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16 Members of the Advocacy Council take action to address pol- Accord recognizing the unique, government-to-government icy and program issues, as well as share resources including relationship between the state and the tribes (29). While the time, expertise, and funding for the solution to transporta- Accord is executed through the Office of the Governor, it tion issues. The Advocacy Council is composed of members encourages high-level representatives from all state agencies to representing the 11 tribes of Minnesota, the Minnesota participate in the established government-to-government rela- Department of Transportation (MnDOT), the FHWA, the tionship. An implementation process and signatory responsi- Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, the BIA, the Michigan bilities are outlined to guide the agencies of each government Tribal Technical Assistance Program, and Minnesota Coun- to participate in the Accord. In 1999, the Tribal and State ties and Cities. The goals of the Advocacy Council include Leader's Summit was held in Leavenworth, Washington, where providing information on policy and program issues, and tribal and state leaders reaffirmed the relationship between the taking initiatives for solving issues identified while sharing state and the federally recognized tribes in the state in the New resources for the benefit of the council. Millennium Agreement (29). The overall charges of the Agree- ment were for continued collaboration and coordination through the commitment of each party to the maintenance of 3.4.2 North Dakota intergovernmental relationships and the participation of state In North Dakota, the establishment of both tribal consulta- agencies in the Agreement. In 2003, the Washington State tion and an intergovernmental network were enacted through Department of Transportation (WSDOT), as a state agency, the Programmatic Agreement that was signed on November committed the agency to intergovernmental work as outlined 28, 2006, by the North Dakota Department of Transportation in the New Millennium Agreement. Douglas MacDonald, Sec- (NDDOT), the FHWA and the consulting tribes of North retary of Transportation, issued Executive Order E 1025.00, Dakota including tribes in South Dakota, Minnesota and committing the WSDOT employees to consultation with tribes Montana that retain historical and cultural ties to the state on transportation projects (30). The Executive Order addresses (28). Following the establishment of formal working relation- the sovereignty of tribal governments and the unique relation- ships with the tribes, the NDDOT identified the need for a for- ship between the state and the tribes. It also provides employ- mal process for tribal consultation. The NDDOT first pursued ees and WSDOT offices with responsibilities for continued signing formal agreements individually with each of the tribes. consultation and respect of government-to-government rela- After conversations with each of the tribes, it was identified tionships. The commitments made and relationships estab- that a programmatic agreement with multiple tribes would be lished in both the Centennial Accord and the New Millennium a better approach for formalizing the consultation process. agreement were reaffirmed and recommitted to on April 28, NDDOT and the tribes began work on a Programmatic Agree- 2005, in a proclamation by the Washington State Governor, ment. The Agreement recognizes tribal sovereignty and empha- who renewed the desire and commitment to move forward in sizes the need for mutual respect between signing parties. In intergovernmental work (31). addition, it develops a tribal consultation protocol and pro- The Tribal State Planning Organization (TTPO) was for- vides a framework for joint work and identifies common goals mally established in 1993 at the 2003 Tribal/State Transporta- among signing parties. tion meeting in Washington (32). The TTPO is comprised of The 2006 Programmatic Agreement established the Tribal partners from Washington tribes, the WSDOT and the BIA. Consultation Committee (TCC) (28). The TCC serves as a The network serves as a forum for discussing transportation tribal consortium that allows the NDDOT to consult with the needs and issues. It facilitates tribal participation in the tribes with interest in the state as a group rather than on an indi- statewide transportation planning process. It also fosters a vidual basis. By consulting as a group, tribes can see a reduction spirit for intergovernmental cooperation and coordination on in the time spent on the consultation process. While the TCC is transportation projects. The bylaws of the TTPO commit the comprised of representatives from the NDDOT, the FHWA, organization to education and effective planning. and the signing tribes, the Programmatic Agreement provides the framework for participation in the consultation process by 3.4.4 Arizona individuals outside of the network that are recommended by the TCC. This flexibility allows for the TCC to seek knowledge While states like Minnesota, North Dakota, and Washing- and experience from individuals outside of its membership. ton have established formal intergovernmental networks in which tribes and transportation agencies are members, other states, like Arizona, have taken similar, but less formal 3.4.3 Washington approaches to establishing networks. The state of Arizona has On August 4, 1989, the State of Washington and the 26 fed- initiated a strategic partnering team that aims to promote col- erally recognized tribes of the state executed the Centennial laborative relationships, educate parties, and develop part-