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56 Source: U.S. DOT, FMCSA, 2008 Figure 32. Components of CVISN's electronic screening system. The deployment of CVISN across the United States indicates comeback for electric vehicles. Hybrid cars such as the Toyota wide acceptance of the program among states. The CVISN Prius and the Chevrolet Volt, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, program is a part of the national ITS architecture, which was have gained increasing acceptance in the United States. The defined and baselined in 1996. Nissan LEAF, a five-door family hatchback that was intro- duced in August 2009, will be the first mass-produced, all- Funding Sources electric, zero emission vehicle made available commercially in over a century. Nissan launched the LEAF in the United States There are two funding sources for supporting the imple- in 2010, and U.S. production will begin in Smyrna, Tennessee, mentation of CVISN: in 2012. The increasing interest in electric cars in the United States SAFETEA-LU: A highway reauthorization act enacted in has several implications for transportation infrastructure as 2005 that has authorized $100 million in federal deployment well as for the nature of the way revenues and user fees would funds to support states' implementation of the core and have to be generated to pay for the use of roadways. First, new expanded CVISN functionality. infrastructure will be required to accommodate the charging State funding: States must match the federal funding. and recharging of electric cars. Second, electric cars would render motor fuel taxes obsolete. Thus, as the share of electric 3.4 Electric Cars and Smart car registrations rises in the United States, tax coffers for fuel Charging Software taxes will likely experience severe declines, requiring policy makers to seek new revenue sources for building and repair- Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early ing roads. 20th century before internal combustion engines began to Over time, revenues from utility taxes will rise due to the dominate the U.S. automotive market in the 1920s. Electric burgeoning amount of electricity consumed by vehicles. cars were outmoded in the 1930s as vast reserves of crude oil This then begs the question of how either to find an alter- were discovered at the same time as mass production tech- native revenue-generation system unrelated to energy con- niques reduced the costs of gasoline-fueled cars, which had the sumption or to distribute utility tax revenues generated added advantage of being rapidly refueled. from the recharging of electric cars to transportation-related High oil prices and concerns about the effect of hydrocar- investment. The remainder of this section of the report bon emissions on climate change have led to somewhat of a defines the technological components and infrastructure