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109 systems, charges may vary by jurisdiction. There may also 6.4.1 Potential Impediments be overlapping jurisdictions or different charges based on Limitations inherent in preparing cost estimates for alter- class of road, time of day, or other criteria. Each of these fac- native revenue-generation systems could be viewed as imped- tors greatly affects costs. iments to implementation. Except for the fuel tax and toll systems, all other revenue-generation systems in this report 6.4 Implementation Plan are nascent, and there is limited experience in quantifying economies of scale for them in practice. Further, the financial These research results provide information needed not performance of systems that are not currently deployed is sub- only to promote a better understanding of the costs associ- ject to a degree of uncertainty relative to those of more mature ated with each of the revenue-generation systems but also to systems. When some of these systems enter the stage of imple- assist public- and private-sector decision makers and stake- mentation, more data will become available and adjustments holders in the formulation of policies. The primary potential in the cost estimates will be expected. The research results pre- users of the research results, therefore, are FHWA, state DOTs, sented in this report should be considered as a step forward to state departments of taxation/revenue, MPOs, toll authorities, understanding the costs associated with other non-fuel-tax academia, energy providers, and consultants. revenue-generation systems.