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1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Alliance for Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) This research identified best collaboration practices for facil- of the University of New Mexico led a research team that in- itating communication, cooperation and coordination (C3) cluded Intrinsic Consulting of Arizona and PAIKI of Ken- between transportation agencies and tribes. In addition, it tucky to develop this Guidebook. The purpose of this Guide- developed a set of tools that are expected to facilitate collabo- book is to convey the knowledge gained from this study ration between transportation agencies and tribal communi- into a format that can be used by staff affiliated with agen- ties. This Guidebook includes these tools together with several cies and tribes. The Guidebook includes five chapters and processes designed to implement them. five appendices. 1.2 Research Objectives 1.1 Background Objective 1: Develop Transportation By definition, transportation systems are usually repre- Agencies/Tribes C3 Guidebook sented as networks designed to permit a flow of vehicles and Provide guidance to all parties working to develop success- commodities. This characteristic of transportation systems ful transportation projects of interest to and affecting tribes entails a need for overcoming geographic and institutional by evaluating and selecting the most appropriate practices boundaries. While the transportation engineering profession necessary to implement a comprehensive collaboration strat- has successfully confronted geographical barriers, trans- egy between transportation agencies and tribal communities portation networks crossing Native American lands that in order to facilitate successful transportation projects. These are governed under different institutional frameworks pro- strategies will be arranged in the form of a guidebook, the vide non-technical challenges to those involved in the imple- Guidebook for Tribes/Agencies Collaboration (G4TAC). mentation of transportation improvements. Usually, the introduction of multiple stakeholders into the project environment makes success a complicated goal as the Objective 2: Develop Detailed increased number of stakeholders leads to an increase in proj- Implementation Plan ect complexity. On projects in the United States that affect or Develop a detailed implementation plan including a plan for are of concern to tribal communities, project complexity is action and an implementation assessment strategy to evalu- magnified by the introduction of additional aspects into the ate the effectiveness and comprehensiveness of the Guide- working environment. Tribal involvement in surface trans- book. The implementation plan will provide suggestions on portation projects creates an intergovernmental project how the user may determine whether strategies included in environment, and tribal-specific areas of concern are added the Guidebook: (1) facilitate communication between agen- to the planning conversation. The sovereignty and cultural cies and tribes; and (2) simplify the process of coordinating differences of each tribe must be recognized in establishing a actions between agencies and tribes. framework for collaboration that relies on communicating, cooperating, and coordinating each entity's needs and efforts. 1.3 Research Approach Government-to-government interaction is crucial for the success of transportation improvements whether it be a state The Research Team adopted a three-phase plan with the or a tribal project. objectives to develop a detailed research plan during Phase 1;