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58 maritime implementation. Privacy issues are always present light. Plastic thin-film organic solar cells could play a signifi- when people's images are captured and biometric techniques cant role within 25 years, powering sensors, communica- are used to do more than verify identity. However, security tions, or other devices on stand-alone vehicles (e.g., railcars or concerns since 9/11 have brought about the proliferation of untethered trailers) or pipelines in remote locations that are video systems, and their uses are being expanded through this hard to monitor. The ability to provide capability for safety type of technology advance. and security without having to change batteries is significant, and these devices are made of common, non-toxic materials. Nanopiezoelectronics will take longer to reach the mar- 4.1.5 Where and How Could the Most ketplace. Whereas solar cells depend on the sun for power gen- Promising Emerging Technologies in the Alternative Power Generation eration, nanopiezoelectronics technology generates power Group Be Used? from motion such as bending wires. This technology is grad- ually developing to the point at which power levels will be suf- Of the three different approaches to alternative power gen- ficient for practical use. So far this power has been able to light eration, wireless power is perhaps closest to the marketplace, an LED. It is at an earlier stage of development than the other with products capable of maturing in the next 2 years. Unlike alternative power generating technologies, but its progress is the other two alternative power source technologies, wireless rapid and products based on this technology are likely to be power does not create electricity but rather receives it from very affordable. another source where it is needed. This can be a consider- able advantage for powering sensors, communications, and other devices applicable to Hazmat transportation. One of 4.1.6 Where and How Could the Most its other advantages is the ability to design out power cords Promising Emerging Technologies and cable runs. in the Infrastructure Group Be Used? The question about how soon it can play a major role The two technologies researched, self-sealing materials and appears to be determined by the power requirements, efficiency sandwich structures, are representative developments but by of transmission, and regulations concerning power outputs. no means the only designs being considered for improved con- Products are already on the market to wirelessly charge cell tainer integrity. The greatest concern driving these designs is phones and laptops; the day may soon be approaching when the release of bulk TIH from rail tank cars. The chemical and a traveler may not have to bring power cords, batteries, or rail industries working together have been leading the way in chargers on a trip. In terms of Hazmat transportation, dis- this area, and research by U.S. DOT and others is continuing. tance is a concern for this technology type. That can be over- As a hallmark of the perceived importance of this area, mil- come by techniques such as the conceptual capability to have a lions of dollars are expected to be invested over the next few receiving device relay power. In this concept, power could be years directed at strengthening containers. These are pri- "daisy chained" from a locomotive along a series of Hazmat marily large tanks such as on railcars, but the same designs railcars to operate GPS/GLS devices with terrestrial or satellite can benefit smaller containers and even pipeline design to an communication, integrated with sensors such as hatch open extent. For containers on vehicles, one concern in the trade- or chemical leak detectors. offs involved in stronger designs is additional weight (as well Plastic thin-film organic solar cells may be equally close to the marketplace in terms of power levels likely to be useful as size) that not only reduces fuel efficiency, but must also be (some have already reached product status but most are considered for its effect on railway and roadway design limits. 25 years out). Their form-factor is a real positive, as their great flexibility allows them to be used on curved or angled sur- 4.2 Recommendations faces, and their relative transparency allows them to be applied to vehicle surfaces or even windows. Conceptually, it might be The team examined all the information gathered during possible to have a vehicle's painted surfaces coated with a trans- the project to determine how the findings would have great- parent, organic thin-film solar cell to generate additional est benefits to the Hazmat transportation community. The power. The challenge appears to be mainly the matter of con- resulting observations and recommendations are made both tinuing development to make cells larger and at volume. Solar on a technical and a temporal basis and with regard to what cell manufacturers must work with device manufacturers to is known of funding needs and availability. Table 4-1 shows ensure that the solar cell design provides an appropriate power the relative maturity comparisons of technologies for which supply matched to the device needs and a battery or capaci- interviews were conducted by technology areas and maturity tor for holding the charge during periods when there is no timeframes.

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59 Table 4-1. Technology maturity comparison. Short 2-5 6-10 Category Term Years Years Totals Networked RFID, ubiquitous sensors and cargo monitoring 3 2 5 Pressure gauges and chemical detection sensors 2 3 5 Fiber-optic/photonic sensors and optical scanners 1 1 Advanced locks and seals 1 1 2 Intelligent video tracking and surveillance 1 1 2 Wireless power 2 2 Nanopiezoelectronics 1 1 Plastic thin-film organic solar cells 1 2 3 Container integrity 1 1 2 Numbers of technology interviews 11 7 5 23 4.2.1 Technologies on the Verge Networked RFID, ubiquitous sensors and cargo monitoring of the Marketplace Advanced locks and seals Intelligent video tracking and surveillance Most (7 of 9) of the technology areas, representing 11 of Nanopiezoelectronics 23 developing technology interviews, have one or more prod- Plastic thin-film organic solar cells ucts expected to reach the marketplace in the short term (i.e., less than 2 years). These include the following technol- Four of these five technology areas have other products that ogy areas: are expected to enter the marketplace in the short term, which is an indication that the products emerging in the 25 year Networked RFID, ubiquitous sensors and cargo monitoring timeframe would also have some developmental momentum. Pressure gauges and chemical detection sensors The one remaining technology area (nanopiezoelectronics) Advanced locks and seals only has a product maturing in the 25 year timeframe. Intelligent video tracking and surveillance The lowest number of the technology areas, representing 3 Wireless power of 9 developing technology interviews, has one or more prod- Plastic thin-film organic solar cells ucts maturing in the 610 year timeframe. Two of the three Container integrity technology areas have products maturing in the short term, which suggests a technology gap within a similar area that has These technology products have momentum and appear to be bridged in one case (the pressure gauges and chemical to be getting the level of private investment or public sector detection sensors technology area), and the variety of differ- funding that they need to continue moving forward. Four of ent solutions to strengthening tanks in the other (container these seven technology areas maturing in the short term also integrity technology area). One technology area (fiber-optic/ have products maturing in the 25 year timeframe. One of photonic sensors and optical scanners) only has a product these seven technology areas (wireless power) has products maturing in the 610 year timeframe, which seems to correlate maturing only in the short term. to the products with similar technology in the pressure gauges and chemical detection sensors technology area that are matur- ing in the 610 year timeframe. 4.2.2 Technologies Recommended for Operational Test When Ready 4.2.3 Technologies Recommended A lower number (5 of 9) of the technology areas, represent- for Assistance ing 7 of 23 developing technology interviews, have one or more products expected to reach the marketplace within 25 years. One of the technologies cross-cutting in its usefulness is This includes the following technology areas: chemical detection sensors. These devices can be used to

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60 monitor leaks or releases in tanks and pipelines as well as con- 4.2.4 Technologies to Monitor for Progress ditions at critical fixed locations. They can provide not only detection and alerting, but can also measure concentrations. One container integrity technology--the sandwich The most sophisticated--and thus the most challenging to structure--is projected to mature in the 610 year timeframe. develop--are those that can sample the environment and It appears to have usefulness beyond Hazmat transportation, determine what substance of concern is present and in what including military applications. Because of its relatively concentration. Those sensors can be very useful for monitor- long development cycle, and in view of other related con- ing key infrastructure such as tunnels or strategic chokepoints. tainer strengthening initiatives underway, it is a technology Where possible, their portability will greatly assist emergency to monitor. responders. The technical challenges in creating advanced chemical 4.2.5 Use of This Report detection sensor and analysis systems that are accurate, The size of any investment in leading-edge technologies can rugged, affordable, and with a low false alarm rate are consid- be quite large and the ROI cannot be assured. With the knowl- erable. This technology capability is represented by the pres- edge gained from the conduct of this project, the HMCRP and sure gauges and chemical detection sensors and fiber-optic/ its stakeholders will gain knowledge of which technologies photonic sensors and optical scanners. Two developing chem- can be expected to have the greatest impact or promise when ical detection systems from the pressure gauges and chemical applied to Hazmat transportation safety and security. detection sensors technology area are identified as Level 4-5 Consequently, the HMCRP will be able to share informa- and projected to mature in the short term. Three of the pres- tion from the project's findings that will help both the public sure gauges and chemical detection sensors technologies-- and private sectors make informed decisions about emerging involving nanowire technology, color metric barcodes, and technologies that they may wish to deploy. The findings will gas chromatography--are at Level 2 and projected to mature help them better understand how technologies can be made to in the 610 year timeframe. The sole representative of the work together effectively, as well as how technology gaps can fiber-optic/photonic sensors and optical scanners technology keep systems from performing at a higher level. Moreover, it area is identified as Level 12 and projected to mature in the is conceivable that the information from the project could help 610 year timeframe. These related products maturing in the accelerate development of certain technologies if the common 610 year timeframe in both technology areas are perceived interest among groups is recognized. to be more advanced and sophisticated developments involv- Perhaps, one of the best ways to determine the success of this ing higher development risk. The ability for the output of project is to measure the number of government transporta- these sensing and analysis systems to be transmitted by both tion officials, shippers and carriers, emergency responders, wireless and wired/fiber-optic means is evident from the and other stakeholders seeking the results of this study. A associated systems discussed in this report. On balance, the secondary means is to gauge the number of organizations that payoff for realizing the great potential from this technology access and subsequently use the project's findings to inform area makes it a candidate for assistance. their plans to incorporate technologies for Hazmat trans- Nanopiezoelectronics is another technology at an early portation safety and security. Whether these data are captured development stage (Level 12), but which is believed capable through uploaded "success stories" or some other means is of transitioning to adoption relatively quickly (25 years) beyond the scope of this project. given adequate funding. It is important for developers to con- Making determinations about the maturity timelines and tinue increasing the amount of power that can be generated usefulness of technologies that are in development is not an through this means. The ability to generate power from small exact science. Therefore, going forward, it is recommended that motions, even flow turbulence, should make this a valuable a program of retrospective case studies be undertaken to exam- cross-cutting technology for the future for all modes in con- ine success or failure of new technologies as applied to Hazmat junction with miniaturization trends. transportation safety and security.