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53 cations than with the 1W transceiver typically used in the continental United States. Signal pass/fail criteria: Eb/N0, energy per bit per noise power spectral density, was used. Maintenance and operations: Since all equipment was new and the test lasted just 3 months, hardware issues were min- imal. Exceptions were a panic button malfunction and a faulty cable that caused the panic button to stick and the keyboard to lock up. The Current Status of the System The U.S. DOT conducted a 90-day pilot test of this system in Figure 29. Technology components in a cellular- based FMS. monitoring hazmat and high-value cargo shipments in Alaska and Hawaii from November 2005 through January 2006. The system was installed on 100 tractors and 20 trailers in Alaska and by cellular towers, which pass the signals on to communication five trucks in Hawaii. Some key test results were as follows: control centers. From there, users of FMS services are able to browse the signals via the Internet. Improved communication coverage: During the pilot test, The benefits of a cellular-based FMS are two-fold. First, it coverage extended beyond the major metropolitan areas. OOC reports: OOC occurred more in Alaska than in Hawaii uses cellular technology, which continues to improve rap- because of the mountains. Also, the line of sight between the idly. Some companies such as InstaMapper (see http://www. transceiver on the tractor and the satellite was interrupted instamapper.com) already offer free tracking software that because of buildings, overhead loading and unloading facil- some cell phone users can download from the web. Second, ities, and urban canyons in downtown areas. because it makes use of the cellular technology already used by Benefits experienced: Visibility of the status of the carriers' consumers, costs of using FMSs are likely to fall more quickly fleet was increased. Prior to installing this new system, than a system founded on satellite-based technology. Alaska drivers depended on relaying messages from one To date, cellular-based FMSs have been implemented on truck to another along the route, while Hawaii drivers just a limited number of vehicles. As a result, the ability of the depended on cell phones and e-mails to communicate with system to handle large volumes of signals has not been tested. dispatchers. Though the coverage of the test for Alaska was Hence, to truly analyze the feasibility of this approach for rev- not 100%, it clearly enhanced the communication between enue generation and collection, tests should be performed to dispatchers and drivers. ensure that the system is capable of handling probable future signal volumes. Funding Sources and Feasibility 3.3 Commercial Vehicle Information The U.S. Senate approved $2 million for the Federal Motor Systems and Networks Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to conduct the pilot tests of the expanded satellite-based mobile communications The commercial vehicle information systems and networks tracking system. program is designed to assist states in improving motor carrier safety and security, improving efficiency and freight mobility, 3.2.3 Cellular Technology-Based Fleet and simplifying operations. CVISN provides access to safety Management System and credentials information, state-to-state fee processes, and weight and size monitoring. In addition to satellite-based systems, FMSs can also rely on cellular-based communication technology to monitor and 3.3.1 Objectives of CVISN track vehicles. The basic design for the cellular-based FMS relies on cellular towers to conduct two-way communications. Each The primary objective of the CVISN program is to develop vehicle needs three technology components: (i) a modem; and deploy information systems that will support new capabil- (ii) an antenna; and (iii) power cables (see Figure 29). The ities in three areas that are core to CVISN: modem and antenna enable reception of signals from a GPS satellite as well as the reception/transmission of signals to cellu- Safety information exchange: Provide carrier, vehicle, and lar towers. As shown in Figure 30, the FMS's signals are received driver safety information to roadside enforcement personnel