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81 APPENDIX D Modal Screening Process Modal Screening Process ations and typical accident conditions. Capability exists to sense/detect pressure build-up and/or material release. This section provides each of the transportation modes' Technical capability rating: 9 (High capability = Low specific functional requirements. It portrays the application technical capability need) of their functional requirement development priorities to the Rationale for technical capability rating: Motor carriers project's initial screened technologies as a key step leading to transport bulk (non-divisible) Hazmat shipments in specially the eventual selection of the most promising technologies. designed tanker trailers that comply with stringent construc- For each mode, the screened research list was reviewed and tion standards. These standards are designed to minimize the from it the team extracted technologies that applied to the func- potential for cargo releases in the event of a traffic incident. tional requirements shown in the modal-specific technology Tankers also feature cargo pressure gauges for drivers to mon- development needs graphic. A technology selected for a mode itor internal pressure. Divisible Hazmat shipments typically was associated with one or more functional requirements in hauled in barrels or on pallets rarely have monitoring devices. the cells that are classified as high, medium, or low priority Drivers may be unable to inspect these shipments prior to needs in the technology development needs graphic for that travel if a Hazmat shipment is loaded in the nose of the trailer mode. The selected technologies were then summarized in the extracted screened technologies table for that mode. Each or the shipper has sealed the trailer. Though Hazmat ship- extracted technology row in the table is characterized by tech- ments must be properly packaged or transported in special nology need (referenced to one or more functional require- tanker trailers, the integrity of divisible and non-divisible ments), description, and potential solution(s). If the selected packaging/containers may be compromised by load shift, technology was associated with a high priority need func- mechanical failure or if the vehicle is involved in a severe traf- tional requirement, it is in bold type. That is important for fic incident. understanding the development of the technology selection Emerging technologies that address capability gap: Tanker criteria (described in Section 2.4) and the subsequent appli- status and pressure gauge readings are typically available only cation of the methodology to select the most promising tech- to the driver by reading gauges, located on the tanker trailer nologies (described in Section 2.5). for pressure, volume, temperature, etc. Emerging technolo- The subsection titled Technology Development Priority that gies that provide constant tanker status monitoring include follows for each mode has a graphic called functional require- data that are transmitted via terrestrial or satellite technology. ment technology development priority. These readings may be sent directly from a device on the tanker or via in-cab communication systems. Other emerging tech- 1.1 Highway (Truck) Mode nologies for divisible Hazmat shipments include trailer track- ing and trailer status devices that monitor different aspects of Functional Requirements--Highway Mode trailer status. Market adoptability rating: 6 (Medium adoptability = NOTE: The highway mode has 11 functional requirements: Medium market adoptability need) 8 generic and 3 additional functional requirements, more than Rationale for market adoptability rating: Due to stringent any other mode. regulations governing the transport of Hazmat on highways, A. Package Integrity--Package is robust such that material many carriers have already deployed in-cab communication contents are not breached during normal transport oper- systems. Also, tanker trailers are significantly more expensive
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82 that van trailers, prompting carriers to maximize tanker trailer tions. Capability also exists to sense operator performance utilization. Use of trailer monitoring devices is becoming degradation due to fatigue, acute health problem, sub- more commonplace. stance abuse, and so forth, and to alert the operator and Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Due to the capi- back office to this situation. tal costs and support systems required for in-cab communica- Technical capability rating: 8 (High capability = Low tion systems as well as trailer tracking devices, these systems technical capability need) are typically used by only larger carriers. Rationale for technical capability rating: Before a driver can operate a commercial motor vehicle transporting Hazmat B. Equipment Reliability--Vehicle and cargo equipment are shipments, the driver must demonstrate the ability to oper- structurally sound and properly maintained. Capability ate a vehicle under normal and, to some extent, off-normal exists to sense/detect problems such as engine failure or conditions. Drivers must obtain a medical certificate, a com- loss of steering. Vehicle is able to protect its crew from mercial driver's license (CDL) and a Hazmat endorsement. serious injury under most accident circumstances. Emerging technologies that address capability gap: Sev- Technical capability rating: 8 (High capability = Low eral new technologies can indirectly alert drivers and back of- technical capability need)* fice personnel of driver performance degradation by measur- Rationale for technical capability rating: Truck drivers ing vehicle operating characteristics. Examples include roll are required to inspect their tractor and trailer at least once stability systems, collision warning systems and lane depar- per day and many carriers require both a pre-trip and post- ture warning systems. In addition, some measure of driver trip vehicle inspection. Large trucks and trailers are subject to performance may be available via the Engine Control Mod- routine vehicle inspections by enforcement personnel at weigh ule (ECM) readings (for example, top speed, the number of stations or roadside. In addition, motor carriers must docu- hard brakes, etc.). Additionally, in-cab communication sys- ment that any vehicle deficiencies have been repaired. Carriers tems oftentimes have a driver distress feature that allows a are also required to maintain vehicle preventive maintenance driver to send a distress alert. Providers monitor these sys- records. However, vehicle inspections, preventive maintenance tems 24/7 for driver alerts. programs, and equipment sensors may not detect all possible Market adoptability rating: 4 (Medium adoptability = mechanical failures. Medium market adoptability need) *NOTE: Radioactive Materials shipments such as Highway Rationale for market adoptability rating: Though the first Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) require a Commercial generation of these systems has been on the market for sev- Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) Level VI Inspection at the point eral years, certain sectors of the trucking industry have been of origin. slow to adopt these technologies. Emerging technologies that address capability gap: Newer Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: High capital large trucks display vehicle faults, namely engine fault codes, costs and driver attitudinal issues with some of these systems on a display located on the truck's dashboard. Some in-cab have played a role in relatively low industry adoption rates. In communication systems transmit real-time engine fault codes addition, motor carriers may lack the safety data necessary to to back office systems. identify which of these technologies best meet their needs. Market adoptability rating: 8 (High adoptability = Low market adoptability need) D. Hazmat Commodity Identification and Awareness-- Rationale for market adoptability rating: Older vehicles Ability to identify the cargo being shipped either in person do not provide a dashboard display of vehicle faults. Though or via remote access. newer vehicles provide more information to the driver on Technical capability rating: 9 (High capability = Low engine/vehicle status, engine faults are available to back office technical capability need) personnel on an irregular basis if the data are not transmitted Rationale for technical capability rating: There is a clear real time and downloaded either at the end of each day or when need to know/confirm the type of Hazmat being transported, the vehicle is serviced. In-cab communication systems are more and the primary methods for doing so include vehicle placard- frequently used by larger and medium-sized carriers. ing and Hazmat information on the bills of lading. There is lim- ited use of advance transmittal of Hazmat information to the Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: The cost of new carrier, shipper, or consignee, although some of the concepts vehicles prevents many carriers and owner-operators from seem promising. Trailers consisting of less-than-truckload replacing older vehicles. In addition, the costs of in-cab com- (LTL) shipments may have several shipping documents that munication systems and resources needed to support these sys- could get lost or destroyed in the event of a severe accident. tems impede further industry adoption. Emerging technologies that address capability gap: Elec- C. Operator Performance--Operator is able to successfully tronic transmission of Hazmat information, via Electronic Data maneuver vehicle under normal and off-normal condi- Interchange (EDI) or Extensible Markup Language (XML), by
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83 the shipper to the motor carrier and the consignee. Transmis- Emerging technologies that address capability gap: Teth- sion of data must occur at the time of pickup. ered and untethered trailer tracking devices provide the ability Market adoptability rating: 4 (Medium adoptability = to track trailers. RFID tags and electronic seals can provide a Medium market adoptability need) certain level of cargo tracking. Some of these technologies pro- Rationale for market adoptability rating: Shippers of cer- vide automatic real-time location updates. tain types of Hazmat already transmit, or could easily begin Market adoptability rating: 6 (Medium adoptability = transmitting, electronic Hazmat shipment data. Medium market adoptability need) Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: The transmis- Rationale for market adoptability rating: Several of these sion of data can be costly and time-consuming. In addition, technologies have costs that are higher than the market is will- all senders and receivers of data must have standards and ing to bear. In addition, the challenges and expense of RFID processes in place to know when bad data have been received tag deployment in other industries has stymied use of this or data are missing. In addition, system maintenance and data technology. transmission can be a significant, ongoing cost. Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Carriers must be E. Communication--Vehicle operator and back office have presented credible cost/benefit analyses for each of these tech- two-way communication capability at all times. nologies. In addition, these technologies may offer benefits to Technical capability rating: 9 (High capability = Low certain segments within the industry. Lastly, more research technical capability need) and design work is needed to standardize and augment the Rationale for technical capability rating: Most truck drivers hardware and software for systems such as RFID. have either personal or company-provided cell phones. In G. Security--Vehicle, cargo, and operator are resistant to addition, many fleets have equipped their vehicles with in-cab theft, diversion, sabotage and other intentional acts. communication systems that provide cellular and/or satellite Trucking capability rating: 6 (Medium capability = communication. Medium technical capability need) Emerging technologies that address capability gap: In rural Rationale for technical capability rating: Protecting the areas with sporadic cellular coverage, satellite phones could vehicle, cargo, and operator from security-related risks requires improve two-communication capability. technology solutions specific to each. Drivers are restricted Market adoptability rating: 6 (Medium adoptability = to specific routes and must comply with regulations dictating Medium market adoptability need) where a driver can take a break and how often the driver must Rationale for market adoptability rating: Motor carriers be in contact with back office personnel. desiring satellite coverage would likely choose an in-cab com- Emerging technologies that address capability gap: Driver munication system. authentication technologies, such as biometrics and smart Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: In-cab commu- nication systems have not been adopted by all segments of the cards, may reduce the risk of vehicle/trailer theft. Hazmat industry. route geofencing ensures Hazmat loads are not diverted from planned routes. Electronic seals provide trailer seal status and F. Tracking--Vehicle and cargo location are known at all an indication whether any efforts are or were being made to times. tamper with the device. Technical capability rating: 6 (Medium capability = Market adoptability rating: 3 (Low adoptability = High Medium technical capability need)* market adoptability need) Rationale for technical capability rating: In-cab communi- Rationale for market adoptability rating: The initial and cation and satellite tracking devices typically track truck loca- ongoing costs of these systems have impeded more wide- tions. Use of these systems continues to grow, especially among spread use. larger carriers, followed by medium-sized carriers. Owner- Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Since no com- operators and small fleets are less likely to use these systems. In prehensive solution exists to protect the vehicle, cargo, and addition, some of these systems are terrestrial-based systems, operator, carriers must vet each technology independently providing more limited communications (although the GPS by cost/benefit analysis and ease of integration into existing signal has the same effectiveness as satellite systems). Integrated operations. satellite and terrestrial technologies provide more coverage, especially in rural areas, though mountains or tall buildings H. Emergency Response--Qualified emergency response is (i.e., urban canyon) may inhibit real-time data transmission. delivered to incident site in a timely manner wherever it *NOTE: transport of HRCQ shipments and transuranic waste may occur. under the DOE shipping program would have a higher score due Technical capability rating: 8 (High capability = Low to more stringent requirements. technical capability need)
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84 Rationale for technical capability rating: It is critical that Rationale for market adoptability rating: Similar to in-cab first responders are fully prepared for addressing Hazmat spills communication systems, these technologies are used mostly and events. The present system is relatively low-tech and usu- by medium to large carriers. ally requires first responders to arrive on the scene to determine Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Financial con- the Hazmat involved and the appropriate response, procedures, straints and the need for technically sophisticated support staff. and protocols. Emerging technologies that address capability gap: There K. Driver ID Known--The present system used for identify- are technical systems in place that could send each vehicle's ing drivers is the Commercial Drivers License (CDL). Op- Hazmat load information to first responders in advance of erators of vehicles hauling hazardous materials are required their dispatch. These "Mayday plus" systems are relatively to possess both a valid CDL and a Hazmat Endorsement. simple but require other technologies such as communica- Capability exists to quickly verify that a driver is credentialed tion and GPS technologies. to operate a commercial motor vehicle and certified to haul Market adoptability rating: 3 (Low adoptability = High Hazmat. market adoptability need) Technical capability rating: 8 (High capability = Low Rationale for market adoptability rating: These systems technical capability need) must be used in conjunction with other technologies. Rationale for technical capability rating: In the past, CDL Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Based on the fraud was viewed as relatively commonplace (45). origin of the shipment, either from a customer location or a Emerging technologies that address capability gap: At- terminal, multiple parties would need to produce the advance tempts to strengthen the program have included proposals information. In addition, carriers may perceive a low benefit- to use biometrics and smart cards. Other systems have tested cost ratio for a program that requires data transmission on biometric devices on the truck for confirming driver ID. every Hazmat shipment. Market adoptability rating: 1 (Low adoptability = High market adoptability need) I. Vehicle Identification--Vehicles can be quickly identi- Rationale for market adoptability rating: As an emerging fied by first responders as well as back office personnel. technology, these systems must be supported by substantial Technical capability rating: 8 (High capability = Low financial resources and back office personnel. technical capability need) Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Financial and Rationale for technical capability rating: Vehicles must dis- institutional issues have typically interfered with these efforts. play the name of the carrier, the city and state of domicile, the U.S. DOT number, a tractor number, and a trailer number. However, carriers may use rental trailers or tractors that have Technology Development Priority-- no identifiable carrier specific markings. Highway Mode Emerging technologies that address capability gap: None Table D-1 is a recap of the functional requirement gap identified. rating--highway. Market adoptability rating: 9 (High adoptability = Low Table D-2 is a recap of the mode importance rating. market adoptability need) Based on Tables D-1 and D-2, Table D-3 provides the Rationale for market adoptability rating: Motor carriers must comply with these regulations. development priorities for the highway mode functional Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: None identified. requirements. J. Hazmat Route Restrictions--Some roadways, bridges, and tunnels prohibit trucks with Hazmat shipments. Addition- Extracted Screened Technologies-- ally, motor carriers may impose further route restrictions Highway Mode on trucks hauling Hazmat shipments. Table D-4 contains technologies the modal lead selected Technical capability rating: 8 (High capability = Low from the screened research list as being most applicable for the technical capability need) highway mode. Technologies considered high priority devel- Rationale for technical capability rating: Capability exists to opment needs are in bold type. determine whether a truck is traveling on the designated route. Emerging technologies that address capability gap: GPS- based vehicle tracking systems for both tractors and trailers 1.2 Rail Mode must be integrated with GIS mapping software to create Functional Requirements--Rail Mode geofences on specified routes. Market adoptability rating: 4 (Medium adoptability = NOTE: The rail mode has 10 functional requirements: 8 Medium market adoptability need) generic and 2 additional functional requirements.
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85 Table D-1. Functional requirement gap rating--highway. Medium H. Emergency High High High Response G. Security K. Driver ID Known Low Market A. Package Integrity C. Operator Adoptability Performance Medium Medium High Need D. HM Commodity ID F. Tracking Rating E. Communication J. HM Route Restrictions Low B. Equipment Low Low Medium Reliability I. Vehicle ID Low Medium High Technical Capability Need Rating A. Package Integrity--Package is robust such that material contents are not breached during normal transport opera- Table D-2. Mode importance rating. tions and typical accident conditions. Technical capability rating: 6 (Medium capability = High Medium technical capability need) Medium High Rail High Rationale for technical capability rating: Existing rail tank Air Barge cars have a proven record of survivability for typical accident/ High Medium Low Medium Truck derailment conditions. Other types of railcars do not generally Pipeline survive typical accidents without significant damage and loss of cargo, although they are sometimes used to transport poten- Low Low Low Medium tially hazardous materials of many kinds. Spent nuclear fuel/ waste from nuclear facilities is transported in highly devel- Low Medium High oped, crash survivable casks developed per the Nuclear Regu- Modal Activity Level (Ton-Miles) latory Commission (NRC) and other federal requirements. The railcar on which the cask is carried does not provide any substantial additional protection against hazards. Rail tank cars Table D-3. Functional requirement technology development priority--highway. Medium A. Package Integrity B. Equipment High Reliability F. Tracking C. Operator H. Emergency High High Performance Response G. Security D. HM Commodity ID K. Driver ID E. Communication Known Mode I. Vehicle ID J. HM Route Importance Restrictions Rating Medium Low Medium High Low Low Low Medium Low Medium High Functional Requirement Gap Rating
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86 Table D-4. Extracted screened technologies--highway. Technology Need Description Potential Solution(s) HIGH PRIORITY Sensors that document the presence, Improvements to current sensors that can detect the existence of cargo and potentially the amount, of cargo or Cargo container status include ultrasonic and IR sensors; pressure gauges and/or chemical other aspects of the container/trailer sensors detection sensors; fiber-optic sensors and photonic sensor integrated status. These sensors may detect the (Tracking, Emergency wireless systems; and container vibration patterns gathered from integrity, temperature, or the position of Response) wireless RF sensor tags. the door hatch. Photonic or fiber-optic sensors are fixed point monitoring and mobile tracking. In fixed point monitoring, sensors monitor bridge and tunnel HIGH PRIORITY structural health and environment problems such as toxic gases in a Cargo/facility sensors tunnel. Mobile tracking sensor systems designed to track shipboard Sensors to detect different types of cargo containers and trucks have multifunctional sensor requirements (Tracking, Emergency cargo/substances. Response, Commodity including intrusion (tampering), biochemical, radiation, and explosives Identification) detection. May also include non-intrusive radiation portal monitors. These sensors may be used to detect accidental or malicious releases of hazardous materials. HIGH PRIORITY Wireless electrical or motion-powered technology; plastic thin-film Innovative power Battery charging, flexible batteries that organic solar cells with flexible polymer batteries; nanogenerators sources for vehicle never need to be recharged, electronics harnessing power from movement of flexible wires; very fast storage for components that can power themselves. solar power or a flash charge for cell phones and laptops. (Tracking) Improvements to current biometric authentication technologies including HIGH PRIORITY fingerprint, voice recognition, iris/optical scans and finger-vein Technologies that prevent unauthorized recognition. A finger-vein identification system that could be used to Improved area access allow a door to be opened simply by gripping the handle. Behavioral personnel from accessing restricted control monitoring technologies. Trucks equipped with RFID tags. Directive areas or identify behaviors indicating a (Security, Driver ID security threat. antenna with middleware and received signal strength indication (RSSI) Known) feature that makes the system more accurate and robust and avoids conventional problems. Improvements to positive locking mechanisms that can disarm and disable conveyance hatches and locks using low cost, plastic indicative HIGH PRIORITY seals with RF communications running on single battery with 4 years of Cargo locks and seals that can transmit life to support continuous monitoring; the external seals would have Advanced cargo locks & cargo or trailer/container status to back status and alarm notifications sent to a receiver with all messages seals office systems. stored at a data collection point, and using a remotely monitored sealing (Security) array (RMSA) with cryptographically authenticated messages (highly resistant to defeat). Electronic seals and other anti-theft monitoring devices. HIGH PRIORITY Vehicle may be started and or operated Improvements to current Vehicle Disabling Technology (VDT) and Vehicle security by authorized operators once Vehicle Shutdown Technology (VST). VDT does not allow vehicle (Driver ID Known, predetermined protocols are met. restart while VST shuts down a vehicle that may be in motion. Security) HIGH PRIORITY Universally accepted security Credential should be simple and universally read and could include Operator Credentials identification credential. biometric authentication using smart card technologies. (Driver ID Known) Improvements to a current GPS-based instrument; cellular or satellite HIGH PRIORITY based tracking; Internet-delivered, remote asset telemetry Asset Real-time vehicle or trailer tracking and Vehicle/Trailer Tracking Management Platform using GSM communications; GSM-based GPS visualization. Also used by geofencing and Monitoring device with built-in RF receiver (for sensor reception), camera, and technology. (Tracking) impact detector; and the use of geofencing to monitor vehicle or trailer movements. HIGH PRIORITY Capability to visually track Hazmat Intelligent video surveillance system capable of tracking Hazmat vehicle Intelligent Video vehicles of interest (mainly trucks but through high-threat urban area in real time using automated handoff Surveillance/Tracking possibly railcars and barges) along their from camera to camera; networked RFID combined with GPS and cargo (Tracking) passage in critical areas. monitoring. Event data including Hazmat information received by sensor technology HIGH PRIORITY is transmitted to appropriate parties when an event occurs. In addition, exception-based notifications can be generated when events do not Alert/incident Hazmat safety monitoring occur when scheduled. System also includes the ability to inventory notification systems software/applications. vulnerable targets (e.g., critical infrastructure) and generate customized (Security, Emergency alerts of criminal incidents to appropriate officials. Digital photograph Response) (using an IR flash for conditions of darkness) can also be included in the report.
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87 will not survive all accident conditions. They have the poten- An FRA specification for a new super tank car design was tial to be punctured (by couplings from adjacent cars, dis- released for comments in April 2008 (Volpe design). Because placed rail, ballistics, etc.). Other types of standard railcars are there were no proven prototypes that could meet the design, not highly suited to protecting potentially hazardous material the FRA ruled in November 2008 that an interim car design is from damage in an accident or derailment, and limitations on acceptable. The cost of fleet replacement is very significant so their use may vary by interpretation of rules or regulations by a phased-in approach is expected. In the interim rule, the FRA the shipper or the railroad. only requires that tank cars constructed of non-normalized There is a significant effort to further improve tank car sur- steel must be retired before cars constructed of normalized vivability. These efforts involve both a retrofit of existing tank steel. No changes were made to shorten an existing tank cars' cars and new tank car designs. The FRA now requires that any lifespan. Because this is an FRA rule there will be 100 per- new hazardous material tank cars built after March 16, 2009 cent market adoption. However, it is expected that due to must conform to new interim design specifications. These the research efforts led by the Advanced Tank Car Collabora- interim designs specify a stronger container which usually tive Research Program and the FRA, additional rule changes means a thicker tank. There is also an effort to improve sur- will likely occur as technology develops. vivability of the service connections on these tank-cars. New Enhanced tank car valves and fittings are also emerging as product loading and unloading valves that incorporate inner part of the technology packages that improve package integrity. tank check-valve systems can now survive a top shearing event For example, there is a new chlorine angle valve design whose or rollovers without leaking. Because of these research efforts primary seals are actually check valves located beneath the the technical capability of future designs will likely exceed the pressure plate which should survive without leaking even if current interim designs. the protective housing is sheared off. The newer designs in- Emerging technologies that address capability gap: Several clude locating the pressure relief valves underneath the pres- technologies are being designed to improve tank car package sure plate also reducing the chances of a product release. integrity and survivability. The Federal Railroad Adminis- Market adoptability rating: 6 (Medium adoptability = tration (FRA) is expected to require Hazmat tank cars to meet Medium market adoptability need) the resulting more stringent design specifications. There are 3 Rationale for market adoptability rating: Existing rail emerging redesigns of Hazmat tank cars. Hazmat transport packaging is regulated (Specifications for Volpe Design--Specifications and a design from FRA for a Railroad Tank Cars Used to Transport Hazardous Materials, super-tanker (nothing built yet). This specification was issued 49 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 3468;3473 January 27, for comment April 1, 2008 (46). As a result of the comments 1984). Shippers must use the approved container for the and because no prototype car was built that could meet this material transported. A rule was issued in November 2008 that specification, the FRA has delayed the issuance of a final spec- requires chlorine car retirements to be replaced with an im- ification. Instead the FRA has required that new cars built proved interim car designed to better withstand derailments. after March 16, 2009, must meet a new set of "interim" car Even though an improved design is currently mandated by the specifications. FRA for replacement Hazmat tank cars, the market adopt- Advanced Tank Car Collaborative Research Program (47)-- ability rating is discounted to 6 because there are only a few The roots of this effort began with a prototype design led by improved interim car designs currently deployed and no pro- Dow Chemical and the AAR. Their design preceded the release totype cars exist that meet the FRA Volpe design specification. of FRA specifications. The initial prototype car could not It is also likely that the existing interim design specifications meet head-on impact specifications in the Volpe design. will change as new package integrity improvements are made. Currently this research program and the Next Generation In addition to the tank car design, ancillary equipment, such Railroad Tank Car Program (NGRTC) have participation as product loading/unloading valves, is also being improved to from both industry and government. It is expected that their better survive shearing and rollovers. These new valve designs work focused on improving the integrity of Hazmat tank cars are just beginning to gain market adoptability. will last several years and could drive a final specification Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: When designs from the FRA. and specifications are being adjusted and prototypes have not Trinity Car--The prototype car built by Trinity also pre- been proven, there is a tendency for a car owner to postpone ceded the FRA Volpe design specification. Currently, it will adoption until final designs are approved. Currently, all new not meet head-on or side impact specifications in the Volpe Hazmat tank cars built must be an improved interim design. design. The car does meet the FRA "interim" specifications. These cars are more expensive than existing fleet designs and This car was available for purchase in early 2008 but was not may not be the final design issued by the FRA. Car owners will readily adopted until the interim specification was made by likely postpone purchases of the new interim design as long as the FRA allowing its use. possible. It is also possible that replacements with the newer
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88 interim designed cars will be by attrition and only if there is no (short lines, regional) where ATSI technologies have not been existing used stock available. applied. Access to data is not free to the car owners and many owners depend solely upon notification from the AAR con- B. Equipment Reliability--Vehicle and cargo equipment cerning faults detected. There is consensus that the rail- are structurally sound and properly maintained. roads benefit from this technology much more than do the Technical capability rating: 6 (Medium capability = car owners. The car owners incur costs associated with main- Medium technical capability need) tenance required before the specified regulatory due dates. Rationale for technical capability rating: There are sev- Most fault detection efforts have been focused on rolling stock eral systems that have been pioneered by the railroads to detect and the damage it does to the rails. mechanical problems associated with cargo transport. The AAR There is not a good system that has been widely deployed developed a program named Advanced Technology Safety Ini- for detecting broken rails or damaged track switches in non- tiative (ATSI). One of the goals of ATSI is the detection and signaled territories. Currently, track integrity and condition is reporting of faulty equipment. This initiative incorporates maintained primarily as a result of automated track flaw detec- three primary detection technologies. tion vehicles or manual maintainer inspections for un-signaled The railroads currently have a limited number of wayside territories. In signaled territories of the railroads, the track cir- "Wheel Impact Load Detectors" (WILDs) in operation. A cuits and switch controllers provide vital protection against WILD senses wheel impacts generated by a passing railcar, for some broken rail and track switch failure conditions. The rest example, those caused by wheel defects such as flat spots or are found by the manual inspection method. divots. If the impact caused by the wheel is deemed to be ex- Restrictions on Hazmat cargo placement in train consists cessive, the train will be directed to reduce its speed and stop are variable and determined by each railroad, even though the at the nearest railcar shop to uncouple the railcar with the wheel best practice could be codified as part of the General Code of damage. The railroads also have a small number of "Truck Per- Operating Rules (GCOR) or the Northeast Operating Rules formance Detectors" (TPDs) in operation. (NOTE: a "truck" Advisory Committee (NORAC) standard Operating Rule- in this context refers to the structures underneath a railcar at books. The current content of these rulebooks only provides both ends containing the wheels, axles, bearings, springs, and general guidance as to being aware of and vigilant about iden- brakes). TPDs work by sensing sway stress on the rail and are tified hazardous cargo (48, 49). used to detect truck hunting. (NOTE: "truck hunting" refers Emerging technologies that address capability gap: There to a phenomenon in which wheels of a railcar truck begin to are several emerging technologies designed to improve defect oscillate from side to side between the rails of the track, caus- detection in rolling stock. Advances in machine vision systems ing eventual damage to both the rail and the railcar.) The rail- will permit wheel profile defect detection. Thermal sensing roads are also testing "Trackside Acoustic Detectors" (TADs). devices are being tested to determine wheel bearing health. TADs "listen" for abnormal sounds from passing trains and Recent advances in accelerometer technology sensors can dif- are designed to detect bad wheel bearings. The data from these ferentiate between impacts and sway allowing truck hunting detectors are compiled, maintained, and analyzed in the AAR and bad track detection. Wireless sensor technology could also Integrated Remote Railway Information Service (InteRRIS®) allow easier installation on railcars and data communication database. Notifications to the car owners are generated based between rolling stocks sensors and wayside readers. There are on this analysis. a couple of technologies being considered for detection of rail There are existing FRA regulations requiring preventa- breaks. One uses acoustic wave transmission/sensing and was tive railcar, track, and roadbed maintenance. These rules tested on a short span of track in the New York City transit specify how long certain equipment parts can operate with- system in 2006. The other uses electric current flow analysis. out inspection. Regulatory maintenance information is Both techniques offer a potential additional benefit of detect- required to be stenciled on certain railcar types. Regular ing vehicle presence within their monitoring zones. inspection and maintenance of the infrastructure is required Market adoptability rating: 6 (Medium adoptability = by regulation for safe train movement, and movements are Medium market adoptability need) restricted by railroad rules when infrastructure deficiencies Rationale for market adoptability rating: Preventative are found. In addition, freight railroads have operating maintenance of rolling stock is regulated by the FRA. The rules for train "consists" which isolate hazardous cargo and AAR ATSI program is sponsored and promoted by its Class I reduce the consequences of a train accident involving such railroad membership. ATSI detection systems are typically material. not deployed on short or regional rail lines because of the lack Significant advancement in detecting faulty rolling stock of infrastructure and costs. The AAR issued rules providing has occurred in the last decade. Despite the advancement in for on-site repair of conditions found by their detectors with technology used by Class I railroads, there are rail corridors car owners bearing the repair costs. Shippers and car owners
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89 typically do not implement fault detection systems within man" control, prevent operator inattention from causing some their domain due to a lack of infrastructure and costs. Instead accidents. they rely on regulatory preventative maintenance and man- The majority of Class I U.S. railroads are currently develop- ual inspections. ing, testing, or demonstrating radio-based Positive Train Con- Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: The Automatic trol (PTC) systems in compliance with upcoming FRA regula- Equipment Identification/Car Location Messaging (AEI/CLM) tions in 49 CFR Part 236, Subpart I. These systems protect system along with the WILD wheel detector, TPDs, and TADs against human errors in complying with signals, speed limits, must communicate their alerts back to a central database at switch positions, etc. by sensing train location and speed, com- Railinc. The cost of these new wayside sensor systems impedes paring them with the current railroad conditions and infra- their growth on Class I railroads and prohibits adoption by structure, and automatically applying brakes as needed for most short-line railroads. In addition, these systems must have safety. One of the additional capabilities of PTC systems is infrastructure to do that communication and properly power to monitor the crew's timely response to restrictions, work these detectors. The costs of the infrastructure required to sup- authorities, track authorities, and signal aspects. Failure to com- port these sensor systems are very large. Finding a lower cost ply with the rules to allow the PTC system to provide protec- support infrastructure such as low power and wireless capable tion is an indication (in near real time) that the train is not could improve adoptability. being controlled safely. Therefore, central dispatchers can observe crew behavior and take appropriate action. C. Operator Performance--Operator performance is being Gaps: The current fatigue prevention system relies on able to successfully maneuver vehicle under normal and mandatory scheduling of adequate off-hour rest periods and off-normal conditions. Capability also exists to sense oper- by having human redundancy in the cab. These approaches ator performance degradation due to fatigue, acute health are not totally effective, and cab signal or PTC train controls problem, substance abuse, and so forth, and to alert oper- are not widely applied at this time. Several versions of PTC ator and back office to this situation. Additional capabil- are being tested but there is no agreement as to which system ity to control train movement in a safe manner in absence is preferred. An accident involving a freight and passenger train of proper operator vigilance has been deployed in some in Chatsworth, California, on September 12, 2008, resulted areas, and is under development for others. in multiple deaths and has resulted in pressure to adopt a Technical capability rating: 7 (High capability = Low tech- standard PTC system. nical capability need) The conductor should notice micro-sleep or macro-sleep Rationale for technical capability rating: Operator fatigue, episodes and alert the engineer. This is facilitated by current particularly involving the engineer and train conductor, can railroad rules requiring verbal confirmation of all switch posi- have dramatic consequences. Accidents have happened within tions and signal aspects among the crew and with the central the last 5 years where operator fatigue was listed as a primary dispatcher by radio. In addition, the train engineer and con- root cause. Solutions to operator fatigue have remained on the ductor communicate with each other at frequent intervals. NTSB Most Wanted list since 1990. Currently, operator fatigue There is some thought that emerging technologies such as has been addressed by a series of implemented crew scheduling positive train control and remote control locomotive systems practice recommendations. FRA Regulations provide manda- will reduce vigilance by removing the human redundancy. The tory hours of service limitations on railroad workers, and are counter-assertion is that a properly applied failsafe PTC or cab very specific and tightly enforced. These regulations have been signal system is more likely to safely respond to unsafe con- in effect since 1907 (50). Most railroads have advanced soft- ditions than a second person. In addition, many AMTRAK ware packages that generate crew scheduling which attempts trains already operate with a single crew member in the cab. to comply with the hours of service rules or flag any exceptions Emerging technologies that address capability gap: Engine- for crew management action. man Vigilance Monitoring is an FRA project to explore new A limited number of high-density or high-speed railroad technology to monitor real-time locomotive engineer alertness. lines are protected from many unsafe crew errors by systems The same technologies applied to monitor truck driver alert- generally referred to as "Cab Signal" systems. These systems ness can be applied here. use failsafe means of conveying train speeds to the cab and dis- PTC can also be considered an emerging technology as var- playing the required speed to the operator, and provide warn- ious systems are being offered, and standardization of PTC for ing and alarms to the train operator for unsafe conditions in inter-line operation of trains is just now under development real time. In some of these applications, braking is automati- by AAR and the individual railroads. Fully failsafe PTC systems cally enforced if the train operator does not respond to the require substantial testing to ensure safety and reliability. warning in an appropriate manner. Cab signal systems have Market adoptability rating: 6 (Medium adoptability = been in use for many years, and in combination with "dead- Medium market adoptability need)
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90 Rationale for market adoptability rating: The AAR has rec- intermittent basis has begun, with several vendor products on ognized and promoted research in fatigue management since the market. These technologies have the ability to identify the 1992. The AAR "Work Rest Task Force" along with the "North exact contents of Hazmat cargo, the responsible party for the American Rail Alertness Partnership" identified key principles cargo, and even the proper means of hazard containment and of an effective fatigue countermeasures program. Class I rail- hazard mitigation, accessible to the authorized personnel for roads do employ work schedule policies and these counter- the public safety forces, federal authorities, shippers, and rail- measures to manage operator fatigue. There are some that use roads affected. the Operator Fatigue Management (OFM) tools to manage Market adoptability rating: 9 (High adoptability = Low this. Many railroads have policies that allow operators to nap market adoptability need) under controlled conditions. Some of the non-vital real-time Rationale for market adoptability rating: All Hazmat ship- alertness monitoring devices are still considered experimental ments must be placarded and recorded on the train's consist. and have not been deployed on board locomotives. Shippers and railroads are adopting radiolocation and RFID The NTSB has listed PTC as one of its top 10 needed tagging for Hazmat cargo as the technology is deployed. transport safety improvements for over a decade. The Class I Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Not applicable-- railroads are presently investing significant resources in all Hazmat shipments are placarded. developing and applying PTC systems for capacity improve- ment, which will also provide the noted significant benefits E. Communication--Vehicle operator and back office have for safe train control in both signaled and non-signaled two-way communication capability at all times. This may (dark) territory. take the form of verbal communication or data commu- Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: The cost of PTC nication, preferably both are available. is estimated to be $10 billion U.S. dollars to the Class I rail- Technical capability rating: 6 (Medium capability = roads. Since it is now mandated by Rail Safety Improvement Medium technical capability need) Act (RSIA) 2008, some federal monies (stimulus funds) have Rationale for technical capability rating: Current tech- been made available to support this implementation. How- nologies are through a variety of radio, cellular, microwave, ever, these systems are very complex and will require exten- and satellite wireless technologies that are used for voice, sive verification and validation. PTC systems are not mature text, and data transmissions. No one communication tech- technology. There is a significant development effort required nology is 100 percent capable. Satellite technologies depend to make the individual PTC implementations interoperable on view (i.e., tunnels, subway, overpasses, and canyons cause as a standard such that locomotives can interchange on PTC problems). The other technologies depend on sufficient cover- lines. It will be a challenge to develop and implement an inter- age and transmission/reception range. Combination commu- operable PTC by the 2015 deadline. nication technologies can provide nearly 100 percent capable systems but, unfortunately, application of redundant com- D. Hazmat Commodity Identification and Awareness-- munication technologies is not widespread. Class I railroads Ability to identify the cargo being shipped either in person are now using multiple radio systems on trains for voice (Very or via remote access. High Frequency or VHF, cellular) and data (VHF, Ultra High Technical capability rating: 7 (High capability = Low tech- Frequency or UHF, and satellite). Many regional and short- nical capability need) line railroads depend solely on VHF voice technology which Rationale for technical capability rating: All Hazmat ship- can fail due to available coverage and/or range. Deployment ments by rail are required to be placarded and listed on the of additional radio devices is regulated by the FCC, which is train's construct manifest (consist). Information is also main- faced with frequency and bandwidth allocation issues, com- tained by the railroads management systems. A uniform set of plicated by international spectrum allocation rules as well. hazardous material identification methods, handling, and def- Emerging technologies that address capability gap: GSM-R initions is required to be understood and carried by every rail is now being combined with the General Packet Radio Service crewmember (51). There is an express need by emergency re- (GPRS) to form the basis for an Intelligent Transport System sponders to quickly retrieve this information without risking in Europe. GSM is expected to be combined with satellite and life in an attempt to read a placard or locate the engineer. radio to provide near 100 percent capable communications. Emerging technologies that address capability gap: There In the United States, 802.11 short range communication is a desire for devices such as a transponder broadcasting con- standards are expected to include "Wireless Access in Vehic- tent information triggered by irregular impacts or axis modi- ular Environment" (WAVE). The concept is to exchange data fication. Deployment of RFID technologies and satellite-radio between high speed vehicles and other vehicles or wayside identification (ID) tags with GPS or GLS for cargo module readers. The FCC has mandated a VHF Frequency Re-farming identification and localization on a continuous or frequent into 12.5 kHz channels (vs. 25 kHz) in the Railroad Radio ser-
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91 vices (52). This provides the opportunity for additional chan- volume tracks. GPS coverage requires a good view of at least nels to be applied for improved coverage. two GPS satellites at frequent intervals. Some locomotives have The AAR is sponsoring development of a high-performance tracking capability such as GPS but individual non-powered Software Defined Radio, which will allow much more flexible railcars do not. Those few railcars that do have GPS and radio transmission options for both voice and data for railroad pur- report only periodically to conserve on-board power. The cur- poses, improving overall communication success. The rail- rent shipment tracking services are neither highly precise as roads are also permitted under FCC rules to add various forms to location, nor are they in real time. In 2009, DHS and the of UHF and/or Microwave links for PTC data purposes. These Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recognized options, and the ability of PTC to require fewer voice radio tracking as a gap and have targeted a part of the FY 2009 Freight conversations with trains (e.g., sending of track authority dig- Rail Security Grant Program (FRSGP) to fund TIH car owners itally), will also improve communications. Cellular telephone to equip a portion of their cars with GPS devices. service is now in service as supplemental communications for Emerging technologies that address capability gap: Nation- train crews and field personnel of the railroads. wide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS) or Dif- In addition, "smart" locomotive radio equipment could be ferential Global Positioning System (DGPS) provides more used as a repeater from another locomotive to a base station accuracy (5m resolution) compared with (15m) of stan- radio to increase coverage. This could be incorporated in the dard GPS. Higher accuracy could provide enough resolution new AAR High-Performance Radio development. to provide track specific location in dense rail yards and may Market adoptability rating: 8 (High adoptability = Low facilitate adoption as a cost saving measure. Assisted GPS market adoptability need) (AGPS) or enhanced GPS (EGPS) allows use of GPS in "bad Rationale for market adoptability rating: 100 percent com- view" areas by assisting GPS with Wireless Cell Site location munication capability and reliability to the rail crew is impor- using various techniques. New battery designs and more effi- tant to the railroads. It improves safety (dark regions) and cient solar charging units can improve availability of these efficiency. Adoptability is primarily affected by lack of, and tracking devices. the cost of, supporting communication infrastructure. Capac- Some PTC systems have, as part of their database for each ity improvements offered by PTC systems may serve as a way train, the "consist" which includes information on Hazmat cars. to justify and implement additional infrastructure. Conceptually, these trains can be identified very precisely on the Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: The RSIA 2008 track in real time for cargo location and tracking purposes. requires implementation of PTC by 2015. It is expected that Market adoptability rating: 3 (Low adoptability = High this implementation will upgrade communications capa- market adoptability need) bilities. Costs of the infrastructure upgrades are the biggest Rationale for market adoptability rating: Increasing the obstacle. number of wayside readers and the infrastructure required is costly. Some railroads have as much as 60 percent dark terri- F. Tracking--Vehicle and cargo location are known at all tory (i.e., no signaling). The AVI wayside readers are indepen- times, and can be monitored remotely. dent of the signal system, but the communications to a central Technical capability rating: 6 (Medium capability = location is often through the signal system infrastructure. GPS Medium technical capability need) tracking technologies on Hazmat rail tank cars are being tested Rationale for technical capability rating: Current tech- by a few shippers but less than 1 percent of the Hazmat tank nology is a mix of techniques. It includes passive reads of car fleet has been equipped. Shippers have cited a lack of logis- low-frequency RFID tags on all railcars and locomotives tic benefit as one reason. Shippers also believe that responsi- from wayside readers. This provides intermittent location. bility for safety and security of the Hazmat asset lies with the GPS tracking devices are implemented on many train power custodian of the asset. There are also liability concerns around units (i.e., locomotives) for the primary purpose of unit response to alarms from sensor equipped GPS devices. AAR is health reporting, but this also provides low resolution loca- considering an interchange rule to require private car owners tion reporting. PTC systems allow high resolution tracking to share tracking data with the railroads to supplement the way- of trains and their associated cargo consists. The AAR provides side tracking system. If such an interchange rule were to occur, a computerized shipment tracking service that originated then the adoptability would increase to 100 percent. Current in the 1950s that currently identifies which train, known to battery and charger technologies will not permit continuous be traveling between two major stations, contains the Hazmat radiolocation tracking on non-power tank cars due to power cargo on a certain railcar. requirements of the devices. Continuous tracking on powered All railcars are required to have Automatic Vehicle Iden- units is possible and is enabled by emerging technologies tification (AVI) or AEI tags on them but the wayside, RFID such as PTC. Emerging communication technologies such readers are geographically sparse, and are not often on low- as WAVE would certainly play an important role in PTC.
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105 Market adoptability rating: 6 (Medium adoptability = F. Tracking--Location of in-flight aircraft and receiving Medium market adoptability need) ground vehicles (LTL) is known. Rationale for market adoptability rating: There is the need Technical capability rating: 9 (High capability = Low for Hazmat commodity identification information in the event technical capability need) of a Hazmat accident or unplanned release of product. The im- Rationale for technical capability rating: All commer- mediate adverse impact of a Hazmat release occurring during cial aircraft are required to file a flight plan whether trans- flight operations makes it crucial to have correct and immedi- porting dangerous goods or not. Aircraft are identified by ate information on the Hazmat commodity. Because shippers aircraft tail sign and company call sign. In addition to these make mandated surcharges on the shipment of dangerous regular identification routines, aircraft are identified based on goods, current economics have actually reduced the number of fixed or rotary wing, land or seaplane, and in certain irregu- dangerous goods shipments to those that are time-critical for lar occurrences as lifeflight or air ambulance. This classifica- their recipients. One drawback is that some may be tempted tion does not address military cargo; although in tracking not to declare dangerous goods contained in packages. activities, civil and military aircraft can use the same airway Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: When a ship- alignment system. per chooses to utilize air transport, there are several consid- Emerging technologies that address capability gap: erations for the selection of premium transportation. The The technology that is advancing this type of air activity assessment is primarily based on quantity limitations and involves the use of combined civil and military routing and time-sensitive delivery status. The use of limited quantity and tracking overseas where the military operations area over- small quantity exceptions may allow a shipper to continue to lay the commercial routes. There still will be redundant sys- utilize air shipping protocols and still remain economically tems when it comes to military transport in active combat viable with other less expensive methods. Accurate quantity arenas. and proper descriptions are of utmost importance when con- Market adoptability rating: 9 (High adoptability = Low sidering potential incident scenarios. market adoptability need) Rationale for market adoptability rating: The mandated E. Communication--The aircrew and ground operations level of compliance by individual member states keeps con- are in constant radio and electronic communication. This currence levels high. would include both flight and ground operations. Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Perhaps the only Technical Capability Rating: 9 (High capability = Low hindrances to full compliance are the use of uncertified car- technical capability need) riers in either remote operations or operations outside the Rationale for technical capability rating: All air crews country of origin. regardless of origin or type of aircraft are required to maintain access both vocally and electronically with air traffic controllers G. Security--Aircraft, cargo, and operator are resistant to as well as with company flight directors (although there are theft, diversion, sabotage and other intentional acts. communication "dead spots" within some air traffic control Technical capability rating: 9 (High capability = Low sectors). Commercial air operations are monitored fully and, technical capability need) in the era of post-9/11, involve some of the most stringently Rationale for technical capability rating: Aircraft, cargo prescribed conditions for transport of dangerous goods. operations, and support operations are mandated to be resis- Emerging capabilities that address capability gap: In con- tant to theft, diversion, sabotage, and other intentional acts. sideration of full compliance, there are only the interruptions Current practices within the industry (post-9/11) require the in commercial air traffic that may result during increased sun identification of all persons who could come in contact with spot and solar flare activities. a commercial aircraft. In many cases, this secured activity Market adoptability rating: 9 (High adoptability = Low is required by current FAA regulations for both ground and market adoptability need) carrier activities. In addition, it is the responsibility of each Rationale for market adoptability rating: Air carrier oper- municipal Airport Authority to employ (or contract for) ations are required to be able to maintain active and real-time uniformed personnel to verify the identification of those communications as a necessary part of business. Commercial permitted to access an aircraft regardless of the aircraft's dangerous goods air transport companies must comply with type (i.e., whether a passenger, cargo, or combination trans- the requirements adopted by the domestic and international port vehicle). regulatory bodies. Protecting the vehicle, cargo, and operator from security- Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: This business related risks requires technology solutions for each task. The practice is mandated and therefore there are not any alterna- area of greatest concern is the identification and background tive business practices available. inquiries for the contractors used to load or offload aircraft
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106 at the ground locations. This may also include contractors Emerging technologies that address the capability gap: involved with fueling aircraft. There are systems in place at ground operation sites that can Emerging technologies that address the capability gap: provide the aircraft load manifest and plan to first responders. Contractors and their proper identification are subject to These systems are relatively simple in practice but require increasing use of authentication technologies such as bio- other technologies such as multiple access band communi- metrics and smart cards. The use of RFID has been adopted cation and GPS technologies. in limited locations for cargo. This is commonly a transfer Market adoptability rating: 6 (Medium adoptability = point where cargo may be held for a few hours before con- Medium market adoptability need) tinuing to its final destination. Security is higher when cargo Rationale for market adoptability rating: These systems is moving. must be used in conjunction with other technologies. Market adoptability rating: 9 (High adoptability = Low Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Based on the ori- market adoptability need) gin of the transport, either in-flight or at an airport location, Rationale for market adoptability rating: The initial and multiple agencies would need access to cargo information. continuing costs of these systems have proven to be the pri- Also, in view of the already high level of safety consciousness mary deterrent to the complete adoption of these practices. involving both employees and response crews, additional Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: There are lim- expenditures during challenging financial conditions is more itations with some foreign states that permit undocumented difficult. vendor activities to apply to some flights into the United States. The use of vendors based principally on cost seems to be the Technology Development Priority--Air Mode potential weak link. Table D-13 is a recap of the functional requirement gap H. Emergency Response--Qualified emergency response is rating--air. delivered to incident and accident sites in as timely a man- Table D-14 is a recap of the mode importance rating. ner as necessary. Based on Tables D-13 and D-14, Table D-15 provides Technical capability rating: 8 (High capability = Low tech- the development priorities for the air mode functional nical capability need) requirements. Rationale for technical capability rating: It is critical that first responders are fully prepared for responding to incidents Extracted Screened Technologies--Air Mode or accidents involving aircraft transporting dangerous goods. It is important to recognize that inherent to aircraft opera- Table D-16 contains technologies the modal lead selected tions, there may be onsite and sometimes offsite locations from the screened research list as being applicable for the air where the ability to contain large amounts of highly volatile mode. No technologies are considered high priority develop- fuels is needed. ment needs so none are in bold type. Table D-13. Functional requirement gap rating--air. High Medium High High Low A. Package Integrity Market B. Equipment Reliability Adoptability Medium Medium High D. HM Commodity Need ID H. Emergency Rating Response Low C. Operator Performance Low Low Medium E. Communication F. Tracking G. Security Low Medium High Technical Capability Need Rating
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107 Table D-14. Mode importance rating. High Medium High Rail High Air Barge Serious Consequence High Medium Low Medium Truck Potential Pipeline (Volume Per Shipment) Low Low Low Medium Low Medium High Modal Activity Level (Ton-Miles) 1.5 Pipeline Mode typically made from high strength steel that has been engineered to provide good tolerance to natural and human events that Functional Requirements--Pipeline Mode could cause the product to escape. Most pipelines are buried NOTE: The pipeline mode has seven generic functional with a protective coating used to minimize the growth of cor- requirements. It does not have the "F. Tracking" functional rosion, along with cathodic protection methods to back up the requirement like all other modes. coatings. Pipelines are actually quite robust and resilient. Their improvements offer materials issues and related opportunities A. Package Integrity and Tracking--Ensures that the material to (1) minimize capital expenditures (CAPEX) and facilitate contents of the pipeline are not breached during normal and risk management and (2) minimize operating expenses (OPEX) abnormal operations, and capability exists to detect pressure and maximize the asset value over its life cycle. build-up and/or material release. For leak detection, pipeline operators typically use a com- Technical capability rating: 7 (High capability = Low tech- bination of flow verification through an accounting method, nical capability need) aerial, or land surveillance to find dead vegetation or other Pipelines are an economical and reliable transportation indications of a leak, and/or Computational Pipeline Moni- mode for natural gas, oil, and refined products. Pipelines are toring (CPM) systems to monitor for pipeline leaks. CPM is Table D-15. Functional requirement technology development priority--air. High Medium High High Low A. Package Integrity B. Equipment Reliability Mode C. Operator Performance Importance Medium D. HM Commodity ID Medium High Rating E. Communication F. Tracking G. Security H. Emergency Response Low Low Low Medium Low Medium High Functional Requirement Gap Rating
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108 Table D-16. Extracted screened technologies--air mode. Technology Need Description Potential Solution(s) Implementation of improved first responder Joint ventures with the Department of chemical detection system technology with Improved chemical sensors. Homeland Security Service training mission validated capabilities. in order to provide training to responders. Establish table topic exercises on decision Decision support. Decision support system. matrixes and fault tree diagrams. Coordinate response with Health and/or Protective foam (starting to appear in Center for Disease Control. Determine Equipment for mitigating biological agents. locations that offer communicable disease marketplace). ward training. Consider color coding of private containers Shipping container cargo contents or requiring shippers to provide external Not specified. identification. identification regimes. Emergency responders need access to contents of shipping papers electronically to Current applications exist in the form of bar determine commodity, have the ability to tie code readers for information distribution, into the shipper's data, and tap into a Electronic freight manifest. however the inputting of the information is database to get information on chemical not standardized. properties of the commodity and response advice. Establish UN identification for commodity Unique identifier on container. Not specified. codes and require shipper to affix. Access FAA 90 carrier file and automate Master database of information on what is in for recurring shipment types and origin and Electronic freight manifest. a shipment. destination routings. Capability to get reliable information to Interlink with GPS monitors that permit Not specified. satellite telephone downlink. emergency responders in remote areas. Establish standards for either eye or ear Security identification credential (for recognition. Possible funding may be transportation, not emergency response) that Not specified. available in conjunction with Homeland is universally accepted. Security or Department of Justice. Need one universal identification card that is simple, interoperable, and is read by one Universal credentialing system that carriers Biometrics-based universal security standard reader. When a person leaves the can adopt and monitor based on TSA credential. system, where they had access is known so profiles. that it can be closed out. Risk perception algorithms to determine FAA human criteria studies would establish Behavioral monitoring. baseline criteria. whether vehicle is being operated safely. Use of low life cycle cost plastic fiber-optic seals with RF communications running on a single battery with 4 years of life, under continuous monitoring. External seals would Once standards are in place in multi-modal have entry and state-of-health alarms sent to applications just ensure air requirements of Advanced cargo seals. a receiver talking to "the world," with all temperature and pressure for mishandling messages stored at a data collection point; incidents. Remotely monitored sealing array (RMSA) with cryptographically authenticated messages (much more resistant to defeat). Eye movement cameras, brain waves, Replicate findings on the highway mode. Physical condition/drowsy driver monitoring. movements. Innovative security sensing transportation Fiber-optic sensors and photonic sensor Establish standards in ground operations. applications. integrated wireless systems. IR spectroscopy to analyze for potentially hazardous chemicals, with 25,000 chemical Implement standards from the National Fire Detecting hazardous and chemical materials. Protection Association (NFPA) and OSHA. signatures stored that can be matched in 20 seconds.
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109 a computer-based monitoring tool which allows the pipeline pipe with reinforcing fibers to limit the size of a breach is being controller to respond to an anomaly that may indicate prod- investigated. Liquid line methods including mass balance uct release. Additionally, pipeline operators use preventa- and statistical methods and the application of Coriolis Effect tive methods such as internal pipeline inspection, hydrotest- mass flow meters can be used for leak detection. Verification ing, direct assessment (an assessment methodology that may of container integrity can be provided by airborne leak detec- indicate active corrosion sites related to external corrosion, tion technologies, including the PHMSA project Airborne internal corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking [SCC]), and Natural Gas Emission LIDAR (ANGEL) technology for the damage prevention programs to monitor for pipeline threats detection of small hazardous liquid and refined product leaks. such as corrosion, SCC, and third party damage. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with low cost sensors can Rationale for technical capability rating: Modern pipeline help ensure the integrity and security of the nation's pipelines. steels have good toughness to resist catastrophic failure due Other technologies include airborne infra-red chemical to corrosion growth or excavation equipment striking the sensors, mass balance leak detection, acoustic emission leak pipeline. Federal regulations require that pipeline in popu- detection, fiber-optic sensing, pressure analysis leak detec- lated areas be thicker, further reducing the likelihood of release tion, real-time pipeline monitoring, long-range guided wave due to natural or human events. Valves to stop flow in the rare technologies, mechanical damage fault tree analysis, Ground case of the release of product can be closed, often remotely Penetrating Radar (GPR) system for pipe location, magnetic from a central control room. While pipelines are not designed tracer for locating plastic pipe, and inspection technologies to withstand an intentional attack, many of the safeguards used for unpiggable pipeline. (NOTE: "Pig" is an acronym for Pipe- to prevent or minimize the effect of a release are applicable. line Inspection Gauge which refers to the use of the gauge to Existing leak detection techniques have trouble reliably get measurements or other information from within a pipeline detecting small pipeline leaks, while preventative inspection while product is flowing.) Also helpful will be a GPS-based sys- and test programs do not reliably detect all pipeline threats tem that warns (1) inspectors of excavation activity that is (microbial induced corrosion, SCC, etc.). Offshore pipelines occurring in an area without a valid One-Call ticket (i.e., a fea- present many additional problems related to inspection and re- ture of pipeline operations responding to the requirement that pair capabilities. Additionally, the emergence of products from an operator of a pipeline or utility respond within a set time to alternative energy technologies (ethanol and carbon dioxide) a request for marking the asset when excavation in an area is will introduce new problems for pipeline systems. Ethanol imminent) and (2) excavators and operators of the proximity contains components that cause cracking in steels, so pipelines of excavation equipment to underground facilities. often have to be protected from the product. The U.S. DOT Market adoptability rating: 7 (High adoptability = Low PHMSA project "Understanding how Fuel Grade Ethanol and market adoptability need) other ethanol-rich products might be transported via pipe- Rationale for market adoptability rating: Current leading- lines" is addressing this issue along with industry research by edge technologies are being used in an increasing number the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI). of new pipeline construction projects. However, retrofitting One of the leading causes of pipeline leaks is third party pipelines with modern materials and equipment is not per- excavation in the pipeline right of way. One very visible exam- formed on a routine basis. Pipelines are engineered for decades ple was a 1993 accident in which 330,000 gallons of diesel fuel of operation, so the adoption of new technology can happen leaked from a 36-inch pipeline and eventually into the Potomac quite slowly. River upstream of Washington, DC. The pipe was damaged Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Challenges to suc- during the installation of a parking lot over the pipeline. cessful implementation of the emerging technologies include PHMSA has many projects in the area of detecting equipment garnering industry interest in moving prototype systems into in the right-of-way and precise location of underground pip- commercialization in view of their cost. The cost of energy ing systems. One large effort has been the development of an products is typically at the forefront of public debate, and autonomous distributed sensor system that uses low frequency increasing the cost for improved safety and security will not sound wave detection to detect and report excavation activ- be easily accepted. For example, implementing real-time mon- ity and its location as well as sense third party damage. These itoring on a 1,000 mile pipeline at a current cost of tens of efforts can also be characterized as security issues if they are thousands of dollars per mile is clearly quite expensive. attempting to stop intentional damage, but accidental dam- age is far more prevalent. B. Equipment Reliability--Ensures that the pipeline equip- Emerging technologies that address the capability gap: ment is structurally sound and properly maintained, and Higher strength steels have been developed to lower the cost capability exists to detect problems. of installation of new pipelines. The resistance to breach by Technical capability rating: 5 (Medium capability = excavation equipment has also improved. The concept of steel Medium technical capability need)
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110 Rationale for technical capability rating: Federal regu- Rationale for market adoptability rating: While some lations for inspection and maintenance help ensure that the newer designs of equipment are available, they have not been pipeline is structurally sound. "One-Call" and 811 systems widely implemented because older equipment continues to have been adopted to help prevent accidental damage to be used. pipelines. The pipeline right of way is checked on a periodic Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Emerging tech- basis for signs of unauthorized excavation that may have nologies can be implemented on new pipelines, but convincing caused damage. Above ground surveys check the cathodic pipeline owners to retrofit existing pipelines can be difficult. protection and coating systems used to prevent the initiation and growth of corrosion anomalies. Inspection tools are run C. Operator Performance--Operator is able to success- inside the pipeline to assess the pipe for corrosion, dents, and fully conduct job function under normal and abnormal other anomalies that may grow to failure, allowing the prod- conditions. The capability exists to sense operator perfor- uct to escape. Materials are available to repair the pipeline mance degradation. without disrupting delivery. Technical capability rating: 7 (High capability = Low tech- Compressor and pump station reliability and availability nical capability need) are essential to overall pipeline delivery dependability, yet the Section 12 of the "Pipeline Inspection, Protection, Enforce- pipeline infrastructure is aging with equipment operating ment, and Safety Act of 2006" (54) provides general guidance well beyond its expected operating life. Old equipment can regarding regulations that will require operators to manage be problematic in finding parts for repairs (therefore reduc- the human factors risks in their control room. A partial quota- ing system reliability and redundancy) as well as complying tion from Section 12 is provided: § 60137. Pipeline control with the requirements for reducing environmental emissions. room management: ``(a) IN GENERAL.--Not later than June 1, If redundancy is not available, scheduled and unscheduled 2008, the Secretary shall issue regulations requiring each oper- maintenance can lead to outages in supply. The U.S. DOT ator of a gas or hazardous liquid pipeline to develop, implement, Office of Pipeline Safety (DOT OPS) requires the use of excess and submit" . . . "a human factors management plan designed flow valves that stop the flow of product when the flow exceeds to reduce risks associated with human factors, including fatigue, a specified amount. Automatic shut down valves can have in each control center for the pipeline." Few pipeline incidents are reliability problems, resulting in operators manually over- typically attributed to human factors. The most frequently riding fault signals. cited causes of oil pipeline incidents are third party damage, Starting turbines using natural gas results in significant corrosion, and equipment-related failure (55). However, volumes of gas vented to the atmosphere. The venting of gas several recent investigations of severe pipeline incidents represents considerable loss of revenue as well as the poten- have determined that controllers did not correctly identify tial exposure to pending greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations. and respond to abnormal situations in an effective and Alternative, cost effective, environmentally friendly, methods timely manner; thereby contributing to the severity of the for starting gas turbines in pipeline compression service are accident (56). needed. Rationale for technical capability rating: Federal regula- Preventative inspection and test programs do not reliably tions exist in 49 CFR 192 and 49 CFR 195 related to operator detect all pipeline threats (microbial induced corrosion, SCC, qualifications as well as drug and alcohol programs. Pipeline etc.). Offshore pipelines present many additional problems operators who perform covered tasks must be qualified. "Qual- related to inspection and repair capabilities. Additionally, the ified" means that an individual has been evaluated and can emergence of products from alternative energy technologies (a) perform assigned covered tasks and (b) recognize and (ethanol and carbon dioxide) will introduce new problems react to abnormal operating conditions. While relatively few for pipeline systems. The U.S. DOT PHMSA project "Under- technologies are in use to monitor operator performance, standing how Fuel Grade Ethanol and other ethanol-rich prod- personnel are well-trained in the alerting response technolo- ucts might be transported via pipelines" is addressing this issue gies, and there is not a large gap. along with industry research by the Pipeline Research Coun- Emerging technologies that address the capability gap: cil International (PRCI). Since pipeline operators do not operate vehicles in the deliv- Emerging technologies that address the capability gap: ery of the commodity, devices such as brain-wave monitors Technologies include more reliable shut down valves and more to ensure alertness are not as critical. One system that may efficient turbines; use of composite systems (not reinforced have utility is video monitoring to detect adverse behavior polymers but rather thinner steel used within a reinforcing patterns (for example in a control center) that may indicate scheme); and new or replacement materials other than steel. drowsiness or a physical emergency. Market adoptability rating: 3 (Low adoptability = High Market adoptability rating: 3 (Low adoptability = High market adoptability need) market adoptability need)
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111 Rationale for market adoptability rating: Personnel mon- Technical capability rating: 6 (Medium capability = itoring systems exist but have not been implemented to any Medium technical capability need) appreciable degree. Most pipeline systems use a Supervisory Control and Data Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Pipeline opera- Acquisition (SCADA) system. SCADA systems are computer- tions have less perceived need and are less inclined to invest based communication tools that monitor, process, transmit, in technologies that detect operator degradation. and display pipeline data and provide an integrated summary of remote pipeline sensors and controls. Pipeline controllers D. Hazmat Commodity Identification and Awareness-- engaged in SCADA operations monitor and control pipeline Ability to identify the cargo being transported. operations from a console in a pipeline control room, which Technical capability rating: 7 (High capability = Low is typically equipped with multiple SCADA consoles used to technical capability need) monitor and control separate sections of a larger pipeline Rationale for technical capability rating: Federal regu- system. SCADA systems may also be used directly for leak lations exist in 49 CFR 192 and 49 CFR 195 that require detection, can provide support for a leak detection system, or pipelines to be marked to indicate danger, name of the com- can be used independently of a leak detection system. Current modity (gas or liquid), operator name, and telephone number. technologies in use consist of a variety of radio, cellular, micro- Markers often do not indicate the exact product being trans- wave, and satellite wireless technologies that are used for data ported nor the operating pressures and temperatures. Although transmission. Pipeline operators also utilize hand-held radios this minimizes security concerns, it can be problematic for when out in the field. emergency response efforts if this information is unknown or Rationale for technical capability rating: Authentication incomplete. The locations of all energy pipelines were required of users and systems using old technology may lack up-to- to be mapped and the data entered into a DOT database called date cyber-security protocols, while more reliance on Inter- the National Pipeline Mapping System (NPMS). This data- net and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software brings base became available in summer 2001 and was shut down new vulnerabilities. The move from proprietary technolo- just after 9/11 for security reasons. This database is needed gies to more standardized and open solutions together with for Hazmat awareness, since local authorities, first responders, the increased number of connections between SCADA sys- and the public could use the database to identify the product tems and office networks and the Internet has made them in the pipeline. more vulnerable to attacks. Consequently, the security of Emerging technologies that address the capability gap: SCADA-based systems has come into question because they The NPMS now has a viewer by county, a compromise to are increasingly seen because they are extremely vulnerable to address security concerns. The NPMS database is growing cyber-terrorism attacks. and includes natural gas transmission lines, hazardous liq- Emerging technologies that address the capability gap: uid trunklines, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants. Next generation protocols such as unified architecture take Information on other types of pipelines and facilities are advantage of XML, web services, and other modern web tech- included in the database, such as gathering and distribution nologies, making SCADA IT systems more easily supportable. lines. Additional facilities are being added on a voluntary Surety Enhancement for Wireless Automated Control Net- basis. works allows a secure automated control system that depends Market adoptability rating: 5 (Medium adoptability = on a hybrid wired/wireless communication infrastructure and Medium market adoptability need) standards-based protocols. Cost-effective, high performance Rationale for market adoptability rating: Technologies solutions are needed for critical infrastructure cyber security, for providing commodity identification and awareness are including an energy management system (EMS)/SCADA and becoming more widely used. Some gaps exist such as iden- all related business functions. tifying hazardous products that are transported in batches. Market adoptability rating: 8 (High adoptability = Low Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: This is more market adoptability need) of political issue than a technology issue. Many of the tech- Rationale for market adoptability rating: These technolo- nologies that improve Hazmat commodity identification gies are being successfully incorporated into pipeline infor- and awareness can negatively impact security (e.g., the belief mation systems. that a placard on a railcar helps someone with malicious intent Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: The prevalence identify the most dangerous substance in the train). of cyber attacks means that systems must constantly be up to the task of defeating them. E. Communication --Ensure two-way communication at all times between control stations and other critical F. Tracking--This functional requirement does not apply to infrastructure. the pipeline mode.
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112 G. Security Pipelines, equipment, cargo, and operators are The pipe was damaged during the installation of a parking resistant to theft, diversion, sabotage, and other inten- lot over the pipeline. U.S. DOT PHMSA has many projects tional acts. in the area of involving detecting equipment in the right-of- Technical capability rating: 3 (Low capability = High tech- way and precise location of underground piping systems. nical capability need) One large effort has been development of an autonomous Rationale for technical capability rating: The hundreds distributed sensor system that uses low frequency sound of thousands of miles of pipelines that crisscross the United wave detection to detect and report excavation activity and States are monitored remotely and have a significant poten- its location as well as sense third party damage. These efforts tial for undetected theft, sabotage, or other intentional acts. can also be characterized as security issues if they are used Theft is a problem in Mexico, South America, and Africa, but to stop intentional damage, but accidental damage is far is rare in the United States. Diversion, while possible for other more prevalent. transportation methods, is less likely since an infrastructure Emerging technologies that address the capability gap: would have to be established. Pipeline damage from excava- The same technologies that detect commodity release can tion equipment is a constant consideration for pipeline oper- help detect a security incident in which a pipeline is breached. ators. This is a similar threat to sabotage, just not intentional. Airborne leak detection technologies, including U.S. DOT Worldwide, attempts to breach pipelines have been made, but PHMSA project's Airborne Natural Gas Emission LIDAR most are unsuccessful because pipeline materials are designed (ANGEL) technology to the detection of small hazardous liq- to resist damage. However, some attempts are successful in dis- uid and refined product leaks. UAVs with low cost sensors to rupting delivery of energy products for extended times. Also, ensure the integrity and security of the nation's pipelines. if damage from an unsuccessful attempt goes undetected, it Other technologies include Airborne LIDAR/infrared chem- could eventually cause failure. ical sensors, mass balance leak detection, acoustic emission However, the consequence of sabotage can be great and this leak detection, fiber-optic sensing, pressure analysis leak detec- must be considered. Some pipelines are a single source of nat- tion, real-time pipeline monitoring, inspection technologies ural gas for a large population area, which can be problematic for unpiggable pipeline, long-range guided wave technologies, when the public relies on this for heat. If a natural gas pipe- mechanical damage fault tree analysis, GPR system for pipe line is breached in a populated area, the results could be location, and magnetic tracer for locating plastic pipe. catastrophic if ignition occurs. If an oil or products line is Also, a GPS-based system that warns (1) inspectors of exca- breached near a waterway, the environmental impact can vation activity that is occurring in an area without a valid One- be substantial. Call ticket (i.e., a feature of pipeline operations responding Pipeline operators typically use a combination of flow ver- to the requirement that an operator of a pipeline or utility ification through an accounting method, aerial, or land sur- respond within a set time to a request for marking the asset veillance to find dead vegetation or other indications of a leak, when excavation in an area is imminent) and (2) excavators and/or CPM systems to monitor for pipeline leaks. CPM is a and operators of the proximity of excavation equipment to computer-based monitoring tool which allows the pipeline underground facilities. controller to respond to an anomaly that may indicate prod- Market adoptability rating: 4 (Medium capability = uct release. Additionally, pipeline operators use preventative Medium market adoptability need) methods such as internal pipeline inspection, hydrotesting, Rationale for market adoptability rating: Current leading- direct assessment (an assessment methodology that may indi- edge technologies are being used in an increasing number of cate active corrosion sites related to external corrosion, inter- locations. nal corrosion, and SCC), and damage prevention programs to Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: Challenges to monitor for pipeline threats such as corrosion, SCC, and third successful implementation of the emerging technologies will party damage. be cost and garnering industry interest in moving prototype Rationale for technical capability rating: Theft is typically systems into commercialization. For example, implementing performed in small quantities. Existing leak detection tech- real-time monitoring on a 1,000 mile pipeline currently costs niques have trouble reliably detecting small pipeline leaks. In- tens of thousands of dollars per mile. line inspection methods can detect taps on the pipeline that could indicate an attempt to steal the contents. Systems being H. Emergency Response--Qualified emergency response, developed to detect third party damage would typically be use- including repair and remediation, is delivered to an inci- ful for detecting sabotage as well. One of the leading causes dent site in a timely manner. of pipeline leaks is third party excavation in the pipeline right Technical capability rating: 8 (High capability = Low tech- of way. One of the most visible examples was a 1993 accident nical capability need) in which 330,000 gallons of diesel fuel leaked from a 36-inch Rationale for technical capability rating: Federal regulations pipeline into the Potomac River upstream of Washington, DC. exist for requiring the development of emergency response
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113 Table D-17. Functional requirement gap rating--pipeline. Medium High High C. Operator B. Equipment High Performance Reliability Market Low D. HM Commodity ID High Adoptability Medium Medium G. Security H. Emergency Need Response Rating Low Low Low Medium A. Package Integrity E. Communication Low Medium High Technical Capability Need Rating plans. For natural gas pipelines, operators are required to nologies such as composite wraps are being embraced but have Emergency Plans (including training of personnel) under not rapidly. 192.615. For liquid pipelines, operators are required to have Challenges/obstacles to market adoption: The relative Emergency Plans under 195.403(e) and Emergency Response scarcity of major leaks of dangerous substances from pipelines Training under 195.404. Both require operators to follow is perhaps the biggest obstacle to this technology area. the guidance in American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice (API RP) 1162, First Edition, December 2003. Tech- Technology Development Priority-- nologies that alert operators to problems are in use. Pipeline Mode Emerging technologies that address the capability gap: A number of repair methods are being developed. One is con- Table D-17 is a recap of the functional requirement gap tinuing development of composite wrap sleeves. New appli- rating--pipeline. cations and different types of composites are being developed Table D-18 is a recap of the mode importance rating. and they have also been used for other applications such as Based on Tables D-17 and D-18, Table D-19 provides the external sleeve crack arrestors on pipelines. After a relatively development priorities for the pipeline mode functional slow start and an extended industry/regulatory acceptance requirements. period, composite wraps are becoming more standard in the pipeline industry. Extracted Screened Technologies-- Market adoptability rating: 4 (Medium adoptability = Pipeline Mode Medium market adoptability need) Rationale for market adoptability rating: Current sys- Table D-20 contains technologies the modal lead selected tems provide emergency response capabilities for Hazmat from the screened research list as being applicable for the pipe- leak detection and response. New remediation and repair tech- line mode. Table D-18. Mode importance rating. High Medium High Rail High Air Serious Barge Consequence High Potential Medium Low Medium Truck (Volume Per Pipeline Shipment) Low Low Low Medium Low Medium High Modal Activity Level (Ton-Miles)
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Table D-19. Functional requirement technology development priority--pipeline. Medium A. Package Integrity High High D. HM Commodity ID B. Equipment High C. Operator E. Communication Reliability Performance H. Emergency G. Security Response Mode Medium Low Medium High Importance Rating Low Low Low Medium Low Medium High Functional Requirement Gap Rating Table D-20. Extracted screened technologies--pipeline mode. Technology Need Description Potential Solution(s) Liquid line methods including mass balance and statistical Small volume leak detection. Ability to pinpoint leaks. methods and the application of Coriolis Effect mass flow meters. Improved ability to repair Pipeline repair improvements. Composite patch materials. damaged pipeline. The marriage of nanotechnology and microencapsulation to The commodity does not adversely react in end-use but Leak stoppage via a chemical reaction produce a leak control scheme activates when a leak exposes it to shear-stress flowing produced by the commodity itself. inexpensive enough to include through a crack coupled with a trigger reaction driven by with the product (regardless of oxygen. transport mode). Airborne leak detection. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). Materials for pipelines to compensate for the Composite materials, thinner steel used within a reinforcing New pipeline materials. current lack of quantity and quality of steel. scheme. Simulator training applications are not limited to abnormal operating condition training. In many process control industries, the opportunity of presenting infrequent (or even Improved simulator training. Advanced simulators. never-before-encountered) conditions through simulation tend to result in a focus on abnormal operating condition training. Automated communications forms that require the Provide a means of both facilitating and Computer-based communication entry of key delivery parameters (e.g., origin, destination, tracking communications between schedulers tools. product volume, flow rate, scheduled start, scheduled stop, and controllers. and operational considerations). If implemented and used appropriately, decision support Computerized procedures or documented tools can aid decision-making by walking users through the heuristics that aid users in decision-making. Decision support tools. relevant set of decision questions and often pulling the relevant decision parameters directly from the SCADA system. Such aids may reduce decision-making time. Reduce the number of manual calculations Systems to automate Manual calculations, manual record-keeping, or extensive needed. calculations required. data entry can be time consuming and error prone. This A variety of technology approaches have been researched. Several U.S. transportation operators who have Some workers experience fatigue for reasons Sleep disorder screening not associated with the work environment. technologies. identified worker alertness as an operational risk have instituted confidential sleep disorder screening as part of their broader fatigue management programs. Existing pipeline leak detection techniques Commercial systems undergoing continuous improvement. have trouble reliably detecting small pipeline Mass balance leak detection. Competition from competing technologies drives leaks. development. Existing pipeline leak detection techniques Acoustic emission leak Some DOT sponsored work, but commercial systems have trouble reliably detecting small pipeline detection. available and being developed privately. leaks. Fiber-optic/photonic or wireless sensors for fixed point Existing pipeline leak detection techniques monitoring of infrastructure health and environment have trouble reliably detecting small pipeline Fiber-optic sensing. problems. Some DOT sponsored work, but commercial leaks. systems available and being developed privately. (continued on next page)
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Table D-20. (Continued). Technology Need Description Potential Solution(s) Existing pipeline leak detection techniques Commercial systems undergoing continuous improvement. have trouble reliably detecting small pipeline Pressure analysis leak detection. Competition from competing technologies drives leaks. development. Offshore pipelines presenting many additional Some DOT-sponsored work, but commercial systems problems related to inspection and repair Improved inspection pigs. available and being developed privately. capabilities. Products from alternative energy technologies (ethanol and carbon dioxide) will introduce Development of new inhibitors. Protect the pipeline. new problems for pipeline systems. Preventing third party excavation in the Acoustic, fiber-optic, seismic, Implementing real-time monitoring on a 1,000 mile pipeline pipeline right-of-way. etc. currently costs tens of thousands of dollars per mile. Starting turbines using natural gas results in significant Start-up inefficiencies. More efficient turbines. volumes of gas vented to the atmosphere. There are many commercial methods to map underground DTRS56-02-T-0005, "Digital utilities. None are perfect, so development continues. This Pipeline Damage Prevention--Onshore. Mapping of Buried Pipelines with is more a problem for distribution pipelines. Transportation a Dual Array System." pipelines are marked and are typically easier to find since they are steel. There are many commercial methods to map underground DTRS56-02-T-0006, "Pipeline utilities. Passive systems use magnetometers to detect the Damage Prevention Through the ferromagnetic steel, active systems impress an AC current Pipeline Damage Prevention--Onshore. Use of Locatable Magnetic on the pipe (conductivity needed); this gives a better Plastic Pipe and a Universal estimate of depth. Plastic pipes are especially difficult since Locator" they are not conductive or ferromagnetic. DTRS56-04-T-0006, "Effectiveness of Prevention Pipeline Damage Prevention--Onshore. Process development, not new technology. Methods for Excavation Damage." DTRS56-04-T-0007, "Infrasonic PIGPEN low freq sound wave (infrasonic) detection to Pipeline Damage Prevention-- Frequency Seismic Sensor sense third party damage, DTRS56-04-T-00078, DTRS57- Onshore/Alaska. System for Preventing Third 05-C-10110, DTPH56-08-T-000019 and DTRS57-04-C- Party Damage to Gas Pipelines." 10002. DTPH56-06-T-000005, Directional drilling equipment can bore directly into "Differential Impedance Obstacle pipelines. The sensors developed on this project are Pipeline Damage Prevention--Onshore. Detection Sensor (DIOD)-- intended to detect pipelines and guide equipment in Phase 2." alternate directions. DTRS57-05-C-10110, PIGPEN low freq sound wave (infrasonic) detection to Pipeline Damage Prevention-- "Infrasonic Frequency Seismic sense third party damage, DTRS56-04-T-00078, DTRS57- Onshore/Alaska. Sensor System for Pipeline 05-C-10110, DTPH56-08-T-000019 and DTRS57-04-C- Integrity Management." 10002. DTPH56-07-P-000046, Ethanol contains components that cause cracking in steel. "Determine the Requirements for Pipelines often have to be protected from the product. This Pipeline Damage Prevention--Onshore. Existing Pipeline, Tank and project is developing guidelines for safe transportation of Terminal Systems to Transport ethanol including use of coatings and inhibitors. Ethanol without Cracking." DTRS56-04-T-0012, DTPH56-05-T-0004, and DTPH56-08- DTRS56-04-T-0012, "Hazardous Pipeline Assessment and Leak Detection-- T-000019 are similar projects with similar objectives. The Liquids Airborne Lidar Onshore/Offshore/Alaska. product (Hazmat Liquids, Natural Gas) and sensor type Observation Study (HALOS)." vary. DTPH56-05-T-0004, "Use of DTRS56-04-T-0012, DTPH56-05-T-0004, and DTPH56-08- Pipeline Assessment and Leak Detection-- Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) for T-000019 are similar projects with similar objectives. The Onshore/Alaska. Pipeline Surveillance to Improve product (Hazmat Liquids, Natural Gas) and sensor type Safety and Lower Cost." vary. DTPH56-08-T-000017, "GPS- Pipeline Assessment and Leak Detection-- Damage prevention by continuously monitoring the position Based Excavation Onshore. of excavating equipment. Encroachment Notification." DTPH56-08-T-000019, PIGPEN low freq sound wave (infrasonic) detection to sense Pipeline Assessment and Leak Detection-- "Advanced Development of third party damage, DTRS56-04-T-00078, DTRS57-05-C- Onshore. Proactive Infrasonic Gas 10110, DTPH56-08-T-000019 and DTRS57-04-C-10002. Pipeline Evaluation Network." Low cost monitoring of pipelines for third party Similar technologies for Implementing real-time monitoring on a 1,000 mile pipeline intrusion, theft, and sabotage. detection of third party damage. currently costs tens of thousands of dollars per mile.