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35 2.4.5 Milan powered vehicles pay 65, and older and heavy diesel powered vehicles pay 610. Residents living within the restricted zone are Overview of the Milan System exempted only if they own or drive higher emissions stan- The Ecopass program in Milan was designed primarily to dard vehicles. Vehicle owners with non-exempted vehicles reduce vehicular emissions and congestion within the urban can receive a discount if an annual pass is purchased. The center of Milan (Bloomberg.com, 2009). The congestion cost of an annual pass ranges from 650 to 6250 depending on charges are assessed within an 8.2 km2 area that is known as the emission classification of the vehicle. Daily and multiple- the restricted zone (zone a traffic limitato, or ZTL). In January day passes are also available. Trucks longer than 7 meters are 2008 the Ecopass system was implemented as a 1-year trial pro- restricted from entering into the restricted zone from 7:30 a.m. gram, which is a similar period to other congestion programs. to 9:00 p.m. However, trucks can make deliveries within the The program was subsequently extended and remains in force. restricted zone during the non-congestion charge period. The Ecopass area is demarcated by 43 toll stations with a num- Enforcement is carried out through digital cameras located ber of major landmarks included within the restricted zone at the 43 electronic gates. Violators are required to pay fines (Figure 12). Ecopass fees were temporarily suspended for 3 that vary from 670 to 6275, depending on vehicle emissions weeks during August 2008 because traffic levels typically classification. The Ecopass fee can be paid before entering the decrease by roughly 30% in that month. congestion charge zone or up to midnight the next day. Pay- ment of the fee can be made via the Internet, by telephone, in designated banks, or via debit cards and credit cards. However, Operations and Enforcement of the Milan System users have complained that the Ecopass' Internet interface The cordon charge is assessed on weekdays from 7:30 a.m. for making payments has broken down on several occasions. to 7:30 p.m., and the amount charged depends on the vehicle's Additionally, there have been some delays in implementing the engine emissions levels. Free access is granted to alternative fuel court process for violations and appeals. vehicles and for conventional automobiles that meet the high- est levels of European emissions standards. In particular, Impact of the Milan System on Traffic liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hybrid, and electric vehicles (EVs) are exempted from paying After completing the first year of the pilot program, the City a congestion charge within the restricted zone. Newer and of Milan evaluated the impact of the Ecopass system with lower polluting gasoline-powered automobiles pay 62, older respect to congestion, public transit usage, and vehicular emis- gasoline-powered automobiles and lower polluting diesel sions (Comune di Milano, 2009a). For most indicators, the Ecopass program was compared with the 2007 average. How- ever, traffic levels within the restricted zone were compared with actual traffic within the Ecopass area during 10 business days from October 22, 2007, to November 16, 2007. The City of Milan found the following impacts: Traffic levels in the Ecopass area, 14.4%; Traffic levels outside the Ecopass area, 3.4%; Public transit ridership, +5.7%; Congestion (as measured by traffic flow/capacity), 4.7%; Congestion (as measured in VKT), 25.1%; Average traffic speeds in the Ecopass zone, +6.7%; Particulate matter in the Ecopass zone, 14%; Nitrous oxide emissions in the Ecopass zone, 11%; CO2 emissions in the Ecopass zone, 9%; Travel time savings of 759,000 hours; and Economic impact valued at 69.3 million ($13.1 million) ($1U.S. = 61.4095 as of December 31, 2008). A related impact of the Ecopass program was that it created an incentive for residents to purchase newer automobiles, Source: Ecopass which would be exempted altogether from paying the Ecopass Figure 12. Milan Ecopass area. charge or would be charged at lower rates. The number of