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68 APPENDIX C Summary of Key Results from Initial Research Interviews Marine Carrier at bridges and locks to assist with safe vessel maneuverability. A technology being adopted by the industry is the ability to A major improvement in navigation technology has been read a signal emitted at these locations which will enable a boat the advent of the Automatic Identification System (AIS). This to determine its distance from the structure in question. system provides a means for boats to electronically exchange From an institutional standpoint, mariners have had a high vessel identification, position, course, and speed with other acceptance of and reliance on these new technologies, partic- nearby ships and Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) stations. AIS ularly compared with 3 to 4 years ago. It has reached a point is now operational in major maritime traffic areas and is a where mariners are reluctant to navigate without having access required installation on vessels moving through these areas. to electronic information. AIS information is integrated into electronic navigation Boat pilots have an opportunity to train on simulators system software provided to the industry by commercial ven- owned and operators by Seaman's Church Organization. dors. AIS and other geographic information can be overlaid Seaman's has four simulated wheelhouses, each of which con- on GIS-based navigation charts to provide both a visual ref- tains a representation of the entire bridge of the boat. The erence and to support calculations indicating the proximity simulator provides a 180 degree visual and contains a full set of oncoming hazards. The ability to send and receive safety of controls. A wide range of scenarios that a vessel operator is related messages are also supported. likely to encounter on the waterways can be simulated. Examples of integrated electronic navigation system func- By September 2008, all mariners and support personnel tionality include were required to have a Transportation Worker Identifica- tion Credential (TWIC). The TWIC has biometric features, Collision avoidance functionality that shows both the closest including fingerprints and eye scans. point of approach and provides a prediction of where and Around docks, some companies have installed underwater when the vessel will make contact. Customized alarms can sensors, used to detect any foreign objects that may have been be set accordingly. accidentally or purposely placed, with the potential to cause Use of GPS to set up "virtual buoys," a form of geofencing harm to the docking vessel. The oil industry is known to be that triggers alarms if vessels deviate from these areas. An deploying this technology. important application is avoidance of what have been his- A technology is currently being tested to detect pressure torically high grounding areas. changes of container contents, with the readings sent via satel- lite. One safety concern is how to make these systems spark A recent technology development is the ability to predict resistant. outdraft (cross-current), which can be a serious navigational Many boats are outfitted with a panic button which trans- problem around locks, bridges, and other major structures. mits an alarm to a centralized location. When an incident has Sensors submerged at these locations determine the direction occurred that requires an emergency response, a single call and velocity of the outdraft, and the information is transmitted to the National Response Center (NRC) initiates the response to the AIS for dissemination. process. Interestingly, the industry has yet to leverage GIS infor- To deal with allisions (vessels striking stationary objects mation technology to identify the nearest response assets in rather than other moving vessels), the U.S. Army Corps of proximity (e.g., police, medical personnel, recovery resources, Engineers and the U.S. Coast Guard have established standards etc.) to the incident site.

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69 Dock navigation is still an issue. Presently, dock operations As a Hazmat shipment crosses (boundaries such as) county are performed using hardcopy reference documents that are lines, politics can come into play and cause response not to be available on computers in pdf form. as smooth as it could be. The first 15 minutes following an incident is a critical period in which real-time information needs to flow on the hazardous Level 2 Emergency Responder substance(s) being faced. Organization: Chief of Fire Department Security Agency Officials The worst nightmare would be a phone call about a major wreck involving multiple vehicles (i.e., rail and truck Hazmat) There is a need to facilitate the ability to have continuous and catastrophic release of a flammable compressed toxic sub- on-demand locating of the truck tracking trailer element. stance in a congested area. Pipeline leaks are usually localized, With rail, the biggest need is to protect the conveyance. This although they can happen in congested areas. Waterways starts with deterrence, but if deterrence fails, it is important to seldom have these types of catastrophes. be able to detect the problem so the threat can be mitigated. There is a move to route Hazmat shipments so as to bypass There is need for improved security mechanisms. Some dan- major cities. But this can mean routing it through areas gerous chemicals shipped by railcar are subject to theft. whose response capabilities are less able to handle this type Shippers install a security seal, which can be a heavier cable of emergency. wire seal for more dangerous cargo. Evacuation in response to a catastrophic Hazmat release The current design of hatches is more than 30 years old can be extraordinarily difficult to orchestrate. Sheltering in and is mostly for physical protection. Railroads are work- place may be the better solution. ing to make access to valves more difficult. Better security The capability for standardization of Hazmat response from locking mechanisms is needed, but when something training is present but implementation is not, particularly on a railcar malfunctions mechanically, emergency respon- among volunteer fire departments. An emerging issue is the ders need to get access. Who will pay for improved locking need for capable Hazmat response equipment such as detec- mechanisms? What is the balance between more difficult tion systems released with their capabilities validated and the general access to valves for security needs and rapid access knowledge with which to use them. to valves by emergency responders? Decision support systems such as those that detect and alert Railroads are moving to improve the survivability of in response to patterns can be put to good use at a high level. pressurized tank cars through designs such as self-sealing However, it is disconcerting to respond to false alarms. technologies. There is greater emphasis on product security We are going to see more alternative fuels being shipped, and anti-tampering systems. It is possible to manufacture similar to how ethanol shipments rapidly ramped up. This will some chemicals in a safer form for transportation. affect both rail and trucking equally. For example, we should From both a security and an emergency response perspec- expect to see more future shipments of hydrogen, which tive, there is much value in early detection of product release. requires specialized firefighting techniques. Technologies for Early warning systems such as chlorine sensors are needed this can be "high gap--low market adoptability." for loss of container integrity. However, electro-chemical There will be more emphasis for emergency responders on sensors are largely not yet up to the environmental rigors of biological agents. New equipment and countermeasures such rail transport. as germicidal foams will be needed along with the techniques for using them. Levels 2 and 5 Emergency Responder Some small percentage of shipping containers at ports Organization: National Emergency (perhaps 3 to 5 percent) do not contain what their markings Responder Association say they contain. This is a problem. It is very important for emergency responders to be able to determine contents (at the site of a Hazmat incident). They Level 1 Emergency Responder: need to verify contents from placards and get their hands on Company Emergency Manager the shipping documents. Chemicals may be shipped by trade First responders need technologies that are simple and names or chemical names. Part of the emergency responder's straightforward. There are many cases in which funding has job is to eliminate "what it is not," facilitated by having infor- been made available for emergency responders to procure mation about the commodity and its chemical properties. If sophisticated instruments, but they have found that those shipping papers are destroyed, a placard helps eliminate more instruments are harder to understand, interpret, and use. than it helps identify.

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70 Chemical and biological hand-held assays that can sam- On international shipments, brokers as well as carriers are ple a product are needed. Not knowing what a commodity is involved in the U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (CBP's) soon enough can cause a major transportation tie-up. Detec- Automated Cargo Environment (ACE) (the commercial trade tion devices can help determine what (dangerous substances) processing system being developed by CBP to facilitate legit- you have within a certain range. Other devices can help indicate imate trade and strengthen border security). An Electronic how much you have that is a problem and warrants evacuation. Truck Manifest (e-manifest) is part of the ACE process. The work that has been done on railcar (GPS) tracking such A package in a Less-than-Truckload (LTL) shipment may as that conducted by Dow Chemical is important. need to be handed off (to other vehicles). Which truck it may Automatic crash notification is a good idea. For example, go on depends on (criteria such as) fullness, capacity, and if a Hazmat truck overturns, notification of that event and its compatibility. location would be automatically sent to a PSAP (Public Safety There is a need for a security credential that is universally Answering Point: a call center responsible for answering calls accepted. What hasn't received traction is that there are a to an emergency telephone number). Even better would be lot of private facilities that need to provide security for their (PSAP) notification of the chemical cargo so that after 911 is assets, but (a carrier) doesn't want to have to deal with 30 dif- called, responders will know what substance is involved with ferent credentialing systems. TWIC is available and is a good minimal delays. idea but there is a hidden cost from aspects such as the time Containers with unique identifiers would help during it takes to get (a driver) enrolled. emergency response, such as a 3-D barcode like the railroads' Rollover prevention technologies are helpful. Non-intrusive Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) system. Class I (screening) technologies such as radiation portal monitors railroads have improved (their awareness of commodities have their place. being shipped) by leaps and bounds. What the railroads face The possibility of a PIH Zone A accident when you do not is low frequency, high risk events. know what caused it is an example of something that is worri- It is currently hard to justify technology expenditures based some. (NOTE: PIH Zone A materials are relatively small quan- on safety and response alone. tities of PIH that require additional specialized packaging when transported via highway. The final packaged material can be Motor Carrier Association very bulky and consequently can also be quite expensive to ship.) It is not feasible to dedicate trucks with sensors that The capability to remotely disable a commercial vehicle transport only Zone A PIH. exists. Current safety features work. So do security features, Incentives or deductibles are possibilities for encouraging and they are robust enough (to resist malicious intent). Tech- the use of technologies (for safety and security). nology improvements must have a return on investment and pay for themselves. An electronic manifest would improve efficiency. However, Level 1 Emergency its value is only as good as the information entered, and the Responder Organization weak link is that someone has to key in the information. The driver realizes what is onboard but the system does not until This organization maintains a list of contractors to respond the shipment reaches the terminal. What is the best way to get on-scene and facilitates Level 2 and 3 response through mutual information on what is in the truck into the system? Have the agreements. shipper enter information into a master database? Previously, the Dow Chemical Company implemented a Another weak link is emergency response. Getting infor- "Track and Trace" program that integrates GPS, GIS, and mation to emergency responders in a rural area can be a real radio frequency identification (RFID) to improve the safety challenge. If there were the capability for all involved to have and security of its Hazmat shipments. Dow and the Chemical smart phones, that would help, but it is not feasible to equip Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC) expanded all (Hazmat) trucks with that capability. the concept to Dow's Railcar Shipment Visibility Program, Diverting or routing Hazmat around highly populated an initiative for using tracking and sensing technologies for areas translates to more miles driven and more time on the surveillance of TIH being transported by rail, and improved road during which an incident can occur. It also can mean communications between the two organizations as well as there will be bigger delays (in getting adequate response to with emergency responders should an incident occur with the scene because of more rural or remote locations). Hazmat in transit. How can technologies be made more efficient so that indus- In addition to GPS-based tracking with satellite communi- try embraces them? cations, this initiative includes tank car sensors such as load

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71 indicators, external sniffers, dome open/close indicators, tem- severe enough to damage rail shipments or even raise the risk perature indicators, and pressure gages (NOTE: while not all of derailment.) sensors had been be activated at the time of the interview, When emergency responders arrive at the scene of a Hazmat the system was in use). Geofencing at locations such as cus- railcar derailment or truck crash, it would be desirable to have tomer docks or in High-Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) is a hand-held device capable of remotely getting information also involved. Signals can be automatically generated when from the affected vehicles concerning their contents, such as an instrumented tank car enters or exits a HTUA. Railroad what is on the placard. These devices themselves would not and DHS alerts can be tied to the system and railcar GPS have to be expensive, but instrument cost is not the only fac- devices can be queried. The system helps determine whether tor. Many personnel would have to be trained on how to use a (safety and/or security) event has occurred. When an alert it and how to gain access to the Hazmat information. Carri- is generated by this system, CHEMTREC is notified and is ers would have to make shipment information available, and charged with implementing protocols. that has a security aspect to it. There is no such thing as a "typical" incident. Achieving a safely distant stand-off range with the hand-held The telephone is the most valuable tool (for Hazmat res- devices would be a problem. The greater the range required, the ponse). Nothing will replace someone picking up the phone greater the reason for the vehicle to have active technology, thus and calling to say they need help and someone to help solve the greater the cost (compared to passive technology). And the the problem. farther away from the scene the emergency responders are, In responding to an emergency, it is desirable to have three the greater the challenges for them to manage the information. (sources of information) that say the same thing (since initial Railcar devices (e.g., RFID) would need to have a relatively information is so often wrong). sophisticated programming capability. There must be univer- Previously, deciphering a train consist was difficult. But sal compatibility with devices. The information would have now, cooperation between CSX Railroad and CHEMTREC to be updated whenever the Hazmat contents change, or more has greatly streamlined the process with CSX's Network harm can be done than good could by the misinformation. Operating Workstation (NOW). If there is notification or a The driver will not have the capability to certify the load. Thus, derailment, using NOW, the train number, tank car number, you lose control unless you have strong verification that the and approximate location (integrated with Google Earth) Hazmat you are told a vehicle is carrying (or not carrying) is can be pulled up on a computer screen within about 1 minute. actually so. A graphic portraying the railcars is shown along with Hazmat Barcodes can get very dirty and hard to read, especially on shipping description information such as shipper, consignee, trucks in the winter. If the interest is primarily in the substance, and status. the placard gives that. Hapag-Lloyd, a global container shipping line, has a system with which shipper and container content information can be Hazmat Emergency Response determined from the container number. Technology Provider There is conflict between proprietary information and an open architecture. The issue is information exchange, not The Intelligent Road and Rail Information System (IRRIS) technology exchange. is a powerful tool (and existing technology product) that has If (technology) is not necessary to the business bottom been developed with capabilities for visibility and tracking of line, it is harder for it to be adopted. Technologies are (rel- assets. IRRIS was originally developed for the U.S. Military to atively) easy to understand and adopt. Standards become track, manage, and document the movement of surface cargo the issue. Ideally (to be adopted), technologies need to have transported throughout the world. It is designed to integrate a self-sustaining component and more than one benefit. data for the customer's use and has the capability to be tied into the systems of various government and military organi- zations. It works with the Defense Transportation Tracking Rail Hazmat Technology System (DTTS), which provides satellite tracking capability Academic SME for truck shipments of sensitive conventional Arms, Ammu- Micro-Electromechanical devices have promise for a smart nition, and Explosives (AA&E) shipments, and Other Sensitive apparatus on railcars that can detect hunting, hot bearings, Material (OSM). It is capable of tracking cargo on a "parent- and acceleration. (NOTE: "hunting" is a railcar motion phe- child" relationship and can look at data on trends such as nomenon in which severe, low frequency, lateral accelerations malicious acts. It provides the ability to drill down to the con- are experienced. Typically, this is caused by wheel and track tents of pallets and containers. Shipments being tracked can be wear, track conditions, and speed. The phenomenon can be managed by exception alerting.

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72 Class I Railroad Officials certain commodities such as whether the cargo is upright or overturned or a chemical has been released. This rail carrier's Network Operating Workstation (NOW) Protecting information on the customer base will con- is a proprietary development that allows point-and-click func- tinue to be paramount, and railroads may never agree to have tionality to access railcar and rail traffic databases through a the same system. But having a common platform is vitally mainframe computer. Extracting information is done through important. There needs to be a uniform system that offers different screen lookups. Through NOW, it is possible to get consistency and ease of use. The focus needs to be on what information that includes a train's consist, crew, origin and can be done to help emergency responders and federal and destination, and route points. NOW facilitates train, railcar, state homeland security organizations. and locomotive management. It can be used for situational awareness for homeland security and incident response. There is an internal version and an external version, the latter of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which can be used with fusion centers. NOW doesn't provide Someday there may be embedded technology in the road- an insider's view such as whether a train is running late. Five ways to guide robotic Hazmat response modules. Many of the agencies (four states and the Transportation Security Opera- Hazmat problems are associated with specific routes. tions Center) and CHEMTREC have access to NOW data. This state EPA sees driver behavior as a major cause of When a railcar's information is pulled onto a screen, it Hazmat incidents. Medical devices that monitor the driver displays the railcar's placard. An icon of the car was added and other sensors that monitor outside status such as ground as a feature. Information can be obtained four different ways: surface conditions or following too closely would be helpful. (1) GPS on the locomotive, which "knows" and displays the Diabetic and cardiac emergencies could be detected by med- consist, (2) a computer-aided dispatch (CAD) system, (3) the ical monitoring devices. Certain conditions might preclude Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) system of RFID the driver from starting the vehicle. railcar tags and railside readers, and (4) updates made by cer- With the highway mode, danger from Hazmat events is tain personnel. At the time of the interview, approximately lower per mile on Interstate freeways than on rural roads. 50 percent of locomotives were thought to have GPS (NOTE: It is more likely that a Hazmat shipment will run into trou- do not know whether that figure was for all Class I railroads ble in a rural area. In metropolitan areas, accidents tend or only this one). to be "fender benders" that frequently do not involve other This rail carrier operates in 31 HTUAs (more than any vehicles, or even if they do, there is little cargo damage. In other Class I railroad). With NOW, alerting parameters such contrast, there is more likelihood that a Hazmat shipment as geofencing can be set. Alerts can be test or e-mail. NOW will run into trouble in a rural area, such as running off the is a great tool for derailment response and security planning. shoulder of the road and overturning. With the rail mode, Local communities want an advance consist. When NOW tank cars experience a reduced rate of incidents. started to deal with states and fusion centers, they thought It is hard for rural fire departments to afford specialized having a central, well-trained point of contact was the best training. There normally is training on a quarterly basis on concept. They could communicate with free access and were the types of railcars that come through a certain area. Some able to get critical information out. If a third party logistics firefighter training is not useful because it is not geared to the (3PL) firm is vetted by NOW, they can get the latest database level of protection, danger zone, and equipment (required). information on location. Training in the "20-second evaluation" is important (i.e., if What hasn't changed is the need for emergency responders you get a certain reading, here's what you do). to seek out locomotive conductors who will have paperwork Many times, shipping papers are not in the door pocket (of such as the train's consist. With NOW, it is possible to iden- a truck cab) where they should be. tify what is in the schematic within seconds. This railroad sees First responders can find themselves dealing with a mixed a day when a sensor can automatically notify the closes dis- consignment. It is sometimes hard to know what is leaking. patch center if an event occurs. Also, there may be telemetry Better definitions are needed. A brand name is always useful. devices communicating the locations of both the front and When fire departments buy meters, it is desirable that the back ends of the train. meters clearly indicate what they are responding to, such as There is also the concept of a radio broadcast in which, if numbers that show concentration. there were an undetermined emergency, a message could be Many big companies have response teams. Rural fire depart- generated and sent to an emergency services band that includes ments are well-trained (for Hazmat emergencies). Metro fire the railroad's identity and the train's identification. A device departments can be over-specialized. People are less likely to on the train would make the broadcast. Through encryption, panic (over a Hazmat release) if they know something about emergency responders could get useful status information on the hazard rather than a total unknown.

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73 Sensors along rail beds may someday be able to provide Shortcomings (in the Hazmat transportation industry) information such as identity of railcars, whether they are mov- include (1) business operating systems, load management, ing, and unauthorized access. and accounting that are antiquated. For example, motor Diesel fuel and gasoline account for about 80 percent of carriers make investments but do not learn how to use the full this state EPA's (incident) activities. capabilities. (2) Online, on-demand training is needed on sys- tems, including automated information gathering. How does a firm bill costs, get paid, and assign a driver? The industry will Hazmat Environmental Response be hamstrung until the back office improves. But Hazmat may and Information Organization be the best way to justify the expense and provide the best In the near term (i.e., from the present out 5 years), infor- incentive to change. There are costs to cleanup, injury, etc. mational technologies will reign. More traditional tech- How hard would it be to place a macro on an onboard nologies can be made to work in new ways for remediation, (truck) system that says "this is who I am, where I am, what packaging standards, safety, and keeping the most danger- I spilled, and what I need?" ous materials away from population centers while enabling Marketing of new technologies is very important. Good better efficiencies. marketing can cause good deployment. A technology can get In the mid-range (i.e., 69 years out), technologies that a lot of R&D and work but not be well-sold. (Consequently) capture information will reign. They will more easily compile it does not get well-rounded feedback or the best critiques. data and seamlessly collect and integrate information. This (It is helpful) to have a website--this gives (users) a way information can include items such as protective equipment to determine whether something should work for them. and response planning needed. Conversely, there has been over-marketing of incremental In the longest range (i.e., 1015 years), technologies will improvements. Great examples of technology deployments answer questions not yet asked. Response technologies and are few and far between. information and communications technologies will move to Lack of deployment is sometimes used as a reason why new a predictive nature such as predicting the characteristics of a technology is not as good as "lower" technology. Big inte- Hazmat release, what equipment will be needed, and where grators go with big technology providers, but it is sometimes and how it needs to be used. In the longest range, neural net- better to go with a smaller solution. It is always important works will assist with predictive modeling. to get the right people on the team (when deploying new Activities of shippers are growing into the predictive nature technology). And it is helpful to showcase (a technology's) of things. Information currently available (e.g., through GPS- problem-solving abilities for first responders, consignees, based tracking) is good, but given the right information, com- carriers, etc. What is the problem we need to solve? Trans- munication can be made more predictive. There is a vast portation treats technologies as an end in themselves. amount of location-related data. Intelligent agent software Some (carriers) are reluctant to invest in technologies can be designed to "chew" through these data to identify pat- because of perceived liability. But they should absolutely want terns associated with risk. an emergency response/spill alert system, which would help The (generic) functional requirements (selected by the mitigation, regulatory, and compliance so third-party liability HMCRP Project 04 team) sound appropriate. can be much less. Technology has to tell (its information to) There is a difference between building a better mousetrap someone. Tell who needs to know on an exception basis. and something that has never been deployed before. The ability to get bill of lading information from a vehicle Officials of Air (remotely) will be important. There is a concept for a "mem- Transport Association ory stick on a truck" that ties into a truck's 9-pin connector. It can be loaded remotely with bill of lading (BOL) data, and There is a link between safety and security. The biggest dif- the BOL data can be read remotely by an emergency vehicle ference between air transport (of Hazmat) and the surface using shortwave communications. modes is individual package volumes (i.e., 400 Kg/450 Liters or The insurance industry will seek technologies that can man- less), which pose significantly lower risks. The Hazmat com- age claims and litigation, pushing the process back to an oper- modities that can be moved (by air) are a subset (of what can ational setting such as going back in time to dispatch. If they be moved by other modes). Some substances are forbidden. know what it takes to win a claim and then design that into a This association has a field guide reflecting technical instruc- (data collection) system, they increase their chances of prevail- tions. The basis for both the field guide and the ICAO model is ing in court. Avoiding the need for regulation, response, and the United Nations (UN) model (but not commodity limits). cleanup (are incentives). Regulatory processes are usually not Air transport has lower risk of accidents. There are few technology-based. occurrences of Hazmat delivery from rail or ship to aircraft.

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74 Security for air transport has been in place a long time and practice with the equipment every day. Officers sometimes get is well-established. Another area in which (air transport of the training when responders do not always. It is important to Hazmat) is ahead of other modes is in mandatory dangerous take the correct action right away so (the problems from) a goods training for all who touch Hazmat cargo. spill do not get bigger. For unification to responses, a standard Concerning technologies, packaging is under constant operational guideline is needed for the country. (Certain) review. If incident reporting suggests a problem with pack- alerts need to be sent to NOAA, DOD, DOT, or DHS. aging, use of packaging gets scrutiny. Most technologies fall The quintessential question is "given the same emergency/ on the safety, not security, side. Hazmat release/time, would anyone respond differently? Every- Use of RFID (in air transport) is still emerging. It becomes one teaches to the standard but we respond in chaos. (In a a matter of cost-benefit analysis. The need to know (Hazmat Hazmat incident first response scenario), a person who has cargo) location constantly is not yet in-place. If a technology authority but no knowledge is dangerous. drives a competitive advantage, it can even drive the industry to get it adopted. If a technology saves $10,000 in fuel costs, it probably has a reason (to be adopted). RFID is probably the Ohio Hazmat Teams Conference same if it can prevent theft, minimize cost, and guarantee In a case study of a certain train derailment involving product integrity, it will have an advantage. RFID is a tech- Hazmat, it was noted that the railroad's emergency response nology that people can see minimizing loss and guaranteeing and the assets they bought to bear were impressive. How- integrity. ever, it took 5 hours to get the train's consist and responders Flammable and toxic substances are generally not trans- had to use the fax at a Home Depot store to get the consist. ported, although perfume and gasoline samples for analy- Cell phones had to be used, although their drawback was sis are exceptions. Infectious substances are something that that not everyone could hear what was being discussed, so needs to move quickly. Radio-pharmaceuticals, corrosives, that had to be separately relayed. During the early part of the and dry ice are some examples of other substances that can Hazmat derailment incident, news helicopters were the emer- be transported by air. gency responders' eyes and ears. Their video feed was invalu- With the regulations, shippers want to have as much flexi- able, and, in fact, helped the emergency response team real- bility as possible. The pharmaceutical industry is using smart ize they had a butane car in proximity to burning railcars that tags to ensure substances do not get out of their temperature were in a jumble. range. They also use holograms, visible to consignees, to reduce There is no good list of how many Hazmat teams there are the use of counterfeit drugs. They are in the process of tracking nationwide, much less their competence levels. these goods better. A flammable atmosphere is what is most dangerous to fire- The biggest challenge to Hazmat air transport safety and fighters. An assessment needs to be done in minutes, not hours. security are people who do not know the rules. The problem Corrosives account for about 20 percent of spills. is the things that can be on the plane that you do not realize are there because the rules were circumvented. Education needs to get out. Marine Regulatory Agency Vendors' goods do not pose the highest risk, but rather Hazmat Officials illegal trade such as arms and drugs. The amounts of Hazmat put on a plane (legally) represent a minimum level of threat. Stability of ships must be calculated, and there is need for Other transportation modes are easier to hit, with greater new technologies. This is more of a "blue water" (open ocean) volumes in a single container or package. concern (as opposed to a "brown water," or inland concern). It is desirable to ensure the security of the full supply chain. The worst nightmare is a major near-shore collision that All secure programs by country come under ICAO, but coun- both damages critical infrastructure and releases large quan- tries have differences (in their implementation). Also, each tities of poisonous Hazmat in the vicinity of a populated area. airline has different levels of security. It is a goal to try to har- There is a need to make distress calls in English. Linguistic monize these differences and bring in best practices from the tools are being developed for that use. countries that are doing best. There is a push toward full maritime domain awareness. The AIS system is like IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) in aviation in that it provides a vessel's identity. It is being required nation- First Responder ally as Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS). Training Organization An international body is looking at tracking a ship 500 miles The challenge in responding to Hazmat incidents is not a before making port using satellite-based tracking. gadget problem, it is a people problem. It is difficult to get per- AIS for the brown water fleet is different than for the blue sonnel to learn, use, and maintain equipment. They cannot water fleet with regard to their announcements of position.

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75 There is much work going into cargo status, including RFID universally, simple to use with a single standardized reader. tags on each package and interrogators with cargo ships. Updating databases to remove access for departing personnel Some ships have large containers stacked 8 to 10 deep, and is important. the ship may have 4,000 containers. This makes networked Integrity of the package and risk exposure is typically better sensors important. on short-haul transport. There is aging infrastructure at some ports, and some are rel- There is a move to take things away from the driver and atively shallow. However, ships are getting bigger with deeper instead provide technology to lessen risk. Dynamic security draft, increasingly forcing them to come in at high tide. profiling is an example of risk reduction. Ports currently only track ships headed to them (i.e., to There is a requirement for Hazmat haulers to immediately that specific port). Receivers need to go out beyond 200 miles, locate Hazmat containers through GPS-based tracking. How- which they cannot do now. ever, there is no access to a government database that provides Routing of ships in response to a storm is changing. PSAP information. If there should be a criminal (or terrorist) Within recent years, there have been regulations requiring incident involving Hazmat, there should be a way for the more hazardous substances to be further away from the skin carrier to push information to the PSAP without having to of the ship (now 3/4 meter). rely on the government for that. Owner-operators might Lashing systems keep containers from being washed over- not want the government watching their shipments. board. There are improvements being made to these systems Flow sensors are a technology that could help Hazmat truck involving many companies. transport. Motor Carrier Safety Official Specialty Motor The biggest concern is a truck on its side and not knowing Carrier Representatives whether the driver is all right. Hazmat accounts for about 10 to 15 percent of their ship- After 9/11, selection of drivers became very important. ments. They rely on customers accurately telling them what is Background checks revealed problems that did not show up being shipped, for placarding, and on the driver checking. They on motor vehicle registration checks. If you hire right, you do not transport Hazmat waste. They have 24-hour opera- can train a vehicle operator well. tions and do not want drivers to mix potentially dangerous This company's fuel trucks now have a lower center of materials such as organic peroxides with other substances. gravity, a wider wheelbase, and roll stability. Retrofitting with newer technologies is desirable, but it is not practical to take There are computers on their trucks and GPS tracking with older trailers costing $80,000 to $90,000 out of service. two-way communication. There are certain "white glove" Technologies in use include a black box providing location vehicles that have a panic button with emergency alert. These over the web, remote door locking, installed security switches vehicles carry high value or dangerous substances such as PIH, with panic buttons, and some remote shutdown capability. explosives, and radioactive and infectious materials. Owner-operators are hesitant at first to try new technolo- There is always a security concern when drivers stop. In gies. From a safety and security standpoint, technologies need certain security circumstances, two drivers will be required. to be improved. Information can be corrupted, and vehicles One of the technologies needed is a better way to determine can be in a dead zone where no information is flowing. Mil- what infrastructure like bridges and tunnels will not allow lions of dollars have been put into technology, and the gov- Hazmat shipments, at least during certain times of the day. ernment should hold vendors to higher standards. It is important to provide the driver with that information; There are new technologies needed for product integrity otherwise there can be a fine or delay from rerouting over such as chemical analyzers and barcodes that must agree before additional miles, and this is not just with more dangerous fuel can be pumped. Gasoline and kerosene when mixed can materials. There is some software for this now, but it is piece- explode in a heater. meal (i.e., not a unified system). Cell phones are good technology but are locked down when in transit so they are not used while on the road. Emergency Response Technology Provider Motor Carrier Security Official The biggest challenge for emergency response equipment Hiring the right person is the most important aspect of is identification: decreasing the time needed to come up with security. a survey and come up with an answer. The industry needs a single security credential assigned to Radiation detection devices should be set up for expo- a Hazmat driver; a common identification card recognized sure rates, not activity. First responders are not the biggest

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76 customers for radiation devices, but those devices can be This national lab is a proponent of ubiquitous sensing: calibrated to be accurate for specific isotopes. clusters of sensors on an active network detecting status of Standard alarm level settings need to be developed. Hazmat cargo contents and transmitting results that can be picked incidents are dynamic. They need to be identified in minutes, up by other sensors. Costs to make this happen are going then mitigated and remediated. If that happens in a rural area, down. These can be in a sleep mode most of the time, but con- the capability may be much less (than in a metro area). Know- stantly "sniffing" for substances that can trigger an alert con- ing the response distance and having a game plan developed dition, such as chemical or radiological detection. One such are important. sensor could be a fiber-optic seal with radio frequency com- munications that could monitor cargo condition and attitude. Technology Research Consultant There are now plastic fiber-optics that are very inexpensive. But input could be from many different types of sensors There is great strength in wireless technologies. There are performing continuous monitoring. Sensor thresholds can lots of communications available with huge potential and be set with alarm levels. An external seal could have such an value: roadside-to-roadside, vehicle-to-vehicle, and DSRC. alarm. Sensor information could be picked up for multiple With technologies, everyone wants to be a "close follower." containers, and alerts could be collected by a receiver talking However, technologies need leaders to take charge. to the world via cell phone, satellite, or GSM-R. Mobile phones with GPS and navigation capabilities are There could also be state of health sensors. And if a transmis- currently providing useful results. In the range of 510 years sion is not made when expected, the reason can be determined out, people are increasingly looking at behavior, especially risk on the next transmission. All monitors can have substantial perception. Gain sometimes means loss: people may drive memory and storage information. All messages would be stored faster since they know they have protection from seat belts at the data collection point, with a series of redundancies to or automatic braking. recover from malfunctions. There are clever algorithms that could be used to determine Authentication encryption can be made very tamper- whether a driver is driving safely. It is possible to set out a base- resistant. There is an application to develop a low-cost, long- line of "normal" and so determine a risk profile. life fiber-optic seal that incorporates this. It is called the Impulse radar has been used in missile scoring. It is very remotely monitored sealing array (RMSA). It contains public good for measuring distance and tracking. An "infiltrator" key authentication, with messages cryptographically authenti- vehicle moving into the line of view can be recognized and cated with very strong security. tracked. A predictive algorithm can determine whether two vehicles are on a collision path. Impulse radar can constantly pick up an object in a cone and do (collision) predictions using National Motor Carrier probabilistic calculations. Association Official Decision support tools have been developed to deal with lower-level decisions like subway service recovery (follow- Some food products are Hazmat. Having harmful sub- ing an emergency shutdown). Situational awareness still stances get into food products is a concern. Another worry is resides with the operator, but technology could be applied having someone follow a truck with flammable cargo to a fuel in a clever way to deal with higher-level challenges. station and blow it up (a greater concern to this respondent Technology should not be confined due to legacy systems. than a chlorine leak). Fuel doesn't go far, usually less than People who are willing to think outside of the box and try out 50 miles, but up to 100 miles in some cases. things may find that algorithms and expert systems can solve Grant incentives for safety and security may not be right. If new problems. a safety or security step is important enough, do not make it voluntary--require it. A lot of things are going on in safety and security. Of all of National Laboratory Scientists these, measures to provide frequent or instant communica- It is possible to penetrate containers without going through tion are among the most impressive. It used to be said that the usual seals and access doors. Detecting that is a difficult "trucking is the largest unsupervised workforce." Now trucks challenge. A number of technologies have been considered are monitored frequently. for this problem, but until now all have been too expensive. How much can you put into a driver's environment with- Volumetric sensors include IR, ultrasonic, and bi-static radar. out affecting the driver? Effectiveness can be impacted by the type of contents in the Worker identification and credentialing is a mess. Worker container. verification is an area that begs to be addressed, a single sys-

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77 tem that everyone will accept. Military bases ask for drivers' DTRS56-02-T-0006, "Pipeline Damage Prevention Through social security numbers, which bothers the drivers. the Use of Locatable Magnetic Plastic Pipe and a Universal Remote sleep apnea monitoring is being tested by a certain Locator" large motor carrier. DTRS56-04-T-0006, "Effectiveness of Prevention Methods Needs to be addressed include cross-deliveries (i.e., gasoline for Excavation Damage" is put into a diesel tank). Technology could help this problem. DTRS56-04-T-0007, "Infrasonic Frequency Seismic Sensor Chips on hoses could be made to "talk" to a tank when the System for Preventing Third-Party Damage to Gas Pipelines" wrong fuel is about to be pumped. People die every year from DTPH56-06-T-000005, "Differential Impedance Obstacle chemical reactions resulting from the cross-delivery problem. Detection Sensor (DIOD)--Phase 2" Nitrogen in cargo tanks also kills people every year. DTRS57-05-C-10110, "Infrasonic Frequency Seismic Sensor System for Pipeline Integrity Management" Rail Tank Car Designer DTPH56-07-P-000046, "Determine the Requirements for Existing Pipeline, Tank and Terminal Systems to Transport The Next Generation Railcar is underway. The design Ethanol without Cracking" involves balancing competing issues. Physics and deforma- DTRS56-04-T-0012, "Hazardous Liquids Airborne LIDAR tion models are well-developed and can be used to evaluate Observation Study (HALOS)" new models. Engineered metal structure (corrugate) pro- DTPH56-05-T-0004, "Use of Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) vides strength and absorption and a means to allow a struc- for Pipeline Surveillance to Improve Safety and Lower ture to have deformation over a relatively long period. Cost" Industry wants a compliant container with a strong DTPH56-08-T-000017, "GPS-Based Excavation Encroach- puncture-resistant layer; that is an area that needs more ment Notification" research. Anything impinging can deform the container. DTPH56-08-T-000019, "Advanced Development of Pro- Fiberglass is a strong but affordable material. active Infrasonic Gas Pipeline Evaluation Network" Performance has been increased 2 to 3 times but that is DTRS56-01-X-0023, "Airborne LIDAR Pipeline Inspection only one aspect of the solution. There can be added benefits System (ALPIS) Mapping Tests" if we understand the needs better. Metals and structures need DTRS57-04-C-10002, "Infrasonic Frequency Seismic Sensor more work. System for Pipeline Integrity Management" DTRS57-04-C-10012, "Intrinsic Distributed Fiber Optic Leak Regulator Agency Representative: Detection" Pipeline DTRS57-04-C-10016, "Piezo Structural Acoustic Pipeline Leak Detection System" Safety and environmental protection are the primary focus. There is some gray area in security, but security improve- ment is highly relevant as a secondary effect of technology First Responder Information Provider improvements. One big culprit in pipeline damage is third- party digging. The interviewee's top technology thrust areas include Where a pipeline comes out of the ground is a vulnerability. (1) dependable (rail) infrastructure and inspection, (2) rail Pipeline location data includes some vulnerabilities. Knowl- tank car puncture resistance, and (3) improved emergency edge of interconnections is well-guarded. response techniques. In rulemaking, the U.S. Office of Management and Bud- It is baffling that there is so much "dark" (unsignalled) get (OMB) requires regulatory agencies to conduct a burden territory. There is a huge amount of available technology analysis. Having a safe, efficient, and secure pipeline is a cost (that could alleviate that). element. Rail tank car puncture resistance has improved but has not Pipeline corrosion is one area that needs more research. gotten to where it needs to be if infrastructure inspection tech- Leak detection at altitude can be made by fixed-wing, heli- niques and positive train control are not there. The backup copter aircraft, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). plan is a better package. The goal is to achieve improvement A number of specific research areas were provided includ- somewhere around 5 to 10 times that of current designs. ing the following: Structural foams are another area for improvement. It would be good to get to a point where there would be no puncture DTRS56-02-T-0005, "Digital Mapping of Buried Pipelines (for collisions) at or below 50 mph. An industry research pro- with a Dual Array System" gram has been formulated (for tank integrity).

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78 There needs to be better infrastructure inspection tech- is difficult to get access (to fix this problem). However, PIH or niques. There have been Hazmat rail incidents resulting from TIH substances are not shipped in that type of tank car. failure of a rail. Lots of tools could be developed (to help in Hazmat response One technology area that is important to more rapid Haz- and mitigation). The truck tank car industry has pretty good mat incident remediation, is how to better transfer a com- tools. modity from a breached railcar. Suction (a slight vacuum to Fire services and the municipal side have gotten a lot of pull off vapors) and liquid transfer pumps provide that capa- funding, and much of it has gone toward elaborate rigs that bility, although there are not many of these pumps around. are difficult to know how to operate. It is possible to have With such a pump, Hazmat commodity from a breached tank the best of the best equipment but not know how to make car may be capable of being transferred within a day. There it work. have been noted Hazmat incidents in which transfer took When it comes to Hazmat incidents, it is possible to get many days due to circumstances. If an incident remediation "hidebound" by rules. That can result in "paralysis by analy- can be safely sped up, people (who were evacuated) can return sis," and lead to (over reactions such as) evacuating for exces- to their homes more quickly. sive distances. With all of the technology that is out there, we There is need for improvements in other remediation are still in our infancy. Truckers are better-versed in Hazmat technologies. (response) best practices and have protective clothing. There has been work in the United States looking at railcar Rail engineers have hours of service also (like on the truck- valve and fitting designs that will not release product if sheared ing side). off in an accident. Similar work has taken place in Europe. In the Graniteville (South Carolina rail tank car) chlorine Other approaches have included recessed valves and fittings, release, (some) chlorine was absorbed by foliage and trees. but these have not been adopted. Older steel can be brittle. (Depending on circumstances), sheltering in place can be a (In terms of collateral benefits from technology improve- better response than evacuation. ments), puncture resistance provides a security bonus from The Next Generation (Railroad Tank) Car has lots of better resistance to an IED (Improvised Explosive Device) improvements but is focused just on North America. Europe or projectile. However, outside of tank truck or (other) motor designs different valving with no external valves to shear off. carrier shipments, it is hard to justify (the cost of) GPS (track- An affordable protective clothing suit with air packs for ing) for security alone. more than short-duration use is needed. So is monitoring equipment that is easy to be trained how to use, for a wide range of commonly carried materials. Level 1 First Responder: Incident (Updated) modeling of chlorine incidents is needed. Some Command Consulting Service real-world incidents have turned out differently than expected. There is concern over intentional damage directed at rail Offload of product using pumps and hoses (e.g., from a tank cars. One counter is to make tank cars as slick as possible, breached tank car) is now down to hours. so that a glancing blow from another object will be deflected. There can also be crumple zones to help absorb energy. There Official of Chemical have been looks at foam spray-on protection for the commod- Manufacturer: Shipper ity. Rock wool and fiberglass are little protection to the shell. From the emergency response side, the biggest question is A number of solutions (in rail tank car integrity) have "if we prove something can be built, what is done with the tools not been high-tech but rather (improvements in) materials available?" There needs to be more vision for implementing performance. Those can be looked at as emerging technolo- and executing (helpful technologies). There needs to be a long- gies too. It requires finding the "sweet spot" balancing weight term plan to design and market (improvements) to industry. issues and cost vs. performance. Industry has only scratched Air monitoring for CBRN (chemical, biological, radiolog- the surface (of improvements that could be made) and could ical, and nuclear) agents is needed. achieve more. There are some chlorine tank cars that have what is called Two things should be noted. First, in North America, we are "enhanced fittings" or "next generation fittings" (associated heavily dependent on the railroads for shipping TIH (90 per- with the Next Generation Railroad Tank Car Program). These cent goes by rail). There have been some well-known incidents, fitting designs require some different techniques when using and cities are taking steps to ban (Hazmat rail) movement. the "Chlorine C" and "Midland" kits (two frequently-used What can be done to reduce risk? Safer railcars, better working chlorine emergency response products). arrangements with railroads, improved containers and emer- When a general service car is on its side and the bottom out- gency response (can all play a part). Second, small cylinders let valve is sheared off, there is no way to shut off (the flow). It of TIH are shipped around the world. These can be stolen,

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79 diverted, and used as weapons of mass destruction because on its side, whereas in the United States, there may be accor- they have passed out of (responsible) control. Track and dion stacking. trace technology should be able to help this challenge. Union Pacific railroad has taken a leading role in the devel- Railcars are in the third generation of technologies. Many opment and implementation of Positive Train Control. improvements come from power management and delivery Many of the initiatives to better protect rail tank cars can systems. There is some pain from being on the leading edge (of be applied to other transport modes as well. emerging technology implementation). GPS devices on rail- Improvements in cargo screening and inspection tech- cars (can be programmed to) wake up every 15 minutes and nologies are needed. also wake up if an event triggers (an alert). GPS devices can be recharged through solar power. Industry is looking at new National Laboratory Scientist concepts such as processing in the (GPS) unit itself. Technologies do not always live up to what they are touted The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration has to be. implemented the Safety Status Measurement System (Safe- The Next Generation Railcar did a lot of material char- Stat), an automated analysis system that combines current acterization. (The program sought to know) how to achieve and historical safety performance data to measure the rela- performance without sacrificing weight and cost. Some gov- tive safety fitness of interstate commercial motor carriers. ernment agencies looked at the use of engineered metal With SafeStat, a carrier has a score that can change monthly structures. Industry looked at corrugated structures that based on a culmination of Level I/II/III inspection findings could absorb energy with much less weight. Thought has and a carrier's ability to adhere to safety standards. been given to introducing oblique angles, so a projectile like After 9/11, radiation detection introduced security. Now a high caliber bullet would be deflected and not penetrate a there is interest in certain freight configurations, materials, tank car. (It would be ideal to have) a single design concept and the legitimacy of the carrier. On the safety side, there is that can implement crashworthiness as well as ballistics pro- interest in radiation as Hazmat. A certain national lab that tection with one technology. pioneered radiation detection as a safety measure found that it Rail tank cars have three functions: (1) contain the (Hazmat) could also be used for security. At first, some substances found commodity, (2) manage train loads, and (3) protect the com- in common products can trigger radiation detectors. Now modity from insults (e.g., derailment). One protective mea- there can be a high degree of certainty that a material with sure is the tank within a tank concept. Another is to take weight naturally occurring radiation is not from a threat category. out of the tank but still contain the commodity. Approaches to Ubiquitous sensing is a technology that offers much that include composites and fiber-reinforced plastics. The tank promise. A hybrid battery-powered RFID tag that is acti- can be "skinnied down" and wrapped in composite materials. vated by an actuator has shown positive testing results. Data The weight can be taken to the external shell. can be analyzed and provided through trade data exchange, Increasing crashworthiness will help mitigate damage from which involves getting the commercial sector to share data an external explosion. A low profile design with all closures with trusted agents. Social networking and digitizing will below or within a pressure plate offers protection since leaks play a role in ubiquitous sensing. would not result even if the valves were sheared. The Smartfreight initiative could be tied in. Technologies Emergency responders are willing to try new things. Two- for ubiquitous sensing are there but policies complicate their way communications technology can help when emergency potential use. responders have to stand off (at an incident like the derail- ment of a Hazmat tank car). The right people with the right Rail Trade Association Representative tools and authorization can get access (to critical informa- tion). But we must ensure we do not make it easier for the The greatest concern is the release of bulk TIH (from rail "bad guys" to also get access. tank cars) such as has been seen in the past few years. A certain chemical manufacturer/shipper is actively involved There has been good collaboration among several indus- with Railinc to assess how the existing CLM system can be more try partners such as Dow Chemical, Union Tank Car Com- fully integrated and used for railroad and emergency response pany, and Union Pacific Railroad to improve tank car design. communications. With a stand-alone system, it is difficult to Research by the U.S. DOT and others is continuing. bring the two together. Spent nuclear fuel casks are different from tank cars. There are significant differences between European and Improving the package (is a logical step). Also evaluate North American tank cars, not the least of which are differ- safety and security. Not all are convinced that preventing ences that reduce head-to-head damage. For example, in a release of Hazmat is the best use of resources. For example, European derailment, the tank car may be intact although passenger trains can also be attacked.

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80 The highway mode is different (when it comes to use of the train more quickly, (2) are a conduit for railcar informa- technologies). With a railcar, there is no power supply, so tion, and (3) are a power source for items on a train. technologies depend on the life of the battery. Dow Chemical It is possible for a train consist to be transmitted electron- has taken the lead on an initiative concerned with a com- ically. Lots of paper is currently being shuffled. Emergency mon system of common reporting to the railroad so a deter- responders may not have the manifest, which messes up mination can be made whether there is an issue (such as an communications, and indeed crews can be impaired (by an incident). accident). What action does the railroad take? Technology reliability Railroads have implemented shelf couplers, head shields is a big concern. (It is not feasible to) stop trains for too many (the part of a tank car most likely to get punctured) and pres- false alarms. sure relief valves. Thermal protection has gone a long way Axle generators are being looked at. Electronically Con- toward eliminating boiling liquid expanding vapor explo- trolled Pneumatic (ECP) brakes are showing up--some coal sions (BLEVEs) and flame impingement. trains now have ECP brakes. Current pneumatic brakes can When railroads have accidents, they do not make money take up to a mile to stop a freight train. ECP brakes (1) stop and it costs them. So they have high motivation to be safe.