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89 5.2.1 Motor Fuel Taxes state spent only $5 per lane mile, or 0.28% of revenue, to operate fuel tax collection. Relative to the alternative revenue-generation systems, Florida has the highest operating cost per lane mile or per fuel taxes represent an efficient revenue stream from an oper- centerline mile, reaching $90 per lane mile and $196 per ating cost perspective. Annual motor fuel tax collection per centerline mile. 1,000 miles of travel averaged approximately $11 among the eight examined states, with tax rates ranging from a low of $8 per 1,000 miles in New Jersey to a high of $15 per 1,000 miles 5.2.2 Tolling in Idaho. Note that in all cases, motor fuel tax collection costs The discussion and charts presented in Section 4.3 have included those associated with both gasoline and special fuels. demonstrated the difference in operating and capital costs Annual operating costs averaged 0.9% of total motor fuel tax among selected tolling agencies. To highlight the cost com- collections (see Table 32). Thus, annual operating costs per 1,000 miles traveled averaged $0.10, ranging from $0.04 in parison, the following observations are made for tolling agen- Iowa to $0.19 in Idaho. cies selected for the analysis: Table 32 also presents the average motor fuel tax operating In general, it took approximately 34% of revenues, $759,741 cost per lane mile, centerline mile, and vehicle over the period of 2003 to 2007. The average total operating cost to manage the to $829,991 per centerline mile, or $0.54 per transaction to motor fuel tax per lane mile was $49, while the average cost per operate a tolling system. These values reflect averages over centerline mile was estimated at $105. Annual operating costs 3 to 5 years (Table 33). per lane mile ranged from a low of $5 in Iowa to a high of $90 The variation of operating costs between tolling systems in Florida. The total operating costs per centerline mile ranged can be significant, ranging from 16.5% (Toronto 407) to from $10 in Iowa to $196 in Florida. 96.2% (San Diego I-15) in 2007. For the activities analyzed, Annual motor fuel tax operating costs per vehicle were also toll operating activities typically account for approximately estimated at low levels, ranging from a low of $0.35 in Iowa to 30% of revenues. Without these outliers, toll operation costs a high of $2.38 in Tennessee. The average annual operating cost averaged approximately 34% of revenues. per vehicle across the eight states selected for more detailed Excluding the tolling agencies that primarily operate bridge analysis was estimated at $1.24. facilities (DRJTBC and DRPA), the DTR had the highest In summary, the observations from the operating cost for operating cost per centerline mile ($2.8 million per center- the fuel taxes can be made as follows line mile in 2007). In contrast, spending for E-470 was only $118,000 per centerline mile in 2007, which is the lowest On average, only 1% of revenue, $49 per lane mile, $105 per for toll operations. In 2008, DTR operations were trans- centerline mile, $0.10 per 1,000 VMT, or $1.24 per vehicle ferred from VDOT to the Metropolitan Washington Air- was needed to operate the fuel tax collection system. ports Authority. The variation of the operating costs among the sample Among the detailed cost components, tolling agencies spent states is relatively small. The difference between the highest more on the collection cost than other components. This and lowest percentage of operating cost relative to revenue involved the implementation of toll gantries, ITS, a customer among the eight states is only 1.15%. service center, hardware and software, customer account Iowa has the lowest operating cost, which is consistent across management, and other expenditures. On average, nearly all unit measurements among the eight sample states. The 26% of revenues were needed just for collecting tolls in 2007. Table 32. Comparison of total operating costs between state fuel tax systems average cost over 20032007. Average Cost Item over CA CO FL ID IA NJ TN TX states $ per lane mile $49 $63 $15 $90 $30 $5 $69 $63 $47 $ per centerline mile 105 141 32 196 61 10 151 133 99 $ per 1,000 VMT 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.12 0.19 0.04 0.08 0.17 0.13 $ per vehicle 1.24 0.74 1.49 1.52 2.18 0.35 0.93 2.38 1.78 % of total revenue 0.94% 0.72% 0.50% 1.16% 1.32% 0.28% 1.00% 1.43% 1.03%