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44 CHAPTER 3 Revenue Enabling Technologies This chapter examines several technologies that have the Safety: Enable vehicles with 360-degree awareness and potential to enable the revenue-generation systems presented eventually lead to reduced vehicle crashes, in Chapter 2. The selected technologies include the IntelliDrive Mobility: Provide real-time multi-modal information to system (IntelliDrive is a registered service mark of the U.S. travelers and transportation managers, and Department of Transportation), satellite-based and cellular- Environment: Reduce environmental impacts by helping based fleet management systems, commercial vehicle informa- travelers select alternative routes to avoid congestion and tion systems and networks, and electric cars/smart charging make their trips more fuel-efficient and eco-friendly. software. The status of these systems varies. Some of them are still in the development and testing stage, such as IntelliDrive The IntelliDrive initiative was envisioned to encompass a technology and electric cars, while others have been deployed broader suite of potential technologies and capabilities. Since or tested for trucks only, such as FMS and CVISN. 2003, its design has been modified to cover a wider scope than For each system, the chapter discusses its objective; system originally designed. For example, as shown in Table 17, Intel- specifications; technology components used; and current status liDrive technologies are now planned to cover all vehicle types in terms of research, testing, and deployment. Table 16 summa- instead of focusing only on light vehicles. Communication rizes and highlights the potential and obstacles faced by each technology options other than exclusive use of dedicated short- range communication (DSRC) will also be considered. system examined. Essentially, a fully deployable IntelliDrive system would use wireless communications to provide connectivity: 3.1 IntelliDrive Technology Within and among vehicles; This section presents an overview of an emerging system, Between vehicles and the roadway infrastructure; and the IntelliDrive system, which could add communication Among vehicles, infrastructure, and wireless devices (con- capability to every vehicle on the road. If implemented, vehi- sumer electronics, such as cell phones and PDAs) that are cles traveling on the road will be able to send and receive carried by drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists. electronic information to other vehicles, roadside infrastruc- ture, and traffic control centers. IntelliDrive technology will not only be able to track where vehicles are but could also 3.1.2 IntelliDrive Preliminary automatically charge and collect tolls from all types of vehi- Proof of Concept cles. Although the system seems to have promising potential IntelliDrive is a relatively complicated system consisting of for collecting and generating revenue, the system itself is at many components. According to a report prepared by the the proof-of-concept and testing stage, and a full deployment U.S. DOT Research and Innovative Technology Administra- is still several years away. tion (2009), aspects of one of the test sites, the Michigan test bed located in Oakland County, Michigan (near the cities of 3.1.1 Background of IntelliDrive System Novi, Farmington, Farmington Hills, and Livonia), include the following: In November 2003, the U.S. DOT announced an initiative called Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII). VII has since Covers 45 square miles, been renamed the IntelliDrive system. Its objectives are Covers 75 highway and arterial center lane-miles of roadway, three-fold: Includes 55 DSRC roadside equipment (RSE) units,