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58 The Idaho National Laboratory is leading a field test of 57 PHEVs with real-time data captured from vehicles in Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii; Seattle City Light is operating a field test on 13 Toyota Priuses to investigate the impact of a PHEV fleet deployed in an urban environment; and Duke Energy, Progress Energy, and Advanced Energy are leading a field test involving the smart charging of 12 Toyota Priuses to examine the requirements of supporting vehicles as they roam between service areas (V2 Green, 2010). Source: Figure 33. Demonstrative design by eTec for charg- ing the Nissan LEAF. 3.4.4 Regional Influences on Electric Vehicle Market Penetration supply power to up to 73% of the light-duty vehicle fleet In 2008, the five states with the greatest percentage of (Kintner-Meyer, Schneider, and Pratt, 2007). EVs operating on-road were California (53.1%), New York An important feature of EVs for revenue generation and col- (14.2%), Arizona (6.7%), Massachusetts (4.4%), and Michi- lection is that at some point they must be connected to the grid, gan (3.4%). The percentage of EVs in use in California reflects or docked, in order to replenish stored energy. The coming the state's commitment to improving air quality through vehicle-to-grid communications software could be used to: the adoption of a number of standards and programs (e.g., the (i) adjust the timing and pace of charging to meet the needs Zero Emission Vehicle Program) designed to reduce vehicle of the customer while minimizing the demand placed on the emissions. grid; (ii) upload real-time performance data and vehicle infor- Regional differences in market penetration depend largely mation such as the car battery's size, current state of charge, on state policies that affect the cost to own and operate EVs. elapsed time since the last charge, and VMT; and (iii) enable Figure 35 presents a map of state incentives either proposed or EVs to charge during periods of low-demand and return stored in place. As shown, incentives are either planned or provided energy back to the grid during peak periods. The 2nd feature throughout the western United States and Northeast. For highlighted above could be used to implement a VMT fee or a example, Arizona lowers licensing fees for EVs, and California utility-based tax. offers rebates of up to $5,000 for battery electric vehicles There are several pilot tests being deployed across the (BEVs), $3,000 for PHEVs, and $1,500 for electric motorcycles. United States that are being used to examine various charg- Oregon recently put $5,000 tax credits in place to offset con- ing management strategies. For example: version or purchase costs for PHEVs, and allows $1,500 tax Source: (left) and (right) Figure 34. Charging electric car--designed by Better Place.