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9 CHAPTER 1 Background 1.1 Project Objectives in Chapter 2, Task 4 is presented in terms of planned activities. Thus, the findings and applications discussed in Chapter 3 The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a list of focus on results obtained from executing the Task 4 work near-term (less than 5 years) and longer-term (515 years) plan, which defines Task 6 activity. (NOTE: Task 5 is sub- technologies that are candidates for use in enhancing the safety mission of the interim report, capturing the activities and and security of Hazmat transportation, as applied by shippers, results of Tasks 1 through 4, and Task 7 is the final report carriers, emergency responders, or government regulatory and documenting the entire research effort.) enforcement agencies; (2) identify emerging technologies that hold the greatest promise (in terms of effectiveness) of being introduced during these near- and longer-term spans; and 1.2 Problem Statement (3) identify potential impediments to and opportunities for and Discussion their development, deployment, and maintenance (e.g., tech- nical, economic, legal, and institutional). A big challenge in the planning and conduct of this project The remaining organization of this report includes the was to identify a research methodology that recognized and following: captured the needs of the various transportation modes, and then in the wide universe of technologies, finding the Chapter 2: Research Approach (All Tasks) and Preliminary emerging ones that will best meet those needs. An additional Findings (Tasks 1 through 3) challenge was the reality that by definition, these technolo- Chapter 3: Findings and Applications (from executing the gies would not already be in the marketplace. Rather, they Task 4 work plan) would be found in the research departments of companies Chapter 4: Conclusions and Recommendations both big and small, government laboratories, universities, and consortia. Some would not be far along; for the emerging NOTE: The findings and applications for Tasks 1 through 3 technologies farthest out on the 15-year development horizon, are provided in Chapter 2. These findings include the selection there would not be nearly as much concrete information to and general characterization of the preliminary most prom- go on. Once the most promising emerging technologies were ising emerging technologies, which sets the stage for the final identified, finding their developers, collecting enough perti- research. It was considered necessary to provide these find- nent information from them, and making judgments about ings before Chapter 3 to most effectively show the logical pro- the anticipated path to the marketplace for each of the tech- gression of the research as it built on the findings. However, nology areas were themselves challenges that had to be met.