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25 quarterly reports by owners of heavy vehicles. Only mileage stantial amount of information. Since the system has not been totals are reported. The rate is based on the registered weight implemented yet, the information compiled in the Dutch sys- of the vehicle and the number of axles to avoid the need for tem is still somewhat speculative. However, the Dutch com- detailed monitoring of load changes. Certain vehicles, such as pleted detailed cost studies and continue to move toward log trucks, have the option of paying a flat fee, but most vehi- implementation. It appears that the intent to implement cles must pay the weight-mile tax. The charge is levied in lieu road pricing for heavy vehicles starting in 2011 has now been of the diesel fuel tax; Oregon does not levy a diesel fuel tax on postponed. fuel purchased for use in a vehicle paying the weight-mile tax. The mileage reports are based on owner fleet records, and the 2.3.4 Discussion of Issues system is well established (Rufolo, Bronfman, and Kuhner, Related to VMT Fees 2000). Oregon is one of four states in the nation with a weight- distance tax, with the others being New Mexico, New York, A VMT charge will have to be collected and enforced. and Kentucky. This has not been a concern for many of the experimental approaches since they did not actually collect any money from participants. The typical procedure was to set an endowment 2.3.3 Review of International Experience account that was expected to cover the charges a vehicle would A number of countries levy mileage charges on heavy incur with no change in miles driven. The mileage charges vehicles, with the German system being the most studied. were then deducted from this account and any balance was The Dutch have proposed charging all vehicles for all road given to the user at the end of the experiment. This procedure usage, with the charge varying based on both vehicle and gave the marginal pricing incentives without creating actual road characteristics. cost or financial risk for the participants. However, it also meant that the experiments were not completely realistic, lacking any bill-paying mechanism and any method to enforce German Truck Fee collection when the bill was not paid. The German system levies a fee based on the road, distance As noted earlier, the Oregon system had a relatively simple traveled, number of axles, and emission class of the truck. The mechanism for payment; the charge was adjusted at the pump fee is charged on the autobahn system but has the potential to when the vehicle was fueling. Under full implementation, vir- be expanded to other roads. Truck drivers have the option of tually all collection activity would occur at the fuel pump, and paying manually at various point-of-sale (POS) systems for most of the actual revenue would come from the fuel distrib- trip permits or of having a GPS-based system installed that utors, who would still be liable for the state fuel tax. All of the allows for automatic collection of the tolls. The large majority other systems require that some form of bill-paying system be of tolls are paid using the GPS. The GPS determines the loca- implemented. In addition, some methods of enforcement and tion of the vehicle and uses the location information to deter- auditing will be required. Finally, some method of reconciliation mine tolls based on 5,200 toll segments in the system. The when customers dispute their charges must be implemented. information on tolls is then transmitted to a billing system. In There are substantial trade-offs between system capabilities, addition to the GPS, the system has a dead-reckoning capabil- cost, and complexity. The simple systems just keep track of ity for times when the GPS signal is not available. The cost of total miles traveled. Somewhat more complex systems keep the GPS is paid by the toll authority, but installation costs are track of mileage by geographic area. The most complex systems paid by the user. The global system for mobile communica- are those that require identification of class of road. Aside from tion (GSM) is used to communicate with the computer cen- the need for more detailed information, the potential for error ter. The system has additional communication capabilities for in identifying roads typically requires additional capabilities to enforcement and for interoperability with other European improve accuracy. communication systems. The initial start-up had substantial Both the Oregon and Minnesota systems get data from the cost overruns, and the units are fairly expensive (Samuel, 2005 OBDII port. It appears that the OBDII port may be problem- and Kossak, 2006). The system used in the Puget Sound study atic as a general requirement. First, it was only required in is a simplified version of the German system. vehicles starting in 1996, but some vehicles with the port do not meet all of the specifications. Both experiments had problems with certain vehicles due to issues with the OBDII port. In Dutch Proposal Minnesota they were excluded from participation, and in Ore- The Dutch have a detailed proposal to move to VMT gon these vehicles were equipped with an alternate system that charges for all road use, although there is still much uncertainty simply used the GPS to calculate miles traveled. Also, in the about the specifics of the system. They have compiled a sub- Oregon experiment, there were discrepancies between the