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62 CHAPTER SEVEN MOTOR CARRIER POLICIES ON DRIVER USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY Carrier Survey on Chemical Substance Use among Drivers A structured interview questionnaire for use with CMV stake- holders (e.g., predominately truck carrier fleet managers, 1. What sector of the trucking industry do you primarily safety advocates, and other company officials) was designed operate in? (Check all that apply.) to elicit key information about current commercial motor Sector Total carrier company applications, policies, and programs involv- ing the use, or restriction of use, of chemical substances by For-Hire 16 commercial drivers. The survey questionnaire asked specific Private 7 questions about a carrier's knowledge base regarding various Truckload 7 chemical substances sometimes ingested by their drivers. It Less-than-Truckload 5 Specialized 2 also asked them about current company policies regarding Other 3 driver use of stimulants, hypnotics, and nutritional supple- ments. The questions on the survey were open-ended enough Open-Ended Responses: Total to gather information about company officials' experiences Other with current approaches and procedures, and safety policies Charter Bus 1 in place, to identify problems and to elicit proposed solutions Medical and Wellness Clinics 1 regarding the use of chemical substances in the commercial Training 1 transportation industries. Survey questions were specifically designed to cover the scope and objectives outlined for the 2. How many drivers does your company employ purpose and intent of this synthesis study. (by type)? Driver Type Total The ATRI distributed the survey questionnaire to motor carrier company officials through: (1) the American Trucking Company Drivers 24,490 Associations (ATA) Safety and Loss Prevention Management Leased/OwnerOperators 4,225 Council; (2) to a health and wellness working group within the council; and (3) to several wellness clinics located at 3. Do you have company policies or guidance (written travel centers that target over-the-road drivers. Respondents or verbal) for drivers on drugs, medications, or other were solicited by e-mail, accompanied by an Internet URL link chemical substance use? on the ATRI's website, where the respondents could access Company Policies or Guidance Total the online version of the Chemical Effects Survey. Yes 29 No 2 QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY RESULTS If you answered yes to Question 3, please answer The participants consisted of safety and human resource Question 4 below. If no, please proceed to Question 5. personnel within the trucking industry, including motor carriers and allied professionals (e.g., motorcoach and health 4. For which of the following chemical substances and wellness clinics). Thirty-one company responses were does your company provide drivers with policies or collected. These companies employed a range of from a min- guidance? (Check all that apply.) imum of 10, to a maximum of 6,200 drivers, with an average of more than 800 drivers (816) per company. Most respondents Type of Policy or Guidance Total were representatives of truck carrier firms. The survey netted responses from one commercial driver training company and Prescription Medications 24 Over-the-Counter Medications 12 from one charter-bus company. Legal Stimulants 6 Sleep Aids 8 The specific questions posed in the survey are depicted in Nutritional Supplements 3 the context of the presentation of the results (here) along with Alcohol 24 summary statistics for the surveys. Illegal Drugs 23

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63 Open Ended: If yes, please briefly describe your Health and Well- Type of Policy or Guidance Total ness efforts here: Prescription Advise safety of all prescription Open-Ended Responses Medications meds Training materials developed in-house and through As a CDL driver if this medica- Novartis tion could cause a problem Just brought the program in with a fund that is awarded with your driving do not by the Chamber of Commerce in our business area. use if it causes you to test It covers checks for cholesterol, triglycerides, etc. positive; you could be Blood pressure, diabetes. Associated counseling for terminated. any problems discovered. Prohibited as they cause adverse We perform basic awareness. Evaluating options for effects starting a wellness program. Must report any prescribed drug Company provides guidance regarding good nutrition usage to employees and ongoing awareness regarding health Over-the-Counter Guidance on effects, guide- to the employee. (OTC) Medications lines for use when off duty Health fairs, driver wellness training with practical first to evaluate effects discussion over the ideas, drivers trained in Drug before performing safety- and Alcohol use. sensitive functions, fact sheets We provide an onsite workout facility (weight machines, on common OTC meds treadmills, free weights). We mail out a monthly health provided newsletter to drivers' homes. As a CDL driver if this We are developing a program. medication could cause a Presentation on exercising and healthy eating. Weight problem with your driving, watchers program. do not use, if it causes you Health care staff comes in once a year to review additional to test positive you could be options and to complete minor health care diagnostic terminated. work. Prohibited if they cause adverse Company healthcare. affect Our program is just starting, so initially we address diet Legal Stimulants Discourage use by providing and smoking. education on health effects Primarily promoting healthy life style through messages and through wellness fatigue and handouts. Nondriver employees have sack lunch education health meetings. Sleep Aids Awareness communication Roadside Medical (RSM) Driver Wellness Program Prohibited if they cause adverse is designed specifically for the professional driver effects based on testing from the current state of driver Nutritional No responses received health. RSM is also in the process of creating a Supplements line for its employee's monthly wellness program; Alcohol Firm written policy Introducing the Roadside Medical Driver Wellness Assistance if employee steps Program . . . the most innovative program designed forward to travel with you! Roadside Medical's Driver Illegal Drugs Firm written policy Wellness Program provides simple and easy-to-follow Zero tolerance if busted, tools and materials to get us on the road to better assistance if employee health (and keep us there!). Key features include: comes forward unlimited one-on-one telephone health coaching, a wellness kit, a free 30-day health check, exercise and nutrition guides, and more. 5. Do you have an employee Health and Wellness New driver 30-day meal supplements kits, designed for program? the professional truck driver. Currently they fall under the corporate Wellness Health and Wellness Program Total Program. We are tailoring this program to be driver- specific, and keeping them under the corporate program. Yes 19 Annual screenings, preventative testing paid 100% No 12 through insurance 6. Does the Health and Wellness program include 7. If chemical substances are included in your Health and drivers? Wellness program, please elaborate: Health and Wellness Program Open-Ended Responses Including Drivers Total We offer Employee Assistance Program for all staff Yes 19 Health coaching No 9 We follow the DOT regulations for hazmat endorsed No Response 3 drivers

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64 8. How are company policies regarding driver substance 10. Do you have adequate access to chemical substance communicated? (Check all that apply.) resources? If yes, what information sources did you find useful? Communication Method Total Adequate Access to Chemical Health and Wellness Program 13 Substance Resources Total Written Company Policies 31 Safety Meetings and Training 29 Yes 22 Reminders in Employee Newsletters 14 No 9 Other Means 2 Open-Ended Responses 9. What issues or problems regarding commercial driver Internet and Internet updates; online information chemical use need to be addressed or resolved in our if needed (5 responses) trucking community? (Please identify and elaborate.) Seminars sponsored by main health facility we contract with to do our DOT physicals and Open-Ended Responses drug tests. Employee awareness through J. J. Keller Education on OTC and prescription medications and their Through our Medical Review Provider effects. National Safety Council There needs to a better way to control what drivers are Close relationship with our clinics, Employee Assistance doing once they are out on the road. Program line As far as being mandatory, there should be no more J. J. Keller Health care programs, Employee Assistance regulations required of the companies. All illegal drugs, Program network abuse of legal drugs, and alcohol are already covered Our Third Party Administrator (TPA) for health in our DOT Drug and Alcohol policies. insurance, etc. Sleep Coaching and counseling Designer drugs Consolidated Drug and Alcohol Compliance, Inc., None we have Kenner, LA Drug database for carriers to reference We use DOT regulation notices and have a medical Expand to additional drugs and testing processes staff that keeps our organization informed Most of our problems with drugs or alcohol are drinking and Tapes, written programs, and online tools driving in the driver's personal vehicle (DUI) resulting in loss of CDL. If no, on what topics would you like more infor- Need to reduce the number of drivers that need to be randomly tested each year. mation? Specific guidelines of what is acceptable and what is not. The drug testing standard needs to move to hair testing. Open-Ended Responses Providing health/wellness health coaching and counseling. Once you start to help drivers achieve results and their Information on over-the-counter meds and their effects minds become clearer, they need support in recognizing Industry best practices dependencies and how to deal with them LONG-TERM! Federal database Prescription drugs and legal stimulants Specific information for generic drug names Accurate method to determine a driver's alcohol and drug Easy reference to prescribed and over-the-counter history prior to hiring. drugs that are restricted or problematic for driver Over-the-counter aids should have warning labels when alertness taken with prescription medications. Providers of testing nationwide Need to make sure all companies are in compliance. We need a national database showing when and where drivers tested positive. This database should be accessible to all trucking companies so they know a driver's prior history before hiring him or her.