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65 APPENDIX B Initial Research Interview Summary and Guideline Overview Interview Guideline for Emerging Technologies Applicable to Safe A total of 34 interviews were conducted, involving 49 and Secure Hazmat Transportation interviewees representing 24 types of organizations such HMCRP Project 04 as regulators, security agencies, academics, national labo- ratories, research consulting organizations, carriers, man- Purpose: ufacturers, shippers, technology providers, environmental This guideline is to verify the lists of functional requirements protection agencies, and emergency responders. Interview and the gaps in them that have been developed by the Emerg- responses are displayed by organizational type grouping in ing Technologies team. It is for understanding the users' view- Table B-1. points on the technologies available to fill the gaps and their The Interview Guide used by the team is provided in this perceptions of obstacles to wider deployment. The information appendix. In the interview summaries that follow the Inter- from this interview supports Tasks 1 and 2 of the HMCRP view Guide, some of the thoughts captured have been Project 04. This discussion may yield information on existing paraphrased or structured in a way that is meant to best plans to develop or deploy technologies, but that is not its convey the perceived point of the interviewee. It should be primary purpose as that activity is for Task 4. noted that the interview record does not preclude the pos- Intended respondents: sibility that an interviewee's message was not recorded This guideline is for interviewing those who experience the exactly as intended, that some point significant to the inter- functional requirements and could directly benefit from fill- viewee may not have been captured, or that references to ing the gaps. It is for those who deal with the Hazmat itself time (i.e., something current) are necessarily still valid. For on a regular basis--shippers, carriers, consignees, and emer- the purpose of maintaining anonymity, certain responses gency responders--either in their individual companies or such as organizational identity may have been intentionally through their trade associations. It is also for government recorded in more generic terms than information provided officials who have a perspective on the needs of the systems by the respondent. they regulate. This guideline is not optimized for interview- In addition to needs and potential solutions tied to emerg- ing vendors or manufacturers of products that implement the ing technologies, responses include information on prior technologies. technology initiatives as well as the status quo (i.e., current state-of-the-art technology in use for Hazmat safety and Format: security). While this information is not about emerging Regular type: instructions to the interviewer technologies per se, these responses provide perspective. Bold type: words or suggestions for the interviewer When respondents provided other references, these were to say appreciated but have not been included in the following HEADINGS: broad topics of the conversation record unless there was a particular perspective that needed to be captured by the reference. Finally, not all respondents Introduction addressed emerging technologies to a degree sufficient for their remarks to be included. Thank the respondent for taking time to meet with you.

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66 Table B-1. Characterization of interview respondents. Total Number of Total Number of Type of Organization Organizations Respondents Marine Shipper 1 1 Level 1 First Responder Organization* 4 4 Level 2 First Responder Organization* 5 5 First Responder Training Organization 1 2 Academic 3 3 Government Security Agency 1 4 Emergency Responder Association 1 1 Motor Carrier Association 2 4 Chemical Manufacturer Association 1 1 Supply Chain Tracking Technology Provider 1 2 Class I Railroad 1 2 Environmental Protection Agency (state) 1 2 Air Carrier Association 1 2 Environmental Remediation Company 1 1 Modal Regulatory Agency 1 2 Motor Carrier Truckload 1 2 Motor Carrier Specialized 1 3 Emergency Response Technology Provider 1 1 National Laboratory 1 2 Rail Tank Car Technology Provider 1 1 Multi-Modal Regulatory Agency 1 1 University Technology Developer 1 1 Chemical Manufacturer/Shipper 1 1 Railroad Trade Association 1 1 Total 24 Types 34 Organizations 49 Respondents *These descriptions were taken from the five levels recognized by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Publication 472: Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents. Explain the purpose of the project Do, however, be sure you have the complete identity, affil- iation, and contact information for the person with whom Identify needs in the safe and secure transportation of you are speaking. hazardous materials Identify emerging technologies that can meet those needs. Needs Assure the respondent that they will not be identified by We'll talk about the needs first and then get to your per- name or affiliation. They will be identified as "a manager at a spectives on new technologies. major railroad" or "a shipper of corrosives." Begin with an open-ended question: What phone call at For those in industry: Please speak for the entire industry, 3 o'clock in the morning do you dread the most? What do not for your own company. We are looking for common you see are the biggest needs in transporting Hazmat safely problems faced by everybody, and not for any private details and securely? of your own operation. If the interviewee begins with safety, make sure you turn For those in government: Please tell us your thoughts from the conversation to security before leaving the topic of needs. your own perspective. I want you to be free to say what's on Keep a list of the needs that are mentioned. your mind without worrying if you are misrepresenting Refer to the project's Functional Requirements for the agency positions. If you want to tell me official agency pol- mode at hand. If there are any requirements that have not icy, that's OK, but I will report your words as official policy been mentioned, ask "How important is it to __________?" only if you specifically identify it as such. The answer will likely fall in one of three forms:

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67 1. No, it's not really a big need. If so, leave that topic. of a loss is too remote). (This question is more for Task 4 than 2. Yes, it's a need, but it's being met. If so, ask how it's being for Task 1, but it is beneficial to ask for the users' perspective met or if there's room for improvement. as well as the suppliers'). Can you think of any examples in 3. Yes, I forgot to mention it. If so, have the respondent elab- recent history of well-executed deployment of new technol- orate on the gaps if necessary. ogy? Ask how it came quickly and rapidly gained acceptance and provided its intended benefit. Can you think of any exam- ples of poorly introduced or marketed technologies? What Technologies went right? What went wrong? When you have a complete list of needs, go back through Date of Interview: and ask what technologies the respondent is aware of to meet Name and Organization of Interviewer(s): those needs. For each technology (and there may be more than Name of Interviewee(s): one per need), ask "What are the shortcomings in capability, Title or Position and Organization: what are the obstacles to adoption?" A technology might Other Hazmat Affiliation(s): be a specific product on the market, it might be a research Contact Information project they have vaguely heard about, or it might be just a wish, Phone number: "somebody ought to invent _______." Can the respondent E-mail address: name any specific products they use? Address: And then ask if they are familiar with the technologies Place of Interview (or teleconference): (people in operations will probably know the products more Specialty: than the technologies) on our list. Ask what are the capa- Biggest Concern with Hazmat: bilities and shortcomings of those technologies. What are Need(s) and Gaps Identified: the barriers to wider adoption of the technologies? Without Emergency Technologies Identified: leading the respondent, try to find out whether the barriers are Forecasts: technical (e.g., technology is unproven, technology still leaves Obstacles: an unacceptable gap, technology needs another supporting Referrals: technology) or economic (e.g., product is too expensive, risk Other Remarks: