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72 Private Toronto 407 Dulles Greenway Old New SR-91 NTTA OOCEA E-470 Delaware Port Authority FTE DTR DRJTBC CTRMA ISHTA OTC NJTA NYSTA CA I-15 Public Source: Jacobs Engineering Group, 2010 Figure 37. Toll-road facilities analyzed. was necessary to allocate costs between highway and toll- cash collection tollbooths and ETC systems. Moreover, agencies collection activities. In the financial statements for the privately are moving at different rates with regard to the implementation operated ITR and the Chicago Skyway, annual operational of ETC, ORT, and video tolling systems. Among toll agencies, expenditures were merged within a single line item without there may be variation in the level of implementation of ETC additional clarification. Because of the difficulty in disaggregat- systems. For example, NTTA has recently completed the instal- ing this data, these agencies were excluded from the analysis. lation of an ETC system on the President George Bush Turn- To the extent possible, expenditures related to the mainte- pike, but is gradually implementing ETC systems on its other nance and/or rehabilitation of highway facilities have been roads. The transition to ETC depends largely on funding avail- excluded from the analysis. Engineering and design costs related ability, political and regulatory requirements, and transponder to road infrastructure as well as snow removal costs have also penetration rates. As a result, capital costs are treated separately been excluded. Because US 183-A in Austin, Texas, opened in in this analysis. March 2007, it has not been included in the analysis of opera- tional costs due to the lack of historical data. However, 183-A 4.3.4 General Findings--Operational Costs has been included in the analysis of capital costs. Although 3 to 5 years of operational cost data has been col- Within the tolling industry, common benchmarks that are lected, the findings in this section are largely based on 2007 used to assess toll collection include (i) costs as a percentage of data. In reviewing the data, it was found that collection costs, total revenues, (ii) cost per transaction, and (iii) cost per cen- for the most part, tended to increase gradually each year. As terline mile. Centerline and lane-mile data presented in this a result, the use of multi-year averages led to cost estimates report represent all public road mileage, including that owned that most closely approximated the mid-year of the analysis by (a) the state highway agency; (b) counties; (c) federal agen- (e.g., 2005). To provide a more accurate representation of cies; (d) towns, townships, and municipalities; and (e) other current costs, the most recent year, 2007, was used for analyz- jurisdictions. These parameters provide various conclusions ing administrative, collection, and enforcement costs. with respect to the administrative, collection, and enforcement Capital costs tend to vary greatly between agencies since costs for toll roads. some facilities have a fully installed ETC system (e.g., Toronto With respect to costs as percentage of revenues, the toll 407 and US 183-A) while other agencies still have a mixture of agencies analyzed typically expended 33.5% of revenues to

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73 Table 24. Summary of toll facilities, agencies, and operational costs. Toll Road Facility Location Responsible Agency/Entity Admin. Toll Collection Enforcement Dulles Toll Road 1 Northern Virginia Metropolitan Washington Transfers funds Airports Authority/VDOT Dulles Greenway Northern Virginia Toll Road Investors Partnership II, L.P. (TRIP II) Walt Whitman Bridge Pennsylvania and DRPA N/A New Jersey Ben Franklin Bridge Betsy Ross Bridge Commodore Barry Bridge Trenton-Morrisville Bridge Pennsylvania and Delaware River Joint Toll New Jersey Bridge Commission New Hope-Lambertville Br. I-78 Bridge Easton-Phillipsburg Bridge Portland-Columbia Bridge Delaware Water Gap Bridge Milford-Montague Bridge E-470 Denver, Colorado E-470 Public Highway N/A Authority (E-470) Turnpike Mainline Florida Florida's Turnpike Enterprise Transfers funds Toll 589 Toll 417 Beachline Expressway Polk Parkway Sawgrass Expressway Western Beltway S. TriState Chicago, Illinois ISTHA N. TriState Ronald Reagan Memorial Jane Addams Veterans Memorial I-15 HOT lanes San Diego, SANDAG Separate entity for California enforcement I-90 New York NYSTA I-87 Tappan Zee Bridge New Jersey Turnpike New Jersey NJTA Garden State Parkway Dallas North Tollway Dallas, Texas NTTA Pres. George Bush Turnpike Addison Airport Toll Tunnel Mountain Creek Lake Bridge Lewisville Bridge SR 408 Orlando, Florida OOCEA N/A SR 414 SR 417 SR 429 SR 528 Ohio Turnpike Northern Ohio Ohio Turnpike Commission SR-91 Orange County, OCTA Separate entity for California enforcement Toronto 407 Toronto, Ontario Toronto 407 International Inc. Transfers funds 183A2 Austin, Texas Central Texas RMA 1. VDOT transferred operations of the Dulles Toll Road in December 2008. 2. Until 2008, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) handled toll-collection activities on the behalf of CTRMA.