/ of light (outdoor and indoor) to DC power and is very good nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), multifunc- at converting low light so collection time is expanded over the tional devices, and sensors in mobile electronics that can be entire day. Also, there is a positive thermal coefficient so as the powered without batteries. Nanogenerator technology could material warms up, it works better. The four primary markets be used to allow small tracking devices that normally need a are microelectronics, portable power, remote power and build- power source to send a signal to the user from energy created ing integrated photovoltaics (i.e., photovoltaic materials that

OCR for page 37
46 are used to replace conventional building materials in parts of devices. The next stages are capital intensive with demon- a building). strations. Most work is done in a research environment so it takes longer to bring technologies into production. There Technology Readiness Level: 45. The next generation is a move toward the commercial environment. product is under development, with planned sampling release in late 2010 and production in early 2011. The technology is a Challenges to Successful Implementation. There are no component for integration into other technologies, so close known technical impediments outside of the challenges of collaboration with other technologies is vital for the success of development. this developing technology. Overall Assessment. This represents an extremely prom- Development Path. The product has had a substantial ising technology development in that it will enable tracking investment and appears ready for commercialization in tar- and monitoring of Hazmat shipments to occur with reduced geted application areas. cost of battery maintenance and replacement. Moreover, this may create an opportunity to improve the precision of real- Challenges to Successful Implementation. The product time status if transmissions can be sent with greater fre- must be adhered or laminated to other technologies, so devel- quency due to less concern for the amount of battery power opment efforts are required in most cases to incorporate the being consumed. product into other technologies. Also, the product must have an electrical connection which may require development efforts depending on the application. 3.3.21 Technology Developer Narrative 21--Company Overall Assessment. This represents a very promising technology development that will enable tracking and moni- Technology Area. Plastic Thin-Film Organic Solar Cells toring of Hazmat shipments to occur with reduced cost of bat- Product Description and Use. The technology involves tery maintenance and replacement. Moreover, this may create putting semi-conductors (solar cells) on non-traditional sur- an opportunity to improve the precision of real-time status if faces depending on the substrate, which can be fairly transpar- transmissions can be sent with greater frequency due to less ent. It is a flexible printed circuit sheet that has a film battery concern for the amount of battery power being consumed. on one side and generates electricity when exposed to light. This is an enabling technology that helps to provide electrical 3.3.20 Technology Developer power for sensors and other technologies that otherwise would Narrative 20--Company be more expensive due to battery maintenance and replace- ment costs. The solar cells can go on corners or curved surfaces. Technology Area. Plastic Thin-Film Organic Solar Cells Power generated can be stored in a battery or capacitor. Colors Product Description and Use. Organic solar cell tech- of light absorbed and the transparency can be tuned to be nar- nology generates power at a low cost, cheaper than fossil fuels. row in its detection. "Organic" means that carbon is a major This is an enabling technology that helps to provide electrical component and most of the chemicals needed are generally power for sensors and other technologies that otherwise would standard and non-toxic. Flexible organic solar cells can be be more expensive due to battery maintenance and replace- very thin, relatively transparent, and thus more aesthetic in ment costs. It has applications for eliminating battery usage to their applications than traditional solar cells, which tend to supplying power to other technologies. It can provide power to be crystalline and opaque and relatively difficult to put into a remote and wireless sensor networks, and perhaps a device on product. They could be used on the outside surfaces of a vehi- a chemical tank that requires wireless power. It can help sup- cle such as the roof, or applied as a film on a window to gen- plement power supply if the grid is down. The technology can erate electricity. "Power paint" (i.e., the thin-film, relatively easily be integrated with other products. transparent, flexible organic solar cell coating) on outside surfaces, including windows that would otherwise be wasted Technology Readiness Level: 4. Tens of millions of dol- surface area, could be a significant part of an electric vehicle's lars have already been spent in development and tens of mil- (EV's) budget, extending the range and reducing battery size lions remain to be invested. The products are developed, then and expense. licensed to a company, and the return is usually a small per- centage of the license module. Technology Readiness Level: 34. The developer builds proof-of-concept devices and licenses to volume manufac- Development Path. The targeted market includes any turers. Development depends on partnerships and capital company with a need to generate power and operate mobile investment as well as engineering optimization and scaling.

OCR for page 37
47 Development Path. Economics should be favorable if the Challenges to Successful Implementation. Loss of a fuel technology can reduce the amount of electrical capacity needed tanker to fire or explosion or the cost to clean up a spill that by a device or vehicle. In the near term, sensors, devices, and results in fire are known expenses, but it is more difficult to electric vehicles are the target to augment and offset the energy quantify the money saved from protection. The process does load from the battery. Higher frequency transmission times add weight, which reduces fuel efficiency. and data rates can be possible, which can benefit sensors and communications systems. In the longer term, power gener- Overall Assessment. This specialty technology devel- ation, especially peak power, is a target. opment evolved based on a need. Once the technology was developed, it solved a problem quickly. The technology could Challenges to Successful Implementation. Learning how benefit multiple modes, helping to protect not just vehicles to make the cells larger and at volume is key. It is currently pos- but also pipelines from certain kinds of damage. sible to make them up to 6 in. square. The technology needs to migrate towards larger proof-of-concept devices. 3.3.23 Technology Developer Narrative 23-- Overall Assessment. This represents a very promising U.S. DOT Research Organization technology development that will enable tracking and moni- toring of Hazmat shipments to occur with reduced cost of bat- Technology Area. Container Integrity tery maintenance and replacement. Moreover, this may create Product Description and Use. The technology is a sand- an opportunity to improve the precision of real-time status if wich structure to protect railroad tank cars against punc- transmissions can be sent with greater frequency because of ture from impacting objects in the event of derailment or less concern for the amount of battery power being consumed. collision. A sandwich structure acts like a shield to protect the commodity-carrying tank. The structure generally con- 3.3.22 Technology Developer sists of two face sheets that are separated by a core. Protection Narrative 22--Company is offered through two mechanisms: load blunting (or load distribution) and energy absorption. Both mechanisms would Technology Area. Container Integrity prevent or mitigate tank car punctures and may raise the stan- Product Description and Use. The technology is a self- dard for impact for tank cars above the current 18 mph. The healing, self-sealing substance that is resistant to bullets. The primary target is tank car manufacturers or anyone who is technology is currently used for fuel transport in the military interested in designing improvements to the crashworthiness in the form of a urethane compound sprayed on the outside of tank cars. of a fuel tanker. The compound reacts chemically with fuel to seal off a bullet hole puncture to the metal jacket of a tank, Technology Readiness Level: 1. This technology is in the helping prevent what otherwise may result in a conflagration. basic research stage. It is too early to determine acquisition The concept can be tailored to different chemistries of liquids and operation cost and potential ROI because the technology and natural gas; its feasibility with chlorine and ammonia tech- is still in testing. nologies has reportedly been demonstrated. It provides cor- Development Path. There are a lot of collaborative efforts rosion resistance which can lengthen life expectancy of tanks. within the tank car community, including representation from It may be possible to embed tracking and monitoring devices railroads, manufacturers, and chemical companies that have into the coating to remotely report damage and help to deter- a vested interest in safe Hazmat transport. Currently for this mine what sort of emergency response is needed. Beyond its technology, there is ongoing research to develop sandwich current military vehicle application, the technology could be panels to be applied to ships' hulls, including Office of Naval used for infrastructure and by DHS and the trucking, rail, and pipeline industries. It is complementary with blast and fire Research work to protect ships from explosive impacts. This mitigation technologies. can be modified for tank cars on a more mechanical level, such as wheel and car impacts rather than blasts. Technology Readiness Level: 3. Full-scale testing with different specialized chemistries is needed, which will be Challenges to Successful Implementation. The protective expensive. structure needs to be within weight and space requirements. Some trade-offs may be necessary between sufficient protection Development Path. There is a need to find partners and and the weight and space budgets. The extra protection could to tie into government regulation guidelines and protocols significantly raise the cost of a rail tank car, which may hamper for testing. There is a possible worldwide military market for voluntary adoption. There was some rule-making activity the technology. 2 years ago when the Federal Railroad Administration tried