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50 shows successful and unsuccessful tolling tests at the Dum- include the oil and gas industry, the military, the construction barton Bridge. and mining industry, and the logistics industry. Technologies implemented in the name of fleet management have progressed over time. Within the last 30 years, a range of 3.1.5 The Current Status of the System technologies has been implemented, from mobile radio, to ana- As of October 2010, the status of IntelliDrive was as follows: log, to paging networks, and, most recently, to satellite-based or terrestrial-based (i.e., cellular-based) mobile communica- Completed a major proof-of-concept test program tions tracking systems. As shown in Figure 25, FMSs use either Updating the concepts of operations, system requirements, a satellite-based communications network or a set of cellu- and system architecture lar towers to track the movement of vehicles. This section pres- Expanding program strategy to consider retrofit and ents examples of FMS based on two different communication carry-in devices methods. Expanding program scope to include communications options beyond just DSRC 3.2.1 Objectives and Benefits of Opening up the Michigan test site for industry use Fleet Management Systems Defining and executing the remaining research necessary to get to deployment The primary objectives of an FMS are to improve the man- Includes regulatory decision points in 2013. agement of vehicle fleets and to reduce their operating costs. The potential benefits FMSs may bring to operational manage- Funding for the IntelliDrive initiative was shared between ment include U.S. DOT and the VII Consortium, with the U.S. DOT provid- ing the majority share. Safety: By tracking vehicles in something close to real-time, businesses and government agencies have the potential to reduce liability caused by safety-related issues. 3.2 Fleet Management Systems Operations: By monitoring vehicles' idle time, businesses An FMS is a system that keeps track of a vehicle's location as and government agencies are able to improve vehicle oper- well as its travel path, speed, fuel consumption, and idling time. ational efficiency and reduce related operating costs. FMSs have been used to monitor companies' vehicle fleets Drivers' behavior: By monitoring vehicles' movements, when providing services to internal or external customers. The businesses and government agencies are able to reduce fuel industries and government agencies that have used FMSs consumption, detect unauthorized uses of vehicles, and bet- Adapted from Fleet Management Solutions, Figure 25. Components of fleet management systems.