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45 Table 16. Characteristics of the potential alternative revenue-generation systems. System Potential Obstacles IntelliDrive Adds two-way communication capabilities Still in the testing stage system to vehicles and links them with Several years away from transportation infrastructure broad deployment Has a tolling and electronic payment subsystem Uses dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) and GPS FMS Capable of tracking vehicles Needs to be tested on a large Uses satellite- and/or cellular-based number and variety of vehicles technologies May need to merge satellite- based and cellular-based communication technologies CVISN Successfully deployed in more than 20 Lacks ability to track VMT and states protect privacy Cost-effective design by linking together Lack of alternative revenue- the existing states' information systems generation systems at the state level Electric cars Zero emissions from tailpipe Uncertainty of battery and smart Alternative fuels charging/switching charging Costs of batteries Application of smart charging software to software manage the supply and demand of the Uncertainty regarding the electric grid collection and distribution of utility taxes Uses the Michigan Service Delivery Node (MI SDN), RSE on the tested Michigan roads. This system has also been and tested in California. Uses the Michigan Network Access Point (MI NAP). 3.1.3 Technology Components Figure 16 shows an architectural overview of the Michigan of the System test bed. The Enterprise Network Operation Center (ENOC), located in Virginia, is used to monitor the performance of the Within the IntelliDrive system there is a subsystem de- Michigan test bed. Figure 17 demonstrates the locations of the signed specifically for tolling and electronic payment. Key Table 17. Changes to IntelliDrive, 2003 to 2009. Previously Considered Changed To Unchanged DSRC only Technology options Connectivity for V2V and V2I(*) Original equipment Aftermarket and retrofit National level interoperability manufacturer (OEM) considered Open standards for communications and production units only data Light vehicle focus All vehicle types DSRC for safety Prototyping/proof of Focus toward deployment Safety, mobility, and convenience applications concept Limited stakeholders Broader stakeholder Must not compromise on safety or security engagement Limited visibility by Greater program transparency Must protect privacy outsiders U.S. focus International harmonization Loosely coupled programs Strong, collective U.S. DOT Continued close collaboration among U.S. DOT, support, coordination, and AASHTO/local agencies, and vehicle leadership manufacturers (*) V2V and V2I denote vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. Source: Schagrin, 2009

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46 Source: U.S. DOT Research and Innovative Technology Administration, 2009 Figure 16. Architectural overview of the Michigan test bed. Source: Schagrin, 2009 Figure 17. Michigan development test environment.

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47 Source: The VII Consortium, 2009 Figure 18. OBE with other external parts (left) and cables (right). technological components of the tolling subsystem include The HMI is an interface between the OBE and humans. onboard equipment (OBE), humanmachine interface (HMI) The HMI is capable of providing visual and audio messages. manager, and antennas. The components are designed with Figure 20 displays a tolling-related message. In addition, the the following capabilities: HMI is capable of providing information related to signs, navigation, gas, and parking. The OBE is a self-contained and independent computing Antenna for DSRC/GPS: The OBE has two types of antennae system with its own hardware, software applications, and to meet the requirements of DSRC and GPS since they use external parts. The OBE's central processing unit is designed different parts of the radio spectrum. DSRC requires good on an Intel-processorbased computer using a Linux oper- coverage in all azimuth directions, while GPS requires good ating system with capabilities of communicating with net- coverage both in the vertical and azimuth directions for work and RSE, and managing tolling and payments. Figure 18 receiving signals from space. Also, the GPS antenna needs shows the OBE with and without cables. Figure 19 shows the low-noise amplifiers to reduce noise in GPS signals received. mounted OBE in a vehicle. Figure 21 shows an antenna with dual capabilities for DSRC/ GPS, mounted on the rear roof of a van. The RSE is a self-contained unit installed in a location for sending and receiving signals between vehicles and the net- work. The RSE is capable of announcing the services offered Source: The VII Consortium, 2009 Source: The VII Consortium, 2009 Figure 20. Display of a tolling-related Figure 19. The mounted OBE. message.