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48 Source: The VII Consortium, 2009 Figure 21. Dual DSRC/GPS antenna (left) mounted on a vehicle (right). in the area where it is located. The RSE also has GPS for self- network. MI NAP includes a server with low layer switches, positioning and making corrections to vehicle positions. routers, and security equipment. Figure 22 shows a mounted RSE. IntelliDrive system operators use the ENOC to control and manage the network. Two other important elements of IntelliDrive technology include Privacy protection is one potential factor that could affect the design of IntelliDrive technology. To protect privacy, Intelli- Service delivery node (SDN): The SDN contains the core Drive technology: service infrastructure of the IntelliDrive system, includ- ing servers, databases, and software systems. The Intelli- Cannot track an individual vehicle over any road segment Drive system may have multiple SDNs that form the longer than 2 km, Cannot identify any individual vehicle as violating a traffic law through publicly collected data, and Cannot identify a vehicle or a vehicle occupant or owner from messages sent to or through the infrastructure. 3.1.4 Tested Functionalities of the System The VII Consortium, which is organized by auto manufac- turing companies, has conducted tests in garages and labs, on tracks, and in the development test environment (DTE) for core functionalities of the IntelliDrive system. Specific tests conducted include Garage/lab tests System services: OBE operation, DSRC communica- tion, vehicle interface, vehicle interface, security, and networking. Track tests Source: The VII Consortium, 2009 System services: DSRC communication, security, posi- Figure 22. Typical RSE installation. tioning, and networking.

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49 Figure 23. Tolling zones at the Michigan test bed (left) and cumulative vehicle passes (right). Application: Probe data, in-vehicle signage, and heart- testing site, 10 tolling zones were set up. During the tests, beat. (Heartbeat sends and receives messages regarding vehicles had to pass the tolling zones at least once. Nine tests speed and position of vehicles every 100 ms.) were conducted, all of which were successful. Figure 23 shows DTE tests the tolling zones and cumulative vehicle passes (with red- System services: Networking, urban canyon communica- colored lines). tion, and hilly terrain communication. At the California testing site, seven test runs passed through Application: Off-board navigation, in-vehicle signage, the bridge. For the first two runs, vehicles passed through the trip-path, payment parking, payment toll, heartbeat, and tolling plaza at a relatively low speed, while for the other test probe data. runs they passed the bridge at a speed of 40 to 60 mph. All but one of the test runs were successful. The metal structure of the The tests for the electronic tolls were performed at two sep- tolling gantry was speculated to be the cause of the failure of the arate locations, one at the Michigan test bed and another at the lone unsuccessful run. During the test runs, DSRC radio links Dumbarton Bridge on California Highway 84. At the Michigan were lost when vehicles passed beneath the gantry. Figure 24 Balloons with different colors indicate the stage of each test. For example, the "Collect 7" balloon indicates that Test #7 was in the collection stage, while the "Invoice 7" balloon indicates that an invoice was issued to Test #7. Figure 24. Tolling test runs at the Dumbarton Bridge in California.