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persons within the state for further discussion. The Two slightly different versions of the question- objective was to identify a set of agencies within the naire were developed to ensure that applicable ques- state to interview for their perspectives on the Coor- tions were asked of each agency type, given that the dination Plans and the associated grant programs. interviews were conducted with agencies ranging Within each state, the study team attempted to contact from small human services agencies to large urban a cross-section of agency types, including MPOs, transit agencies. The two sets of questions were geared RPOs, transit agencies, human services transportation toward: providers, and NGOs. 1. State DOTs, Metropolitan Planning Organi- The purpose of the interviews was two-fold: zations, and County and City Governments 1. Determining the extent to which the respon- 2. Local Organizations: Transportation Pro- dents believe coordinated public transit/human viders, Human Services Providers, and Public services transportation plans have met FTA Interest Groups goals of enhancing transportation access, min- Table 5 shows the agencies that were interviewed imizing duplication of services, and facilitat- within each of the six states. ing the most appropriate and cost-effective transportation possible with available re- sources; and State-by-State Interview Results 2. Ascertaining the cost of developing and main- The next sections provide an overview of the re- taining these Coordination Plans (in terms of sults obtained by state. The interviews covered a time and money) to ensure that resources are range of agency types, including each state's DOT, being used wisely and effectively, resulting in which had previously been surveyed at a more cur- the better, more cost-effective and coordi- sory level as part of the web-based survey for this nated programs that the plans are expected to study. At least three other agencies were interviewed foster. in each state, including transit agencies, human ser- The state DOTs, and subsequently the recom- vices transportation providers, MPOs, and RPOs. mended agencies, were contacted between Decem- Overall, most agencies felt that the Coordination ber 2009 and March 2010. Each agency was con- Plan requirements have helped their agency and re- tacted to set up a time for a telephone interview, with gion to provide a higher quality and more effective the aim of conducting the discussion within 45 min- level of service for meeting human services trans- utes to 1 hour. An interview questionnaire was de- portation needs. Tables 611 show summaries, by veloped to aid the discussion with each agency; it state, of the interview responses. The detailed inter- was expected that some of the questions would get view summaries for all 25 interviews can be found answered in the course of answering a previous in Appendix C. question, and some may not be applicable to the or- Missouri. Missouri agencies have found the Coor- ganization at hand. The interview questionnaire can dination Plans required for Section 5310, 5316, and be found in Appendix B. 5317 funding effective in improving human services transportation statewide. Creation of the plans has included new participants such as nonprofit and pri- Summary of Survey Responses vate companies and has brought about improved co- Interviews Held ordination among agencies. Customer outreach and improved information through service marketing The questions in the survey were divided into and promotion have enabled the programs to meet five sections: customer needs. 1. Planning Process However, there is a concern by the Missouri re- 2. Program Management spondents that the ability of agencies to continue to 3. Perceived Success and Benefits of the Plans apply for grant money is lacking, both from a need for and Funds matching funds and from a lack of administrative and 4. Coordination planning capability. There was agreement among the 5. Supplementary Questions (e.g., discussion of state's respondents that combining or streamlining successful/unsuccessful projects) the programs would minimize the burden. In addition, 28

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Table 5 Organizations interviewed by state. Missouri Ohio Pennsylvania South Carolina Virginia Washington Missouri DOT Ohio DOT Pennsylvania DOT South Carolina DOT Virginia DOT Washington DOT December 15, 2009 December 15, 2009 January 7, 2010 February 5, 2010 December 15, 2009 December 16, 2009 Meramec Regional Licking County Area Lycoming County Planning Santee-Lynches Regional RADAR1 a rural NGO People For People a Planning Commission, a Transportation Study, a Commission, a Council of Governments, Human Services rural non-profit Human rural regional planning small urban MPO. Metropolitan Planning an RPO. Transportation provider. Services Transportation commission. February 2, 2010 Organization. February 17, 2010 December 29, 2009 provider. January 13, 2010 February 12, 2010 January 7, 2010 Mr. Goodcents LimaAllen County Lycoming-Clinton Counties Lower Savannah Council Rappahannock-Rapidan Puget Sound Regional Foundation, a Public Regional Planning Commission for of Governments, a Rural Regional Commission a Council an urban MPO. Interest Group/Mid- Commission, a small urban Community Action3, a Planning Organization. rural planning district January 13, 2010 America Regional Council MPO. private, non-profit February 24, 2010 commission. of Governments (Kansas February 8, 2010 community action agency. January 7, 2010 City), a nonprofit MPO.2 February 1, 2010 January 15, 2010 Southeast Missouri Delaware Area Transit Town & Country Transit, a Central Midlands Council Hampton Roads Transit Thurston Regional Transportation Services Agency, a rural transit transit agency in of Governments, a regional an urban transit agency. Planning Council a small Inc., a non-profit general agency. Armstrong County. planning organization and January 29, 2010 urban MPO. public transportation February 22, 2010 January 26, 2010 urban MPO. February 16, 2010 service. March 9, 2010 February 3, 2010 Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), a large urban transit system. March 4, 2010 1Not an acronym. 2Interviewee was affiliated with both organizations. 3Known as STEP (Success Through Engagement and Partnership). Table 6 Missouri interview summaries. Southeast Missouri Meramec Regional Planning Mid-America Regional Council Transportation Services Commission Mr. Goodcents Foundation1 of Governments1 A non-profit general public Interview Topic Area A rural regional planning commission A public interest group A nonprofit urban MPO transportation service Perceived Efficacy of the Effective; coordination did not exist Effective Effective Effective; aided in the marketing Coordination Plans prior to the plan. of services. Role in Coordination Plan Lead; supported by local transit Supporting; collected and Lead; supported by local Supporting; reviewed plans Development providers; funding for planning process analyzed data for local MPO, universities, non-profits; plan provided by five regional planning provided by state DOT. provided other research developed as a part of Outlook commissions and participated in assistance. 2040: Regional Long-Range stakeholder outreach events. Transportation Plan. Plan Development In-house In-house In-house N/A Perceived Coordination Created a greater awareness of the Contributed to the understanding Developed a constructive dialogue Coordination process has enabled Plan Results need for transit services and transit of all of the components of the between the public and private the organization to promote their funding. local human services nonprofit and for-profit activities. transportation system. stakeholders. Grant Programs Utilized 5316, 5317 5316, 5317 5316, 5317 5310, formerly had 5316 Project Identification, Prioritization and selection is done at All project applicants required to All project applicants required to N/A Prioritization, and Selection the state level, but locally the main demonstrate how their project fits demonstrate how their project fits priority is on the continuation of into the Coordination Plan. into the Coordination Plan. existing services. Perceived Project Once the grants are expended, there Finding a local match has never Need sustainable funding sources When a local JARC match was Continuation Needs is no way to continue services. been an issue for local to meet growing service demands. lost in 2006, services funded by organizations. JARC ended. Major Concerns Expressed The funding is very limited, so the Older existing agencies have had The organization lacks the projects do not reach many new difficulty in meeting the capacity and resources to meet populations. requirements for NF. current demand. Difficulties in meeting strict grant requirements. Desired Changes Would like to stay involved in the Use the same process and criteria Plan can be improved by The plan needs to apply to non- Expressed prioritization and outcomes of funded for both JARC and NF. educating stakeholders about its FTA human services projects. relation to other plans. transportation grants. 1The interviews of Mr. Goodcents Foundation and the Mid-America Regional Council of Governments were conducted by interviewing one person who is affiliated with both organizations. 29

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Table 7 Ohio interview summaries. Licking County Area Transportation Study Lima-Allen County Regional Planning Delaware Area Transit Agency (DATA) A small urban MPO east of the Columbus Council A rural transit agency north of the Interview Topic Area metropolitan region A small urban MPO in Northwestern Ohio Columbus metropolitan region Perceived Efficacy of the Ineffective; redundant with coordination Effective; identified existing local Effective; there were no prior attempts at Coordination Plans mechanisms already in place and no JARC or NF coordination that most were unaware of, coordination and the need for transportation grant projects have been realized. and illustrated possibilities for more coordination to manage high growth in coordination. demand was crucial. Role in Coordination Plan Lead; local transit board coordination sub- Lead Lead; developed in conjunction with a Development committee assisted. group of 10 key stakeholders. Plan Development In-house; consultant assistance was offered by In-house Consultant led; consultant services paid for the state, but not used. by the state DOT. Perceived Coordination Plan The region already had a strong coordination Helped non-profit and government A new group of coordination stakeholders, Results process in place prior to the plan, but agencies better understand each the Transportation Collaborative, was relationships were strengthened. organization's funding sources. created to oversee coordination efforts. Grant Programs Utilized 5310 5316, 5317 5316, 5317 Project Identification, Prioritization, Through their stakeholder involvement process Priority projects identified through extensive The Transportation Collaborative prioritizes and Selection and surveys of the general public and relevant qualitative and quantitative analysis of projects based on the needs identified in agencies, they developed a set of prioritized current services and gaps in the the Coordination Plan. project types. Coordination Plan. Perceived Project Continuation N/A Local match funding difficult to find. County will continue to fund plan updates Needs and provide matching funds. Major Concerns Expressed There is no local matching funding available. Local matching requirements are There needs to be a special focus within The region did have a single NF application difficult to meet. NF, or in another grant program, on that they would like to submit, but they Time and funds were wasted meeting the needs of seniors that are not cannot find the required matching funds. translating materials into Spanish; in disabled, but prefer not to drive. This Nothing new was learned in developing the Allen County there isn't a community population is a rapidly growing portion of Coordination Plan. needing the translated materials. the users of DATA's system. 5310 vehicle inventory in the plan has made it appear that there are excess vehicles; however, that is not true and it has made it impossible to get new 5310 vehicles. Desired Changes Expressed Increase the federal match to 80-90%. None. The agency hopes that the program is continued. Table 8 Pennsylvania interview summaries. Town & Country Transit STEP, Inc. Lycoming County Planning SEPTA A rural transit agency in Armstrong A rural non-profit in Commission A large urban transit agency County Lycoming and Clinton Counties An MPO serving the Philadelphia region Perceived Efficacy of the Effective; plan process illuminated Effective; provides a place for Effective; the plan enhanced their Ineffective; coordination already Coordination Plans service gaps and brought together comprehensive discussion of ability to expand services in a existed, and SAFETEA-LU stakeholders. needs and program planning. strategic way. reduced their JARC funding. Role in Coordination Plan Lead Supporting; the local MPO leads Lead; local transit stakeholder Supporting; local MPO is the lead. Development the process. advisory board reviews. Plan Development In-house N/A In-house In-house Perceived Coordination Deepened relationships with other Improved relationship between Eliminated the duplication of Redundant with existing Plan Results government agencies and community non-profits and the government services. coordination process and plan, no non-profits, improving coordination. sector. new coordination achieved. Grant Programs Utilized 5310, 5316 5316 5310, 5316 5316, 5317 Project Identification, The Coordination Plan identified a The organization prioritizes The transit advisory board The agency submits their list Prioritization, and Selection gap in late-night service to the projects based on where they aids the agency in project of needs to the MPO's local hospital. A JARC grant was anticipate employment growth. prioritization. Human Services Committee used to add this service to the Preference is given to that scores and ranks all hospital, leading to a consistent applications from agencies applications. ridership increase on this route. already in the coordination Applications recommended The plan identified a need for a system; applications for non- by the MPO's Human targeted effort to involve disabled coordinated system agencies Services Committee are then users of transit and paratransit must prove why their considered by the MPO's services in the decision-making services are not redundant Board of Directors for final process through a standing with the coordinated system. selection. The final list is advisory council. returned to the agency for submission to FTA. Perceived Project Persons with Disabilities program has All of the projects have become State provides grant matches, so JARC projects selected are Continuation Needs ongoing funding; the state provides 85 self-sustaining after the grant no local funding is needed. sustainable, and matched by state percent of the funding, and the agency money was expended. funding. NF used only for capital the remaining 15 percent. projects. Major Concerns Expressed Lack of local matching funds. Need to consolidate public Success of the programs is Agency's role as a direct recipient meetings. difficult to quantify. is burdensome. Desired Changes Eliminate local match requirements. Would like advanced notice of Desires standardized performance Agency wants the MPO to Expressed when the grants are due, and measures to reduce time spent on become the direct recipient or to greater financial support for the performance evaluation but eliminate all sub-recipients and grant application administrative ensures that performance is well have all applicants apply directly work. tracked. to FTA or PennDOT. 30

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Table 9 South Carolina interview summaries. Central Midlands Council of Governments Santee-Lynches Regional Council of Governments Lower Savannah Council of Governments (CMCOG) (SLRCOG) (LSCOG) A small urban MPO and regional planning Interview Topic Area An RPO An RPO organization Perceived Efficacy of the Modest; planning is secondary to availability of funds. Good; funds and the planning process have Modest; planning has brought improved Coordination Plans Providers do not see benefit of planning. brought new credibility to planning efforts. coordination, but providers are skeptical of mandated requirements. Role in Coordination Plan Lead Lead Lead as both a regional planning organization Development and MPO, in cooperation with transit agency. Plan Development One of the first plans developed in the state. All One of the first plans developed in the state. Working to upgrade with more information; planning now done in-house. All planning now done in-house. scoping study to identify needs and resources. Perceived Coordination Plan Effective in bringing together stakeholders and Already had established stakeholders; only Improved, on-going coordination is seen as a Results ensuring coordination. minor process changes to meet federal real benefit of the coordinated planning requirements. process. Grant Programs Utilized 5310 only to date. Section 5316 applications have 5310, 5316, and 5317 5310, 5316, and 5317. Section 5316 and 5317 been rejected. received both through state and as a direct recipient. Project Identification, Priority is funding contracted service operations. Priority is funding contracted service CMCOG focuses on short-term capital projects, Prioritization, and Selection Local prioritization often overruled at state and operations. largely vehicle procurement. federal level. Would like to see greater weight Providers must coordinate services and given to local priorities. provide transportation to any customers, or receive only the lowest priority from LSCOG. Perceived Project Affected by local cutbacks. Would like to see a Local match difficult to identify and services Providers are responsible for local match, Continuation Needs funding process that takes into account existing are being cut back. One urban connection limiting them to small, short-term projects. conditions and factors in allocating funds, i.e., allowing just had Saturday service eliminated, leading greater costs per passenger mile in rural areas. to the loss of jobs by some customers. Major Concerns Expressed Inability to use federal funds from different sources Lack of timeliness and flexibility in federal Little information collected to date on (e.g., Health and Human Services, Veteran's Affairs) funding process is tying up needed funds. performance and outcomes of projects. along with FTA grants due to different timelines and Feel state process does not take into CMCOG plans to improve this, but would like processes. account local conditions. federal guidelines. Desired Changes Expressed Combine separate program requests into a larger Would like coordination and A partial programmatic distribution of funds, whole, i.e., disabled to work. cooperation at the local level to be i.e., by needs population, would provide Performance measures that focus on outcomes rewarded. continuity of funding and sustain longer/larger and results, along with an application and State needs more guidance from FTA projects, as well as giving more authority to program monitoring process tied to those in making funds flexible and further local planners. measures. enabling coordination. Table 10 Virginia interview summaries. Rappahannock-Rapidan RADAR Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) Regional Commission A rural non-profit Human Services Interview Topic Area An urban transit agency A rural planning district commission Transportation provider Perceived Efficacy of the "Very positive" outcomes for interagency "Big benefit" to the regional commission, plan Difficult to assess at this time, as the Coordination Plans collaboration and service provision. requirements and the NF funding critical to plan has only been in place for 18 improving human services transportation. months. Role in Coordination Plan Lead; the local MPO and a smaller transit agency Lead; a multi-organization working group created Supporting lead; worked closely with Development assisted. to guide plan development assisted. public agencies and Virginia Tech Transportation Institute. Plan Development In-house Mostly in-house; some consultant assistance Mostly in-house; some consultant provided by state. assistance provided by state. Perceived Coordination Plan Coordination and knowledge sharing between Coordination among the partner organizations Useful in raising awareness of the Results HRT and the other agencies greatly improved. has improved. availability of grant funding (JARC, NF, and 5310). Grant Programs Utilized 5310, 5316, 5317 5317 5310, 5316, 5317 Project Identification, Prioritization, Projects selected based on their conformity with Plan goals used to prioritize strategies and guide Projects selected based on and Selection the goals, strategies, and project types in the program selection. Coordination Plan requirements. Coordination Plan. Perceived Project Continuation Most projects accepted (with one exception) State provides the local match, but may not Considering curtailing some 5310 Needs do not involve starting operating services, be able to continue to do so. funded services due to lack of due to the concern of a lack of ongoing Outside of state funding, there is no other local funding. funding. source of local match funding available. It would be challenging to continue Exploring other funding sources for JARC and NF funded services JARC/NF-supported programs. without the grants. Major Concerns Expressed Sustainability of funding. Cannot continue current coordination program Inability to meet JARC/NF matching Difficulty of allocating NF funding. without NF funding. requirements in future years. Desired Changes Expressed Combine JARC and NF, but dedicate a Eliminate publication requirement and the Decrease the local matching percentage of the funding for NF projects. documentation of need for the plan. requirement for JARC and NF. 31

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Table 11 Washington interview summaries. People For People A rural non-profit Human Services Puget Sound Regional Council Thurston Regional Planning Commission Interview Topic Area Transportation provider A large urban MPO A small urban and regional MPO Perceived Efficacy of the Effective; increased coordination; JARC and NF Effective; plans increased coordination and Effective; built upon previous local efforts, but Coordination Plans funded programs successful. programs funded by JARC and NF have federal requirements and funding created been successful. incentives for greater participation and coordination. Role in Coordination Plan Supporting; planning process lead by local MPO Lead; responsible for the plan, its updates, Lead; responsible for regional planning efforts Development and regional transportation planning and the competitive process; not a grant and works closely with the state DOT. organization. administrator. Plan Development Coordinates plan with two regional planning Developed collaboratively with consultant In-house with state assistance; also organizations, and also acts as a consultant to assistance. cooperatively with local transit agency. Indian tribes applying for other FTA funds. Perceived Coordination Plan Brought in new participants and created a new Increased integration of human services Brought together wide range of groups: senior Results and more inclusive dialogue, leading to needs into transportation plans and services, Indian tribes, food banks, improved identification of needs and resources. programs, though the exact amount is hard to community services organizations, and the quantify. United Way. Grant Programs Utilized 5310, 5316 5316, 5317 5310 Project Identification, Local planning organizations rank projects Selection process prioritizes the Process to date has concentrated on Prioritization, and Selection and submit to the state, which does its own continuation of existing projects over funding basic transportation services. prioritization. new programs or services. Would like more programs for State process and decisions are not Concentration on information services information and mobility management always transparent and the outcomes and volunteer assistance programs. funded; requests to date have been sometimes appear inconsistent. denied. Perceived Project Continuation Continuation of federal funds is critical. Matching funds come from state, but local Matching funds from state used. Would like Needs Matching funds come from state; local sources support is so great that funds could be raised to see use of in-kind benefits process are not available. locally. simplified. Major Concerns Expressed Public forums were unproductive vis--vis Change requirements and goals for NF have Need plans that coordinate rural-urban individual group meetings. caused confusion. access for customers who need long- Requirement that NF projects be new distance transportation to major cities services is an impediment to NF use. (e.g., medical centers, other special services). Lack of integration of other federal programs with transportation, including human services, veterans' affairs, and Medicaid. Desired Changes Expressed Separate the selection and funding process for Simplify the reporting requirements for the Require other federal programs to consider existing vs. new projects, with a 4-year re- administrative funds. transportation and allow for transportation competition for existing projects. expenses in support of human services. the respondents indicated that other federal funding nisms were already in place, so the federal plan re- for human services should be integrated into planning quirements duplicated existing efforts. In other areas, for human services transportation. the creation of the plan resulted in a better understand- In Missouri, project prioritization is done at the ing between government and non-profit agencies or state level, but locally applicants must show how represented a first attempt at coordination. their project fits into the Coordination Plan. In gen- Ohio agencies utilize all types of funding: Section eral, Missouri Section 5310 funding is strictly for ve- 5310, 5316, and 5317, although some parts of the hicle procurement, while Section 5316 is directed to state have not been able to secure any JARC or NF continuation of existing service over the provision of funds and rely solely on the 5310 funding. Through- new service. The Section 5317 NF program opportu- out the state, 5310 funds are used only to purchase ve- nities have been challenging for Missouri to develop, hicles for human services non-profits. The biggest but recent changes in eligibility (74 FR 19624, April concern of Ohio agencies, and one of the reasons for 29, 2009) increase the likelihood that they will be their lack of use of the JARC and NF grant programs, able to make full use of federal funds available in the is that local funds for the match have been unavail- future. However, all agencies interviewed expressed able. In only one community interviewed were match- concern about continuation of grant-funded service ing funds available at the local level. In addition, the once the grants have been expended and also about respondents expressed concern that the Coordination finding local matches for the grants. Plan, when taken at face value, has decreased the avail- Ohio. Agencies in Ohio reported mixed opinions on ability of 5310 funds in Ohio due to a misunderstand- whether they felt the Coordination Plans were effec- ing about the existing human services transportation tive. In some parts of the state, coordination mecha- fleets. 32

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Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania has had a statewide clearly the driving force for this planning. Regional human services transportation program for over COGs play a dominant role in human services trans- 30 years, providing medical assistance transporta- portation, with most FTA funding being used to con- tion and reduced fares to elderly and disabled pa- tract transportation services. In rural areas respon- trons. However, agencies in Pennsylvania agreed dents felt that there is little scope for involvement in that the coordinated planning required for FTA the planning process by transportation providers; programs has been an effective tool in expanding human services agencies participate in the planning human services transportation. In particular, the primarily to demonstrate their need for services. In process of developing the Coordination Plan has urban areas the human services providers have more improved relationships between all agencies in- capabilities, but respondents indicated these volved, particularly between non-profits and the providers are also wary of federal requirements and government sector. protective of their current roles and processes. Ac- The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation cordingly, the local and regional human services (PennDOT) is in its third year of JARC and NF ap- agencies interviewed perceive that only minor bene- plications, and has improved its capacity in coordi- fits come from the required federal planning process. nating submissions with regional planning commis- sions. Only in the first year of the NF program were Virginia. The Virginia organizations interviewed allocated federal funds not fully expended, and Penn- view the required Coordination Plans as highly ef- DOT intends to ensure that all future FTA funds are fective, bringing together new participants and pro- applied for and used. viding new services to customers. Development of Within Pennsylvania, the DOT is the lead for the plans has required assistance, which has been project selection and prioritization, though applicants obtained from academia as well as from the state. conduct local prioritization when submitting propos- In Virginia, the Department of Rail and Public als. All local matching is also provided at the state Transportation (DRPT) has supplied some local level, though applicants are requested to demonstrate match, but continuing projects must find local match future self-sustainability. PennDOT focuses primar- on their own. Respondents expressed concern over the ily on capital needs; projects that can become self- sustainability of local funds for many projects, leading supporting and information technology (IT) projects to a bias toward capital projects rather than operating are also strong candidates. Operating projects do not assistance in grant proposals for Section 5310, 5316, rank highly in Pennsylvania, and it appears likely and 5317 funding in the state. The agencies inter- that some current projects will face reduced funding viewed believe that the requirements for NF and in the future. Grantees' concern over the continuity JARC projects, and the dim forecast for local match, of funding for operating projects also reduces appli- is leading to many projects being scaled back and pro- cations in the state. posals not being submitted. Accordingly, Virginia is facing challenges in being able to apply for allocated South Carolina. Development of human services Section 5316 and 5317 funding. transportation has only taken place in South Car- olina over the last decade, stemming from a state Washington. Washington is another state in which legislature initiative in 1998. Coordination Plans there was strong pre-existing human services trans- were developed by the 10 Regional Councils of portation planning across the state. Agencies in Government (COGs) in the state with consulting as- Washington have been swift to adopt federal plan- sistance provided by the South Carolina Department ning requirements, and the state in turn now requires of Transportation (SCDOT). SCDOT continues to that similar plans be developed and submitted in ap- play a central role in human services transporta- plying for state grants. Respondents felt that the new tion, completing and filing the FTA grant requests Coordination Plans have been effective in improving on behalf of the regional COGs once the latter have inter-agency coordination and in helping the state to provided their Coordination Plans and prioritized make full use of available JARC and NF funds. requests for funding. Washington State has a formal prioritization The Coordination Plan development is acknowl- process, with both local rankings and independent edged as having significantly improved the coordina- state rankings. As in other states, continuation of ex- tion of human services transportation within each re- isting projects generally takes precedence over fund- gion of the state; however, the availability of funds is ing new projects. This factor limits the applicability 33

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of NF funds in Washington given the federal re- cross-state comparison highlighting some of the key quirements that these grants must be used for new differences between the states. It is important to note services. Though the state provides all local match that the information shown in Table 12 and described funding, respondents are concerned about continued in the following sections is based on generalizations funding for projects when annual re-competition for made about each state that were derived from the four the funds takes place. or five interviews conducted in each state. Perceived Effectiveness of Plans. One key finding Cross-State Comparison of Interview Results that was fairly consistent across all six states inter- While Tables 611 provide a good overview of viewed is that, on the whole, all found the Coordi- the responses within each state, Table 12 shows a nation Plans to be effective. While some states had Table 12 Cross-state comparison. Interview Topic Area Missouri Ohio Pennsylvania South Carolina Virginia Washington Perceived Effective; high-level Mixed; an MPO with just Effective plan process Largely effective at Effective; planning Effective; increased Efficacy of coordination did not exist three staff members illuminated service gaps bringing in all stakeholders process allowed regions coordination; JARC and NF the prior to the plans. reported the plan was and brought together and encouraging to build strategically off of funded programs Coordination redundant with local stakeholders from rural participation. However, previous local successful. Plans efforts and burdensome; areas that lacked prior benefits of planning viewed coordination studies. a slightly larger MPO attempts at coordination. as secondary to need for reported the plans However, in one urban funds; local providers do effective and a good area studied, the new not see any results or exercise, as did a rural Coordination Plans were significant value added transit agency. redundant with existing from planning process. Coordination Plans. Plan In-house State DOT offered In-house In-house Rural: State Rural: Developed with Development Rural: State DOT consultant help to rural In the initial phase, provided funds, state assistance. provided funding. areas, and while some consultants were consultant Urban: Developed Urban: General planning lead hired by the state and assistance, but collaboratively with planning funds organizations took assigned to each some in-house work consultant assistance. used. advantage of this, not all region. Consultants was also done. did. seen as invaluable in Urban: In-house providing expertise and federal experience. Perceived Enhanced Relationships Deepened Have increased Rural: Built on Increased integration Coordination relationships between public and relationships with visibility of human coordination efforts of human services Plan Results between human private other government services began prior to plan. needs into services organizations agencies and transportation needs Urban: Increased transportation plans transportation strengthened. community non- with county and state inter-agency and programs, though providers in the However, in at least profits, improving officials. understanding. the exact amount is public and private one case, services coordination. Coordination has led hard to quantify. for-profit and non- did not improve. Improved to better information Brought in new profit sectors. relationship on and use of participants and Due to the limited between non-profits transportation created a more amount of funding and the government resources by all inclusive dialogue, available, the focus sector. providers and leading to improved is on continuation of An urban transit customers. identification of needs services, so new agency reported and resources. populations or that the service areas are Coordination Plan not reached. was redundant with existing coordination framework. Indication of It is difficult but Data collection for Need to consolidate Planning Prioritized project types Changes in Redundant or necessary to get all of the plan. public meetings. administration not identified in the plan by requirements and Burdensome stakeholders involved in Required public For the urban seen as burdensome, group consensus. goals for NF have Elements of the planning process. meetings. transit agency though needs caused confusion. Plan Spanish translation. interviewed, serving improvement. Public forums were Development as the direct Most significant issue unproductive vis--vis recipient was has been state and individual group problematic; the federal overruling of meetings. agency expends too priorities developed Requirement that NF much effort and by local officials in projects be new time aiding sub- cooperation with their services an recipients and state legislators. impediment to NF use. doesn't like serving Adversely affects as a "mini state political support for DOT." planning process. 34

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Table 12 (Continued) Interview Topic Area Missouri Ohio Pennsylvania South Carolina Virginia Washington Project Rural: Prioritization Prioritized project types Projects prioritized on Almost all funding in Some projects will Selection process Identification, and selection is identified in the plan by where they expect a rural areas used to end without further prioritizes the Prioritization, done at the state group consensus and growth in demand or contract grant funding. continuation of and Selection level. data collection efforts. where a gap in service transportation Rural: State may existing projects over Urban: Applicants has been identified. services through RFP not continue to new programs or required to process. provide matching services. demonstrate how Regional funds, locals have Local planning their project fits into Coordination Plans no way to replace. organizations rank the Coordination submitted to state projects and submit to Plan. DOT, which the state, which does completes federal its own prioritization. grant applications. State process and Urban plans have decisions are not funded capital always transparent, projects, but limited and the outcomes to small/short sometimes appear projects due to inconsistent. sustainability concerns. Perceived Grant funding Without grant funding, State provides a stable Local match required, and Concern about Continuation of federal Project sustainability is crucial to projects cannot continue source for matching grant recipients are considering continuing funds is critical. Continuation project continuation. in two of the three funding for capital cutbacks in service. programs without Matching funds come Needs localities studied and a projects, but there is a grant funding. from state; local third had the local lack of local grant Loss of match funds sources are not capacity to continue to matching funds for could cause a available. fund projects without operating projects. problem for federal support. continuation of services. Perceived Lack of local matching Small urban/rural areas A lack of awareness Inability to apply for or use Lack of Confusion around the Impediments funds. cannot meet the about what NF could be funds from multiple understanding changing NF to Utilizing matching requirements. used for slowed its initial sources, both FTA and about what types of requirements. the Grant adoption, but that issue is across federal government, programs qualify for Requirement that NF Programs now resolved. i.e., Health and Human NF. projects be new Services. Lack of local services. matching funds. Source(s) of Local governments No source for State Provided by local DOT provides matching State Matching Local organizations matching funds for governments in rural funds for small urban and Funds one region studied. areas. rural areas. Large urban Dept. of Education Still some political areas must use local and Dept. of Energy resistance to using matching funds. funds government funds for Transit agency transportation funding provided services. locally by the Urban providers must jurisdiction. come up with local match on their own. Performance Number of people Levels of service Ridership Collect standard Data collected on grant Performance data (including Measures and communities measures for a Customer service indicators. funded project some previously external) served number of satisfaction surveys Primary budget performance, but no now consolidated. Ridership operational measure is cost per overarching performance Jobs actually variables passenger mile, review. accessed compared Ridership which is challenging with projections to manage over the year due to changing customer base and needs. 35

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Table 12 (Continued) Interview Topic Area Missouri Ohio Pennsylvania South Carolina Virginia Washington Major Changing NF 5310 vehicle Eliminate local Lack of funding Increase the federal Simplify the reporting Concerns requirements inventory in the match flexibility; need ability share for the JARC and requirements for the Expressed caused confusion. plan has made it requirements. at both state and NF matching administrative funds. Funding is very appear that there Would like local level to re-direct requirements. Provide funds for limited, projects are excess advanced notice of as needs change. technical and mobility don't reach new vehicles. However, when the grants are Lack of transparency management projects. populations or meet that isn't true and it due, and greater in project demand for has made it financial support for prioritization and services. impossible to get the grant selection for funding Different application new 5310 vehicles. application process at state and processes and Time and funds administrative work. federal level. More funding at the were wasted visibility needed to federal level for translating improve political human services materials into commitment to transportation funds Spanish when not process. and FTA funds all communities Faster process from create extra work, need the translated application to grant even though these materials. approval. Currently funds will all benefit takes up to a year. the same projects. Desired Would like to stay Increase the federal In urban areas, Improve Separate the selection Changes involved in the share for the JARC make the MPO the administrative and funding process Expressed prioritization and and NF matching direct recipient or coordination among for existing versus outcomes of funded requirements. eliminate all sub- federal funds for new projects, with a 4- projects. Modify the NF recipients and have human services and year re-competition for Use the same program to have a all applicants apply for transportation to existing projects. process and criteria more explicit focus directly to FTA or enable combined Integrate other for both JARC and on the needs of the state DOT. grants that reward customers, including NF. seniors that do not Standardized collaboration and veterans, domestic Plan can be have physical performance innovation. violence victims, and improved by disabilities but do measures would Benchmarks that look other customer groups educating not feel comfortable reduce time spent at both existing in need. stakeholders about driving. on performance conditions (and allow its relations to other evaluation but for greater challenges plans. ensure that of rural areas) and The plan needs to performance is well that are outcome- apply to non-FTA tracked. based. Reward good human services Eliminate local performance. transportation match Partial programmatic grants. requirements. distribution of funds to provide sustainability for longer/larger projects and to enable greater local authority. individual agencies that reported mixed or negative and the main expense was staff time. Often the best feelings about the plan requirement, the overall as- cost estimate available was an estimate of the num- sessment by all states interviewed was positive. This ber of staff people or the percentage of a person or support for the plans was a bit surprising given that team's time devoted to the Coordination Plans. As a three of the six states interviewed did not consider the result, the overall costs associated with the develop- plans to be effective, based on their responses to the ment of the Coordination Plans at the local level vary online survey. significantly in level of detail, ranging from $10,000 to $85,000 or one to six staff members working on all Plan Development and Costs. The process used to aspects of the human services transportation grants, develop the Coordination Plans varied across the including Coordination Plans, sub-recipient agree- states. Except for Washington State, all agencies did ments, contracts, legal, and engineering. some combination of in-house plan development along with the use of consultants, and in some cases Perceived Coordination Plan Results. Most of the the level of assistance used by the agencies varied by states interviewed emphasized improved relation- whether the agency was in an urban or rural area. In ships between public and private agencies as a result addition, many local agencies had a difficult time of the Coordination Plan, particularly Missouri, Ohio, quantifying the Coordination Plan development and Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Wash- costs, particularly if the plan was developed in-house ington indicated that the plans built upon existing co- 36

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ordination that they were already doing regarding Sources of Matching Funds. Sources of the local human services transportation. Finally, many of the match requirement for the grant programs varied by states noted either that they believe human services the state interviewed and by area within these states, transportation did not necessarily improve because of with some states providing the local match and some the plan, or it was difficult to tell if it had. One rea- agencies relying on local governments or even local son for this was the respondents' concern for the lack organizations. Often urban areas were required to of associated funding and the lack of desire by most find a local match, while the state provided the match states to use available funds to establish new ser- in rural areas. Pennsylvania and Washington, how- vices, for fear of not being able to continue funding ever, were two states that provided the local match to them when the grant money ran out. The Missouri, recipients regardless of their location in the state. In Pennsylvania, and Virginia DOTs all indicated that a few creative cases, such as in Ohio, agencies used their preferred projects do not include new operating other federal grants to match the Section 5316 and services. 5317 FTA grant programs. Other states found it was not possible to coordinate between the human ser- Indication of Redundant or Burdensome Elements of vices transportation grant programs and other federal Plan Development. There were a wide variety of issues raised regarding parts of the Coordination grant programs. Plan or planning process that the states find redun- Performance Measures. Some states interviewed dant or burdensome. The challenges discussed by were more diligent than others in utilizing perfor- the respondents ranged from how projects are prior- mance measures for determining grant funding itized at the local versus state level to concerns about allocations. Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the public meeting and Spanish translation require- South Carolina seemed to have the most consistent ments. Some states felt that the administration of the processes for utilizing performance measures. plan is burdensome, and some did not; there was no These states primarily use standard service indica- real consensus between the states on this issue. tors to gauge performance of the programs funded Project Identification, Prioritization, and Selection. by the grants. A few states noted that while prioritization is done at Major Concerns/Desired Changes Expressed. A the local level, the state makes the final decision on consistent area of concern expressed by the states in- what to fund, taking away some of the control from terviewed was the desire to remove the local match the locals. Respondents indicated that this is done requirement due to the difficulty in identifying and more often in rural areas for which the state DOT is sustaining local matching funds. Another common the designated recipient for grant funds, whereas in concern expressed was the lack of understanding re- the urban areas the designated recipient is more likely garding the requirements for NF grants. A few states a local agency or government. Most states noted that also indicated that they are unhappy with the admin- the prioritization of projects is based on gaps in ser- istrative process, including the length of time it takes vice and where the proposed grant fits into the goals to apply for and receive the grant money. In addition, and objectives of the Coordination Plan. some respondents indicated that they are uncomfort- Perceived Project Continuation Needs/Impediments able about reviewing new projects and the continu- to Using the Grant Programs. A common theme ation of old projects simultaneously, and that the across all states interviewed was the lack of money grant awards do not necessarily account for project available for local matches becoming a burden to the sustainability beyond the initial grant funding. continuation of projects funded through the grant pro- Numerous states interviewed expressed a desire grams, as well as an impediment to using the grant to have the same criteria and rules for both JARC programs in the first place. The lack of money for the and NF, with some respondents suggesting that the local match seemed to be more of an issue in rural programs be combined. However, one state, namely areas than it was in urban areas. Finally, the NF reg- Ohio, suggested that rather than combine the two ulation that it be used for new service was also an im- very similar programs, the NF program could be dif- pediment to using the Section 5317 grant program for ferentiated further to make it more applicable to se- many respondents, as these agencies did not feel that niors who do not have physical limitations that keep they would be able to continue to sustain new service them from driving but simply do not feel comfort- when the grant money ran out. able doing so. Finally, several states expressed a 37

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desire for more standardized, outcome-based perfor- not have more capability or information than the state, mance measures to review the programs. so DOT staff coordinated and facilitated workshops across the state. Once a state DOT has developed Responses by Agency Type these capabilities, with or without using consultants, Overall Responses. Table 13 provides an overview the tendency is to keep providing these advisory ser- of the survey results at a qualitative level for the dif- vices. State DOTs also publicize the Section 5310, ferent types of agencies interviewed. Following 5316, and 5317 programs, contacting both transporta- Table 13 is a more detailed review of the interview tion providers and human services organizations to results by agency type. inform them of the programs. In addition, the United We Ride (UWR) program was indicated as useful by State DOTs. While the state DOTs were not inter- several state DOTs, for both technical advice and oc- viewed at the same level of detail as the other agen- casional grants. cies within the state because their thoughts had been A critical aspect of the state DOT role is whether gathered via the Internet survey, some key points the agency also provides matching funds for the were gathered during the course of discussions with Section 5310, 5316, and 5317 grants. In Pennsylva- the state DOT representatives. The level of detail col- nia and Washington, the state DOT provides local lected via telephone with the DOT varied depending matching funds, enabling the grant recipients to on their availability and on whether they had informa- focus on the public outreach requirements for plan- tion that they wanted to add above what they had al- ning. In South Carolina, where the state DOT does ready provided in the Internet survey. Detailed sum- not provide funding, the regional organizations spend maries of the telephone interviews held with the DOT a considerable part of their effort in raising matching representatives are located in Appendix C, and infor- funds, not always successfully. Pennsylvania notes mation on the DOTs that provided sufficient addi- that without the state matching funds, many local or- tional information is shown in Table 14. ganizations would not even apply for Section 5310, In the allocation of Section 5310, 5316, and 5317 5316, and 5317 grants. grants, state DOTs primarily serve as intermediaries The improvements made in human services between regional or local planning organizations and transportation services have to be considered in transportation providers and the FTA. However, large the context of previously existing services operated urban MPOs and transit agencies develop their own in each state. Pennsylvania's programs date back plans and work directly with the FTA. some 30 years; accordingly, the DOT primarily Among the states interviewed, most DOTs have views the purpose of Section 5310, 5316, and 5317 gone beyond simply supervising the application and funding as providing better service to existing cus- allocation process by also supplying technical assis- tomers. In their oversight role, state DOTs have to tance to regional planning organizations, particularly carry out significant review of planning results, doc- those in rural areas. In general, this assistance has umentation, verification of capital and operating been carried out with only limited use of consultants: performance, and many other concerns. Standard- Missouri DOT observed that initially consultants did ization for federal projects helps the state DOTs to Table 13 Overall comparison by agency/organization type. Local Non- Profit Transit Transportation Topic State DOTs Agencies MPOs Providers Believe the Coordination Plans are effective > Feel the cost involved is warranted > > Feel plans result in wide range of funded > > programs Find it easy to utilize the grant programs > > > Feel that the grant funding is sustainable N/A Are able to reliably obtain matching funds > Feel they have the capacity to conduct the > N/A Coordination Plans Desire changes to requirements Strongly Agree > Partially Agree (Mixed Responses) Disagree 38

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Table 14 Agency comparison table (state DOTs).1 Interview Topic Area Missouri Ohio Pennsylvania South Carolina Virginia Washington Perceived Effective; coordination did Effective; prior to the Effective; expanded Effective; gave state more Effective Effective; improved Efficacy of the not exist prior to the plan. Coordination Plans the work of local leverage to work with coordination and the Coordination there was an "Ohio planning organizations human services provision of human Plans Coordination Program" that previously transportation services that would have been focused on highways. organizations. transportation. discontinued had the federal requirements not been implemented. Plan Development Used funds from a UWR The DOT offered The DOT provided The DOT provides both For rural and small Provides both grant to aid local consultant assistance funds for plan technical assistance and urban areas, the DOT planning funds and organizations by to small urban and development from planning funds. provided consultant technical assistance conducting six workshops rural areas. FTA and Federal assistance. on the grant on plan development and Highway planning applications, as well providing $21,000 to each grants. as all matching funds lead agency for plan for accepted development. applications. Types of Preferred projects do not Preferred projects do Many JARC programs, Preferred projects do Programs Funded include new operating not include new but few NF programs by not include new by Grants services. operating services. comparison. operating services. Perceived The "Beyond ADA" Grant sustainability It is difficult for applicants Impediments to requirements of NF were doubts discourage to use NF and define new Utilizing the Grant an issue when they were applications; agencies needs when many Programs first enacted, but are now reluctant to start existing programs are well understood. services without underfunded. reliable funding. Source(s) of Local Local, the state does The DOT provides Local; the state purposely DOT provides Matching Funds not provide any matching funds, but it does not provide matching matching funds for matching funds. is more willing to funds to ensure that all small urban and rural accept applications projects are sustainable areas. Large urban that procure local on the local level. areas must use local matching funds and matching funds. are locally sustainable. Reported The DOT was involved in 5310, JARC, and NF Reviewing plans is Used consultants during Organizational the federal rule-making each have an time consuming; some initial year, with one per Capacity Needs process for the plans, so individual employee at are hundreds of pages region. Now performed they had enough in- the DOT that manages and there is no in-house. house knowledge to the grant process and uniform plan template. provide direct assistance aids local to the MPOs and RPCs. organizations with grant applications. Performance Federal performance Developed at the Measures reporting standards. local level. Major Concerns Unsure if/how the plan Anything that can be It is hard for the MPOs Identifying projects for NF Expressed requirements may done to streamline the and RPOs to "buy-in" that are new in approach change after grant application to the process and its is a challenge. reauthorization. process would be multimodal nature. helpful. Desired Changes Combine 5316 and 5317 A consolidation of FTA should introduce Combine several of the Expressed into 5307 and 5311 as 5310, JARC, and NF uniform performance existing grant programs eligible activities in those would be helpful from measures for JARC into a single program. programs. an administrative and NF. standpoint. 1The level of detail collected via telephone with the DOT varied depending on their availability and on whether or not they had information that they wanted to add above what they had already provided in the Internet survey. focus on the key requirements that the FTA is seek- mittal preparation of project proposals was less than ing to meet. simple. Now in the subsequent phases, the prepara- tion process has been smoothed out and the success Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and of the programs can be better evaluated based on Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs). Given empirical information. Many planning organizations the relative newness of the Section 5316 and 5317 pro- have developed formal processes by which to select grams, several organizations interviewed noted that in and prioritize grant requests. the initial stage there were many proposals; there- Most metropolitan and regional organizations fore, the initial identification, prioritization, and sub- interviewed were involved in human services trans- 39

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portation planning prior to the new federal require- an umbrella consortium or a local advisory council ments; however, there is general, though not unani- to conduct outreach. Several respondents believe that mous, agreement among those interviewed that the the participation of such groups makes some of the new rules on coordinated planning and the availabil- requirements for public meetings and publication of ity of the federal funds have been a significant boost material redundant at the regional level, as the pub- to providing new human services transportation. lic's views have already been incorporated at the In Virginia, the Rappahannock-Rapidan Regional local level by the participating human services trans- Commission had documented the need for such ser- portation organizations. vices with approximately 100 NGOs, but only with The requirement for formal documentation of the coordinated planning process and FTA funds need and the collection of data is a concern ex- was the service implemented. pressed by many urban and regional planning orga- Respondents indicated that initial development of nizations interviewed. In Washington State, Puget Coordination Plans at the urban and regional level Sound Regional Council has recently developed a often required additional planning resources, whether new data warehouse to collect this information, and state, academic, or private consultant. However, once plans to make use of it in evaluating current ser- the initial plans were developed, these planning orga- vices and planning new services. In contrast, in Vir- nizations have been able to continue the management ginia the Rappahannock-Rapidan Regional Com- of the coordinated planning process using in-house mission does not have the capacity to collect such resources, with occasional technical assistance from data, with most information during initial develop- state or other government offices. ment and in projects to date collected anecdotally. In contacting private and non-profit human ser- Tables 15, 16, and 17 highlight specific responses vices and transportation providers, urban and re- for each large urban MPO, small urban MPO, and gional planning organizations often work with either RPO interviewed, respectively. Table 15 Agency comparison table (large urban MPOs). Mid-America Regional Council of Governments Puget Sound Regional Council An urban MPO An urban MPO Interview Topic Area Kansas City, KS, and Kansas City, MO Seattle/Tacoma, WA Perceived Efficacy of the Coordination Effective; brought about new public- Effective; plans increased coordination Plans private partnerships and forced some and programs funded by JARC and NF communities to give more consideration to have been successful. public transportation in their plans. Plan Development In-house Developed collaboratively with consultant assistance. Types of Programs Funded by Grants Transportation program to help connect A Mobility Management Plan for rural residents to jobs. three counties. 211 telephone program centralizes all human services calls (not just transportation). Bus Buddy program to acquaint new users with the public transportation system. Shuttles for health care services and for JARC recipients. Perceived Impediments to Utilizing the Confusion/difficulties meeting NF Confusion surrounding the change Grant Programs requirements. requirements of NF. Source(s) of Matching Funds Local organizations State Reported Organizational Capacity Plan developed as a part of Outlook 2040: Plan development, updates, and grant Needs Regional Long-Range Transportation applications plan are cyclical and can be Plan. managed with a schedule. Performance Measures For each program, the number of people Performance data (including some served and the communities served are previously external) now collected. tracked. Major Concerns Expressed Older existing agencies have had difficulty Changed requirements and goals for NF in meeting the requirements for NF. have caused confusion. Desired Changes Expressed Plan can be improved by educating Simplify the reporting requirements for the stakeholders about its relationship to administrative funds. other plans. 40

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Table 16 Agency comparison table (small urban MPOs). Licking County Area Transportation Study Lima-Allen County Thurston Regional Central Midlands Council Lycoming County Planning A small urban MPO just north Regional Planning Council Planning Council of Governments (CMCOG) Commission Interview of the Columbus, Ohio, A small urban MPO in A small urban MPO in A small urban MPO in South A small urban MPO in Topic Area metropolitan region Northwestern Ohio Western Washington State Carolina Pennsylvania Perceived Ineffective; redundant with Effective; identified existing Effective; built upon previous Modest; planning has Effective; the plan enhanced Efficacy of the coordination mechanisms local coordination that most state efforts, but federal brought improved their ability to expand Coordination already in place and no were unaware of and requirements and funding coordination, but providers services in a strategic way. Plans JARC or NF grant projects identified possibilities for created incentives for greater are skeptical of mandated have been realized. more. participation and requirements. coordination. Plan In-house; consultant In-house; local transit In-house with state Working to upgrade with In-house Development assistance was offered by provider and non-profits assistance; also more information; scoping the state, but not used. provided ongoing input. cooperatively with local study to identify needs and transit agency. resources. Types of Replacement 5310 vehicles Fixed route service between Operating support for a rural Focus on short-term capital Used JARC to expand Programs for non-profits. the cities of Lima and community connector is projects, largely vehicle service to shifting Funded by Delphus and between a rural primary program. procurement. employment centers in Grants town and Lima. outlying communities that lack access to fixed-route transit. Perceived A complete lack of matching Difficulty in identifying local Lack of flexibility in Concern over None provided. Impediments funds. matching funding. considering creative unsustainability of funding. to Utilizing the proposals. Inability of local providers to Grant find local match. Programs Source(s) of None Depts. of Energy, Education State, Tribal Governments Done by providers, CMCOG State provides for capital, but Matching funds not involved. not operating projects. Funds Reported Staff had the expertise to do Staff had the capacity to do Staff has capability to Staff has capability to Not a concern. Organizational the plan, but with a staff of the Coordination Plan without develop Coordination Plan conduct planning and is Capacity only three people the plan adding an undue burden on and submit grant requests to conducting several efforts to Needs development took a the agency. Over $37,000 in state. State prioritizes improve outreach, collect significant amount of federal funding was used to requests and submits more data, and better identify organizational resources develop the plan. combined applications to needs and resources. over the course of a year. FTA. Performance Not used. Ridership. Trips provided, cost per trip. Not used. No performance measures Measures are currently in place; the degree of success for each project is difficult, and too time consuming to attempt to quantify. Major Nothing new was Local matching Would like more Little information collected to Success of the programs is Concerns learned in developing requirements difficult to programs for information date on performance and difficult to quantify. Expressed the Coordination Plan. meet. and mobility outcomes of projects. 5310 vehicle inventory Time and funds were management funded. CMCOG plans to improve, in the plan has made it wasted translating Lack of integration of but would like federal falsely appear that there materials into Spanish other federal programs guidelines. are excess vehicles, unnecessarily. with transportation, making it impossible to including human get new 5310 vehicles. services, Veterans' Affairs, and Medicaid. Desired Increase the federal match to Decrease the proportion of Require other federal A partial programmatic Desire standardized Changes 80-90%. local match required to programs to consider distribution of funds, i.e., by performance measures to Expressed access grants. transportation and allow for needs population, would reduce time spent on transportation expenses in provide continuity of funding performance evaluation but support of human services. and sustain longer/larger ensure that performance is projects, as well as giving well tracked. more authority to local planners. 41

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Table 17 Agency comparison table (rural planning organizations [RPOs]). Meramec Regional Planning Rappahannock-Rapidan Santee-Lynches Regional Commission Regional Commission Council of Governments Lower Savannah Council of A rural regional planning A rural planning district (SLRCOG) Governments (LSCOG) commission commission A rural planning organization in A rural planning organization in Interview Topic Area St. James, Missouri Culpeper, Virginia South Carolina South Carolina Perceived Efficacy of the Effective; coordination did not "Big benefit" to the regional plan Has improved coordination and Funds and planning process have Coordination Plans exist prior to the plan. requirements, and the NF funding allowed common needs and brought new credibility to the work is critical to improving human resources to be identified, but of LSCOG and of the need for services transportation. secondary to simply having funds human services transportation. available. Plan Development In-house. Mostly in-house; some consultant State assistance during initial In-house, following initial assistance provided by state. development critical; state-funded development. consultants brought much expertise. Types of Programs A taxi-to-work service, which Mobility Management program Funds to date almost wholly used Funds used primarily to contract Funded by Grants ended when funding ceased. funded two part-time positions: to contract transportation service. transportation services. Mobility Developed a feasibility study for a Researcher/Grant Administrator One grant application for a Management program funded with shuttle to a military base that and Public Liaison who assists volunteer assistance program is in 5316. Using some 5316/5317 resulted in a private operator individuals needing transportation development. money to fund new scheduling developing the service. services. software and Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL). Perceived Impediments Concerns about the sustainability Dependent on the state providing Local match a challenge. Inability Lack of timeliness and flexibility in to Utilizing the Grant of the grant programs. local match, and that may end. to apply for combined grants (i.e., process. Time it takes from Programs using both Section 5310 and 5317 application to funds is too long. for one project). Needs change too quickly. Source(s) of Matching None identified. State Local Local Funds Reported Organizational The planning process is not a Could not do the documentation of Not an issue once state assisted Not a concern. Capacity Needs problem. Plan development costs need because they lacked the in initial development. (approx. $20,000) provided by data collection and analysis state DOT. capability. Performance Measures Number of people served. The Mobility Management Basic service indicators collected. Collect basic service indicators program's Researcher/Grant Would like to see more outcome- and hope to use new technology Administrator now collects and based measures and comparisons to improve/expand to new integrates external data. against baseline of service and indicators, e.g., wait time. infrastructure. Major Concerns The funding is very limited, so Cannot continue current Need better combination of federal Need more transparency at state Expressed the projects don't reach many coordination program without NF programs, both transportation and and federal level in project new populations. funding. human services, to enable prioritization and approval Difficulties in meeting strict coordinated funding and services decisions. Overruling of local grant requirements. to take place. officials' choices adversely impacts political support. Desired Changes Would like to stay involved in the Eliminate publication requirement Collaboration and innovation at Faster, more flexible award Expressed prioritization and outcomes of and the documentation of need for the local level should be rewarded process that is based more heavily funded projects. the plan. with demonstration grants that can on needs of regions and enable new efforts. customers. Transit Agencies and Other Government Providers. The transit agencies interviewed concentrate on Transit agencies and other government providers of capital projects in applying for funding: vehicles, transportation services interviewed regard Section infrastructure, and technological improvements. In 5310, 5316, and 5317 as useful additions to other planning, their emphasis is on developing networks, federal programs, enabling them to extend their ser- sharing information, and coordinating plans for vices to human services customers specifically. In human services customers. Respondents felt the di- general, these agencies already had the capacity to vision between JARC, NF, and other funds adds apply for federal programs, and the development of extra work when many of the customers are similar. the Coordination Plans for the human services trans- As a result, several respondents suggested that the portation grants has been accomplished with few application process for these programs could be com- concerns. Similar to planning organizations, transit bined into one, with a percentage of funding set aside agencies work with consortiums of human services for each specific purpose. groups to develop Coordination Plans and conduct Local government transportation operators are the necessary public outreach to stakeholders and dependent on government funding for operation. customers. Local matching funds must therefore be provided by 42

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the government, which respondents believe casts felt that federal planning coordination and adminis- doubt on the future operation of some human services trative requirements are onerous, requiring much transportation projects. In today's financial climate, documentation. The Mr. Goodcents Foundation, a these agencies are concerned over the sustainability non-profit in Missouri, notes that the challenge for of funding, even while acknowledging that the FTA human services transportation is not a coordination grants are intended for the development of new ser- problem; it's a capacity problem. vices rather than as ongoing operating subsidies. The NGOs interviewed have been able to take Tables 18 and 19 highlight specific responses for on the planning coordination task after some ini- each urban transit agency and rural transit agency in- tial state or other agency assistance, and generally terviewed, respectively. now have the internal capability to carry out the planning and public outreach required for grant Private and Non-Profit Organizations. Much of submissions. However, they feel that these specific human services transportation is performed by non- planning efforts remain challenging. NGOs have profit, non-governmental organizations (NGOs). indicated that they find general public forums to be Typically these organizations are primarily human unproductive forms of outreach, and that collabo- services providers, with transportation representing ration with other human services' outreach efforts only one area of their broader operations. and interaction with specific stakeholders are Prior to the federal planning requirements for more effective. Section 5310, 5316, and 5317 funding, those NGOs Lack of local matching funds is an issue for providing human services transportation had pre- NGOs located in states that do not supply the local existing plans and networks of stakeholders involved match. Some respondents indicated that apprehen- in the development of services. However, there is sion over the sustainability of local matching funds general agreement among interviewees that the fed- has led to service reductions and decisions against eral requirements and the funding attached to them applying for FTA grants. have been instrumental in improving and expanding Non-profits noted that the administrative costs coordination. On the other hand, these NGOs also of preparing grant applications are significant and Table 18 Agency comparison table (urban transit agencies). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) An urban transit agency An urban transit agency Philadelphia, PA Interview Topic Area Hampton/Norfolk, VA Perceived Efficacy of the Coordination Plans "Very positive" outcomes for interagency collaboration Ineffective; coordination already existed, and SAFETEA- and service provision. LU reduced their JARC funding. Plan Development In-house In-house Types of Programs Funded by Grants Infrastructure improvements making bus stops more Travel instruction projects and workshops to accessible to disabled persons. acquaint new users with the public transportation A 24-hour on-demand shuttle service for low-income system. workers. Added late-night and weekend service to existing A Global Positioning System (GPS) for a senior fixed-route service to serve those needing center van fleet. transportation to work. Taxicab voucher pilot program. Travel Training program to acquaint new users with the public transportation system. Website Improvements. Perceived Impediments to Utilizing the Grant There is a lack of understanding about NF among local There was an initial lack of understanding about what NF Programs non-profits. could be used for, but those issues have been resolved. Source(s) of Matching Funds Local organizations. State provides for capital projects. Most operating projects must find a local matching source. Reported Organizational Capacity Needs Plan development led by HRT staff member with ADA Agency finds it very difficult to assist and monitor sub- expertise. recipients, does not want to be a "mini state DOT." Performance Measures Data is collected on ridership or individuals reached by Cost per passenger (all programs), new employment program. sites reached (JARC). Major Concerns Expressed Sustainability of funding. Agency's role as a direct recipient is burdensome. Difficulty of allocating NF funding. Desired Changes Expressed Combine JARC and NF, but dedicate a percentage of the Agency wants the MPO to become the direct recipient or funding for NF projects. to eliminate all sub-recipients and have all applicants apply directly to FTA or PennDOT. 43

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Table 19 Agency comparison table (rural transit agencies). Town & Country Transit Delaware Area Transit Agency A rural transit agency A rural transit agency Interview Topic Area Armstrong County, PA Delaware County, OH Perceived Efficacy of the Coordination Plans Effective. Plan process illuminated service gaps and Effective; there were no prior attempts at coordination brought together stakeholders. and the need for transportation coordination to manage high growth in demand was crucial. Plan Development In-house Consultant led; consultant services paid for by the state DOT. Types of Programs Funded by Grants JARC used to fund a late-night bus service to the JARC used to fund a taxi voucher program to local hospital. transport low-income individuals to and from work. Created a Persons With Disabilities (PWD) program, NF used to fund a Mobility Management program which includes a new advisory board for the transit that includes an integrated call center to connect board. The PWD program is now one of the human services transportation clients with the most agency's most successful, and its paratransit appropriate service provider. operations have experienced ridership increases. Perceived Impediments to Utilizing the Grant Lack of local matching funds. None identified. Programs Source(s) of Matching Funds State Agency funds used. Reported Organizational Capacity Needs Staff members with planning expertise led the plan Staff had the knowledge to oversee the plan development. development, but they did not have the required manpower; a consultant was used to do lead plan development. Performance Measures Ridership, customer satisfaction surveys. No formal performance measures; the group of 10 key stakeholder organizations that oversaw the development of the plan will meet to assess programs. Major Concerns Expressed Lack of local matching funds. There needs to be some special focus within NF or in another grant program on meeting the needs of seniors that are not disabled, but prefer not to drive. This population is a rapidly growing portion of the users of DATA's system. Desired Changes Expressed Eliminate local match requirements. None; the agency hopes that the program is continued. that they believe having a higher percentage of the Most of their comments were constructive, such as grant available to offset such costs would be helpful. wanting to see a formula for distribution that looks at In addition, a few human transportation services existing conditions, outcomes, and results rather than are now provided by for-profit private companies simply costs. The respondents felt that the key to this that have received FTA funds, either for procuring would include federal guidance on performance mea- vehicles or in designing services. These private sures that would look beyond basic service indicators companies act as stakeholders in the coordinated to consider the effectiveness of funded projects in planning process, but do not take the lead. They also promoting job sustainability and measuring the num- perform some of the administrative tasks of grant ber of customers graduating from the need for JARC application, but generally a local or regional govern- transportation. Some organizations interviewed would ment organization provides significant assistance in also like to be able to combine JARC and Section making the actual FTA grant application. 5310 or 5317 funding, noting that disabled and Table 20 highlights responses for each rural NGO elderly customers also need jobs. interviewed. The only urban NGO interviewed was Respondents believe that the relatively recent in- the Mr. Goodcents Foundation, whose findings were troduction of the Section 5317 NF program and the summarized in Table 15, Large Urban MPOs, be- changes in requirements that have taken place (74 FR cause the interviewee for the Mr. Goodcents Founda- 19624, April 29, 2009) have caused some confusion tion also represented the Mid-America Regional among planning organizations and transportation Council of Governments. providers. As experience with the program grows, they believe more applications are likely to be sub- mitted. However, the current financial climate does Summary of Comments Received from not favor the introduction of new projects when sup- Telephone Interviews port for existing programs is facing retrenchment, so Perceived Concerns/Issues with JARC and NF while longer term growth is likely, growth in Section Grants. Few major concerns were expressed by re- 5317 requests is unlikely to be significant over the spondents with the Section 5316 JARC program. next several years. 44

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Table 20 Agency comparison table (rural non-governmental organizations). Southeast Missouri Transportation Services STEP, Inc. People For People RADAR A non-profit general public A rural non-profit A rural non-profit Human A rural non-profit Human transportation service Lycoming and Clinton Counties, Services Transportation provider Services Transportation provider Interview Topic Area Fredericktown, MO PA Yakima, WA Roanoke, VA Perceived Efficacy of the Effective; aided in the marketing Effective Effective; increased coordination Difficult to assess at this time; Coordination Plans of services. and JARC and NF funded the plan has only been in place programs were successful. for 18 months. Plan Development N/A N/A N/A N/A Types of Programs Funded by Operate 5310 vehicles for Provides transportation to work A community connector that links Taxi-cab vouchers. Grants sheltered workshops. for low-income workers. nine jurisdictions and has New fixed-route service to Formerly had a JARC- provided access to health care state services center. funded program. When the and benefited low-income and Two new demand-response program was discontinued shift workers. programs, expansion of a due to a lack of local match third. funding, thousands lost Augmented paratransit jobs. funding. Perceived Impediments to Lack of local match funding. None identified. Requirement that NF projects be Lack of local match funding. Utilizing the Grant Programs new services. Source(s) of Matching Funds None None identified. State State Reported Organizational Only reviewed the plans; has a Knowledgeable about the Working relationship with two Contributed significantly to the Capacity Needs working knowledge of the grants planning and grant process. local planning agencies existed plan, local university provided and how to apply. prior to plan. technical help. Performance Measures N/A N/A N/A N/A Major Concerns Expressed The organization lacks the Need to consolidate public Public forums were unproductive Inability to meet JARC/NF capacity and resources to meet meetings. vis--vis individual group matching requirements in future current demand. meetings. years. Desired Changes Expressed The plan needs to apply to non- Would like advanced notice of Separate the selection and Decrease the local matching FTA human services when the grants are due and funding process for existing vs. requirement for JARC and NF. transportation grants. greater financial support for the new projects, with a 4-year re- grant application administrative competition for existing projects. work. Respondents indicate that Section 5317 grants MATCH CONCERNS. In general, most local agencies appear to be less utilized by rural organizations. Sev- interviewed reported some success in awarding eral organizations noted that--given the generally JARC and NF grants, but were limited in how they lower level of services and other infrastructure for could use the programs most often due to a lack of the NF customer target group in rural areas--they local matching funds. They indicated that both the believe the opportunities to meet Section 5317 goals newness of and changes in the programs have been are much more challenging than for more urban and issues in awarding, obligating, and expending JARC developed areas. In addition, respondents stated that and NF funds. some designated recipients have been unable to ob- The respondents' major concern for NF and ligate all of their NF funding due to lack of aware- JARC programs is meeting local match require- ness about what NF can be used for potential local ments in the future, even in states where this fund- recipients, or their inability to design programs to ing is provided by the state. Local communities can meet the NF criteria. be constrained by a lack of local matching funds. In Several respondents noted that the changing one Ohio community a complete lack of any local NF requirements have inhibited local organiza- matching funds led to them being unable to submit tions from applying for the grant. There are other any NF or JARC applications. factors as well; one organization noted that NF projects are more difficult to identify in rural loca- IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECTS. There is considerable tions, where services often struggle to meet ADA demand among the target populations for JARC and requirements in the first place, making identifica- NF, and the identification of new, useful projects tion of useful projects beyond ADA challenging. continues. Some services by responding agencies In urban areas, they felt that this is less of an issue, have been implemented on a trial basis and found to as more improvements for disabled mobility and be less successful than hoped, but they indicated that accessibility are possible at the boundaries of current the cancellation of a few programs allows other services. worthy projects to be funded. Many organizations 45

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also reported projects that have been more success- Program Management. Respondents feel that ful than projected. changes in federal requirements for funding, particu- larly in the Section 5317 program, have caused some TYPES OF PROJECTS. The interviewed applicants and uncertainty among applicants. While the less stringent recipients for JARC and NF generally have avoided requirements for Section 5317 will enable new proj- new operating projects and concentrated on existing ects to be developed for funding, the respondents ex- services, capital, and information projects. Recent pressed concern over the sustainability of such pro- projects introduced by the respondents include: grams if federal requirements change once again. Mobility Management programs However, it should be noted that those inter- Infrastructure improvements or limited infor- viewed stated that the relaxation of Section 5317 re- quirements has led to new projects. Missouri DOT mation/educational projects, things that do not require ongoing operating funds. has found that rural areas in particular benefited Travel Training programs to acquaint new from the changes, enabling more projects to be put users with the public transportation system. forward. This is due to the differences between urban Taxicab vouchers and rural providers; rural providers more commonly Expanded late-night or 24-hour shuttle ser- already offer flexible, demand-response service, so vice for low-income workers, on-demand and that new opportunities are few. In urban areas, new fixed route. services beyond fixed-route transportation can be New shuttle services to medical facilities. identified more easily. There was general agreement by those inter- Planning Process. With regard to the planning viewed that uncertainty in funding is a significant requirements for Section 5316 and 5317 funding, issue, both uncertainty of the federal funds and local interviewees generally considered the commitment matching funds. In Missouri, the non-profit group for human services transportation planning to be time Southeast Missouri Transportation Services (SMTS) consuming, but comparable to most other political recounted an example of a successful service being processes. terminated after the local match could no longer be There was general agreement among respondents met. In Virginia, the RADAR NGO is considering that the planning requirements for the three programs reductions in services funded by Section 5310 in an- are very similar, and they believed that a combination ticipation of future local funding reductions. Given of the Section 5310, 5316, and 5317 grants would current finances for state and local governments, the make planning and administration easier for all con- agencies fear similar difficulties for organizations cerned. It was also noted by respondents that Section that must develop matching funds at the local or re- 5310 and 5317 target the same customer base, which gional level. they believe makes them somewhat redundant. Mis- Regarding the annual nature of federal program souri DOT even proposed that the Section 5316 pro- applications, one interviewee noted that project re- gram be incorporated into the Section 5307 and 5311 cipients like the 1-year timeframe as it eases the programs. management of their own cash flow and operations. Missouri DOT noted that it distributes planning However, other recipients noted that this contributes assistance funds for the development of the Coordi- to uncertainty about sustained funding, with one re- nation Plans as the plans are being developed, but it spondent suggesting a 4-year grant process for ex- requires submission of a completed plan before the isting projects to ensure services will have sustain- recipients receive their final planning grant install- able funding. ments. One organization noted that federal funds for human services (non-FTA) do not have stringent Prioritization and Program Monitoring. The major planning requirements attached to them, and they issue impacting the identification and prioritization believe FTA human services transportation pro- of projects for Section 5310, 5316, and 5317 grant grams should be coordinated with such federal fund- applications reported by interviewees is the issue of ing from other agencies. Inclusion of other organi- existing versus new services. Washington State zations was also encouraged by those interviewed; providers noted an inherent bias in their selection in both Missouri and Virginia, Coordination Plans process, with more points given to continuation of were developed with assistance from universities. existing projects. Pennsylvania DOT makes a point 46

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of looking at gaps in existing service, and project re- tant issues more generally, which encourages partic- quests that fill those gaps receive priority. ipation in human services transportation planning Missouri DOT notes that it uses Section 5310 coordination. funding solely for vehicle procurement. Pennsylva- Outreach efforts to the public vary by respondent. nia DOT also concentrates on capital funding proj- Many organizations interviewed make use of public ects, because operating projects require sustainable forums, but some have been disappointed by the funding, yet Section 5316 and 5317 funds are not re- response, especially given the effort necessary to garded as guaranteed by respondents. arrange these. For example, People For People in The interviews revealed that prioritization is car- Washington State finds it more effective to participate ried out somewhat differently among the Section in other forums that involve target audiences, such as 5310, 5316, and 5317 programs. In Missouri, all pri- workshops for senior citizens, health services, veter- oritization is done at the state level. Pennsylvania ans, and other subjects or groups. Finally, a few inter- DOT prioritizes all Section 5310 applications at the viewees noted that the requirement to translate the state level, but Section 5316 and 5317 applications Coordination Plan into Spanish placed an unneces- are prioritized regionally and then reviewed by the sary burden on them, given that they do not serve a state. In Washington State, projects are prioritized significant Spanish-speaking population. regionally; the state then conducts an independent prioritization, which may result in a different recom- Success and Benefits of the Plans and Funds. Penn- mendation or grade for an application. sylvania DOT noted that the largest benefit from Quantitatively, relatively few interviewees men- human services transportation funding has been the tioned performance measures playing a significant ability to purchase new vehicles and expand service, role in evaluating the effectiveness of projects. Stan- because the state already had a well-developed dard indicators such as number of customers versus human services transportation plan. Pennsylvania cost and service provided were mentioned, but were also noted that they believe most of the benefits are not used in any rigorous analysis. In part, respon- at the margins, including providing service later into dents believe this is because customer-focused mea- the evening and route extensions. More importantly, sures have been lacking; Pennsylvania DOT pro- the availability of the funding has allowed them to poses that in the future a key measure of the success meet new needs and providers to test new services, of JARC projects could be the number of riders continuing and expanding successful programs. reaching and keeping employment. However, it was noted that the emphasis placed on continuity and sustainability by most grant recipi- Coordination. There is widespread agreement among ents minimizes flexibility to meet emerging needs the interviewees that the planning requirements of the and test new services. Section 5310, 5316, and 5317 programs have been Based on the interviews conducted, successful effective in developing new relationships and ex- projects accomplished under Section 5310, 5316, panding the provision of human services transporta- and 5317 funding include: tion. Respondents talked of the coordination process Sponsoring taxis for commuters without other bringing in new organizations and improving infor- means of transportation (JARC). mation among all participants about the resources Developing a plan for shuttle service to a mil- available and the needs of customers. Several states itary base, which led to a private operator noted having previous requirements, including implementing the service (JARC). Pennsylvania, Missouri, and Washington; however, Contracting with taxis for door-to-door de- federal specifications generally required greater out- mand response service to elderly and disabled reach and coordination. In addition, Washington State (NF). now has state programs that make use of the same Providing a new fixed-route service to a work- planning requirements as the federal programs. force development and state services center Pennsylvania DOT commented that they be- (NF). lieve the new programs have changed some of the Purchasing a new bus for a workforce devel- focus of metropolitan and regional planning organi- opment board (JARC). zations from highway to transit. Respondents feel Purchasing a GPS system to improve the coor- that mobility and accessibility have become impor- dination of demand-response service (5310). 47