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OCR for page 90
90 Table 33. Total operating cost comparison between tolling systems average cost over 20032007. Cost Item DRPA(*) DRJTBC(*) DTR Dulles E-470 FTE ISTHA NJTA Greenway $ per centerline mile N/A 14,602,509 2,739,654 826,126 95,780 539,310 525,526 1,090,284 $ per 1,000 VMT N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 30.77 N/A 25.11 $ per transaction 0.59 0.20 0.33 0.54 0.51 0.38 0.18 0.44 % of total revenue 22.9% 34.7% 63.2% 23.4% 35.1% 38.4% 27.3% 42.9% Cost Item NTTA NYSTA OOCEA OTC I-15 HOT SR 91 Toronto Agency Lanes 407 Average(**) $ per centerline mile 1,003,933 288,236 484,767 290,427 221,826 720,475 1,051,284 $759,741 $ per 1,000 VMT N/A 17.28 N/A 23.72 N/A 69.08 52.79 $36.46 $ per transaction 0.15 0.68 0.17 1.38 0.67 1.38 0.57 $0.54 % of total revenue 28.5% 37.4% 26.0% 37.0% 96.7% 34.7% 18.9% 33.5% (*) Because DRJTBC and DRPA primarily operate short-distance bridge facilities, these agencies have not been included in the average cost over agencies for centerline miles. (**) The average numbers calculated across agencies are based on the data in this table only. 5.2.3 VMT Fees As discussed in Chapter 4, the total initial setup costs across the three systems are similar in magnitude. On the average In this section, operating costs for VMT fee systems are com- over the three providers, the initial setup cost per vehicle is pared with operating costs for the other systems. However, it $254 and is more than 22% of total annual revenue that may should be noted that this is not a full cost comparison since the be generated. fixed cost of the OBU is not included. Different assumptions In summary, the observations from the operating cost for about the fixed cost and how it should be annualized would the Dutch VMT fee systems are that: have substantial impacts on the comparison. In particular, if the OBU has other uses, the allocation of the cost between the VMT Overall, it may take 7% of revenue, $4,000 per lane mile, system and other uses would affect the comparison. It should $8,000 per centerline mile, $6 per 1,000 VMT, or $7 per also be emphasized that these are cost estimates and that actual transaction to operate a VMT fee system. costs may be different. Finally, the comparison to revenue is Although different technologies have been proposed for based on the estimated Dutch revenue, which is considerably administrating the VMT fee systems, the variation of oper- higher than the revenue per vehicle currently collected in the ating costs between the VMT fee systems is reasonably small. United States. The difference between the highest and lowest percentage of For the VMT fee systems proposed in the Netherlands, operating cost relative to revenue among the three systems the total operating cost is lowest for the Siemens system, is only 5.5%. while T-Systems is highest (see Table 34). The average over The system proposed by T-Systems has the highest operating the three providers for comparative measurement is $4,042 per cost, while Siemens' system has the lowest operating cost. lane mile or $8,245 per centerline mile. Among the detailed cost components, the average admin- In terms of VMT generated annually, the total operating istrative cost is estimated at 3.4% of revenue. However, the cost per 1,000 VMT of the three systems varies from $4.72 to average collection, enforcement, OBU, and miscellaneous $11, with an average across the three systems of $6.26. The costs are estimated at only 1.3%, 0.5%, 1.1%, and 0.3%, annual operating cost estimates are all over $50 per vehicle, and respectively, of revenue. some are over $100 per vehicle. This is a higher cost than the It may require 22% of annual revenue to set up a VMT fee revenue currently collected per vehicle in the United States. system. Also, VMT fee systems generate some concern relative to the revenue generated. The Dutch goal is to have operating costs no 5.2.4 Cordon and Parking Pricing higher than 5% of the revenue collected. Siemens' system is a little above 4%, but the other two systems are all above the goal. Table 35 summarizes the financial performance of a sample Also, the revenue collected in the Netherlands is on the order of of cordon and parking pricing systems around the world. This four or five times the amount of fuel tax per vehicle that is sample includes the multi-year financial performance of the collected in the United States. cordon systems in London and Oslo as well as the parking

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91 Table 34. Cost comparison between VMT fee systems. Average over Cost Item Siemens T-Systems Vodafone Providers Per Unit of Total Operating Cost $ per lane mile $4,042 $2,533 $5,894 $ 3,699 $ per centerline mile 8,245 5,167 12,023 7,546 $ per 1,000 VMT 6.26 4.72 10.99 6.90 $ per vehicle 75.16 51.33 114.66 61.05 $ per transaction 6.95 4.36 10.14 6.36 % of total revenue 6.6% 4.1% 9.6% 6.0% Per Unit of Administrative Cost $ per lane mile 2,075 673 3,090 2,463 $ per centerline mile 4,234 1,373 6,304 5,025 $ per 1,000 VMT 3.22 1.25 5.76 2.85 $ per vehicle 38.59 13.64 60.12 40.65 $ per transaction 3.57 1.16 5.32 4.24 % of total revenue 3.4% 1.1% 5.0% 4.0% Per Unit of Collection Cost $ per lane mile 810 672 1,400 357 $ per centerline mile 1,652 1,371 2,857 728 $ per 1,000 VMT 1.25 1.25 2.61 0.41 $ per vehicle 15.06 13.62 27.24 5.89 $ per transaction 1.39 1.16 2.41 0.61 % of total revenue 1.3% 1.1% 2.3% 0.6% Per Unit of Enforcement Cost $ per lane mile 297 72 489 331 $ per centerline mile 606 147 997 675 $ per 1,000 VMT 0.46 0.13 0.91 0.38 $ per vehicle 5.53 1.46 9.51 5.46 $ per transaction 0.51 0.12 0.84 0.57 % of total revenue 0.5% 0.1% 0.8% 0.5% Per Unit of OBU Cost $ per lane mile 666 1,005 768 226 $ per centerline mile 1,360 2,050 1,567 462 $ per 1,000 VMT 1.03 1.87 1.43 0.42 $ per vehicle 12.39 20.36 14.95 3.73 $ per transaction 1.15 1.73 1.32 0.39 % of total revenue 1.1% 1.6% 1.3% 0.4% Per Unit of Miscellaneous Cost $ per lane mile 193 112 146 322 $ per centerline mile 394 228 297 657 $ per 1,000 VMT 0.30 0.21 0.27 0.60 $ per vehicle 3.59 2.26 2.84 5.31 $ per transaction 0.33 0.19 0.25 0.55 % of total revenue 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% Per Unit of Initial Setup Cost $ per lane mile 13,653 13,944 13,561 13,456 $ per centerline mile 27,852 28,443 27,663 27,449 $ per 1,000 VMT 21.15 25.99 25.28 25.08 $ per vehicle 253.87 282.57 263.81 222.08 $ per transaction 23.49 23.99 23.33 23.15 % of total revenue 22.2% 22.7% 22.1% 21.9%