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24 Table 3. 3Cs practices. Communication = Coordination= information Cooperation= information information exchange exchange + altering exchange + altering activities to activities to achieve a achieve a common purpose + common purpose sharing resources Presentations Meetings, Seminars, Planning Organizations Summits and Workshops Data Collection, Analysis, and Tribal Liaison or Coordinator Resource Sharing Distributions Newsletters, Flyers, and Public/Tribal Involvement Regional Transportation/Transit Bulletins District or Coalition Mailings with Response Forms Formal Agreements Investigation of Alternatives Tribal Mediator Grants for Funding Planning for Disaster Preparedness and Concurrent Response to Disasters Standards and Handbooks Regional or State-Level Conferences Training Tribal Consortium upon the issue(s) to be addressed, what actions are required by Data Collection tribal transportation initiatives, and the needs and constraints Inventories on existing data related to a transportation proj- of the stakeholders. The 19 practices are classified as commu- nication, coordination or cooperation and are listed in Table 3. ect (e.g., information on existing transportation systems, land It is unlikely that any one practice can address all of the of cultural significance that can be disclosed, etc.) can be cre- dynamics of any one issue involved in tribal transportation ated and made accessible to transportation agencies and tribal projects. Correlating tribal transportation issues and practices communities. can assist in outlining a complex collaboration strategy that includes several practices and corresponding plans of actions Standards and Handbooks and goals. Specifics on the use of these practices are contextu- alized in the 46 case studies that are included in Appendix C Standards are prescribed by national standard setting organ- of this Guidebook. These case studies can provide guidance in izations such as AASHTO and ASTM. Handbooks are concise the application of the 3C practices and related issues. reference books providing specific information about trans- portation topics. Topics may include information on project planning, permitting, funding programs, and success stories. 4.4.1 Communication Practices These practices revolve around different methods of Newsletters/Fliers/Bulletins exchanging information and tend to be the less formal of the 3Cs. Cultural competency is essential to any communica- Regular newsletters and bulletins are used to keep tribes tion. Information sharing must be done in such a way that it informed of transportation projects and activities at the state is sensitive to all tribal issues, including cultural competency, and federal levels. protection and preservation of tribal-sensitive issues, confiden- tiality of tribal sensitive matters, sovereignty, land ownership, Mailings/Response Forms and monetary issues. While it is important for stakeholders to understand tribal sovereignty, the intergovernmental relation Mailings with response forms (tear off or attachments) are is often codified in MOUs and other programmatic agreements. used to keep tribes informed of current projects and solicit responses on concerns with current and future projects. Presentations Tribal Moderator Presentations are a communication tool used to convey information from one entity to another. Information shared In order to ensure the successful exchange of information can cover areas, issues and concerns on upcoming projects, between entities, a neutral, third party moderator who is knowl- program or policy changes, or training material. edgeable in each entities' operations and cultures is designated