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14 CHAPTER 3 Networks as the Foundation for Collaboration This chapter discusses the role of intergovernmental net- tribal communities is a federal requirement. If a collaborative works in establishing a collaborative environment. environment is present, the stakeholders can successfully communicate, coordinate and cooperate. This would result in effective consultation, but also will produce results beyond 3.1 Overview the general consultation requirements. Consultation alone A collaborative environment is one in which project stake- does not guarantee that parties will work in a collaborative holders work successfully together. The relationship between manner, and further, does not ensure that a project will result federal and tribal governments has been widely codified by the in success. Collaboration between stakeholders can create an U.S. Constitution, legislation, executive orders, and Supreme environment conducive to success allowing parties to work Court cases. However, on projects in which government stake- together to achieve mutual goals. holders (e.g., state, local, and tribal governments) do not have a formal relationship, collaboration can be difficult because of 3.3 Establishing Collaboration a vague environment. The creation of formal working rela- Through Networks tionships between parties can assist the establishment of an environment conducive to success. "Networks have been used to bridge information gaps In order to create formal, working relationships, many states between governments (24) and to identify and share common across the nation have undertaken initiatives that formalize the resources." In a setting in which all affected stakeholders are government-to-government relationships between the state partners in networks, alternative solutions to transportation and the tribes affected by projects within the states. Some states needs and issues can be analyzed to identify the solution of have gone further to establish intergovernmental networks, most benefit and least impact to all parties. This is most which in turn, enable collaboration by establishing an ongoing important with respect to tribes as tribal history predates infrastructure for communication, coordination, and cooper- European colonization of the United States, and results in an ation among the parties involved. abundance of tribal historical or cultural sites and resources. The 3C practices presented in this guidebook assist in achiev- Intergovernmental networks facilitate collaboration and dis- ing project success. When used in the presence of an intergov- cussion between parties and assist in minimizing impacts on ernmental network, these practices serve as the "vehicles" for properties and resources of all project stakeholders. In a gen- achieving true collaboration and success. Likewise, the under- eral sense, networks can be considered a collaboration mech- lying intergovernmental network acts as the infrastructure for anism between different governing bodies. these collaboration practices to operate at their best. A first step in the establishment of the intergovernmental network is the enactment of policy that lays the foundation for intergovernmental work. This creates an environment con- 3.2 Collaboration for ducive to collaboration and the foundation for successful Effective Consultation communication, coordination and cooperation. Increasingly, In the context of transportation projects affecting or of con- federal and state policy, MOUs, and Memoranda of Agree- cern to tribal communities, government-to-government ment (MOAs) have been utilized to establish formal working consultation should not be confused with collaboration. Con- relationships between transportation project stakeholders. sultation with tribal governments on projects of concern to These initiatives have laid the foundation for intergovernmen-