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25 to attend meetings/conversations/etc., between entities to reit- Tribal Consortiums erate information to the understanding of all parties involved. A tribal consortium representing tribes from a specific region advances coordination between DOTs and tribes as Training coordination occurs between the consortium and other enti- ties to address global concerns and needs of the tribes. Training for individuals can be provided in the form of tech- nical training and cultural training. Transportation agencies offer technical training to employees and tribal members in Loans and/or Grants for Funding order to help individuals develop a skill set for working on In the case that a transportation project of concern to tribal technical projects. Transportation agencies in partnership with governments lacks sufficient funding, the party in need of fund- tribes offer training on tribal culture and operations to their employees to develop tribal knowledge within the transporta- ing, whether tribal or state, can obtain a loan from another party tion agency. for project completion, or the party in need can obtain a grant from another party or agency. 4.4.2 Coordination Practices Tribal Liaisons and Coordinators Coordination is the second step in the ladder of collabora- Tribal liaisons and coordinators serve as experts on trans- tion. While communication focuses on the exchange of infor- portation projects of concern to tribal communities and assist mation, coordination adds the dynamic of interacting between in the coordination of activities between transportation agen- organizations, can facilitate the formation of networks, and cies and tribal communities. achieves effective common results. These interactions can lead to altering activities for mutual benefit of the stakeholders involved. Coordination efforts must recognize the need for Formal Agreements cultural competency in communication and must protect and Formal agreements are implemented at both the program preserve tribal resources and land ownership while maintain- and project level between transportation agencies and tribal ing confidentiality. Sovereignty governs the nature of the inter- communities to define responsibilities of each entity when actions and the actions that can be taken. working on a transportation project. Meetings/Summits/Workshops Regional or State Level Conferences Meetings between local, state, federal, and tribal entities Regional and state level conferences provide a forum for the are used to coordinate activities when working on a project exchange of views, presentations regarding issues of common of concern to tribal communities. concern, and networking thereby serving as an opportunity Summits and workshops allow for tribal, local, state and for increased coordination between tribes and transportation federal agencies to join together to discuss issues in transpor- agencies. tation and steps to be taken to improve operations on trans- portation projects of concern to tribal communities. Areas of improvement are identified for future work and collabora- 4.4.3 Cooperation Practices tion between transportation agencies and tribal communities. Summits and workshops also present an opportunity for agen- The third step in the ladder is cooperation. With commu- cies and tribes to share guidance for current practices learned nication and coordination practices in place, cooperation in day-to-day operations. adds the dynamic of actually working together to achieve a common goal. In order to be able to work together, stake- holders must have cultural competency in their interac- Public/Tribal Involvement tions and recognize the sovereignty in intergovernmental Public involvement activities are used to solicit input from relations. affected parties through presentations, charrettes, public hear- ings, and/or other coordinated activities with tribal commu- Planning Organizations nities. Public involvement activities allow entities, like tribal communities, to participate in project planning and provide Planning organizations, including local, state, federal, and input on proposed and current projects. tribal governments result in improved visibility of tribal needs,

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26 improved regional coordination of projects, more complete Investigation of Alternatives data and an awareness of common transportation needs. In the case that a transportation project adversely affects a tribe, an investigation of alternatives of least impact on tribal Regional Transit Districts and Coalitions communities is researched by tribal, local, state, and federal An established Regional Transit District or Coalition that governments, with the alternative of least impact being chosen includes membership of local and tribal governments can seek for the project. The investigation of alternatives can also be alternatives to choose the best solution to a transportation applied in identifying funding for a project. issue which has the least impact on tribal communities. Planning for Disaster Preparedness and Resource Sharing Concurrent Response to Disasters The pooling of funds and sharing of available resources for Tribes, DOTs, and local agencies (police, etc.) develop a plan a transportation project between tribes, local, state, and fed- to follow in the event of a disaster, and implement those plans eral governments benefits all parties involved and resolves the in concurrent response when disaster strikes on tribal or adja- issue of funding deficiency. cent lands.