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NCFRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 11 Sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Truck Drayage Administration Productivity Guide

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of March 2011.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM NCFRP REPORT 11 Truck Drayage Productivity Guide THE TIOGA GROUP, INC. Philadelphia, PA UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH Austin, TX UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Columbia, SC Subscriber Categories Environment Marine Transportation Motor Carriers Research sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT NCFRP REPORT 11 RESEARCH PROGRAM America's freight transportation system makes critical contributions Project NCFRP-14 to the nation's economy, security, and quality of life. The freight ISSN 1947-5659 transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, ISBN 978-0-309-15552-6 and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all Library of Congress Control Number 2011924420 modes of transportation--trucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the COPYRIGHT INFORMATION inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain published or copyrighted material used herein. freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this guidance based on research. publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. a cooperative research program sponsored by the Research and It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) under Grant No. for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DTOS59-06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to NOTICE begin work was executed between RITA and The National Academies. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this research programs. report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, because they are considered essential to the object of the report. which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 11 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCFRP PROJECT 14 PANEL John Isbell, Starboard Alliance, LLC, Manzanita, OR (Chair) Jeannie Beckett, The Beckett Group, Gig Harbor, WA Susan Bok, Los Angeles DOT, Los Angeles, CA Thomas J. Ryan, Universal Truckload Services Inc., Saint Augustine, FL Peter F. Swan, Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg, Middletown, PA Gary L. Whicker, J.B. Hunt Transport, Inc., Lowell, AR Deborah Freund, FMCSA Liaison Ken Adler, US Environmental Protection Agency Liaison Joedy W. Cambridge, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCFRP Report 11: Truck Drayage Productivity Guide presents a compendium of metrics designed to give port authorities, marine terminal operators, drayage firms, and regional transportation planners the tools to improve drayage productivity and capacity while reducing emissions, costs, and port-area congestion at deepwater ports throughout the United States. The guide is especially valuable because of the variety of evidence-based research methods (including gate camera analysis, analysis of transaction databases, and automated vehicle location geofencing techniques) used to identify and quantify the impact of ineffi- ciencies in port drayage. The guide identifies and quantifies the impacts of bottlenecks, asso- ciated gate processes, exceptions (trouble tickets), chassis logistics, congestion, and disruption at marine container terminals. The impacts are described in terms of hours, costs, and emis- sions that were estimated using the Environmental Protection Agency's DrayFLEET model. The guide, with an accompanying CD-ROM containing the contractor's final report and appendices (unedited by TRB), includes a set of recommendations for industry stakehold- ers (i.e., shippers, receivers, draymen, marine terminal operators, ocean carriers, and port authorities) designed to address inefficiencies, control costs, and reduce associated environ- mental impacts of truck drayage. Truck drayage is an integral part of the intermodal freight transportation system. The most visible drayage sector is at seaports, where dray drivers spend a considerable amount of time waiting to enter marine terminals and then often operate in non-productive ways while inside the terminal gate. This leads to increased truck idling, resulting in air pollution and congestion on the roads leading into terminals. Diesel emissions from idling trucks are a serious health concern for communities adjacent to seaports, especially deepwater ports. In 2006, the Waterfront Coalition held a series of workshops to examine this problem. The conclusions reached at the workshops were that there are numerous inefficiencies in the drayage system that could be corrected if the parties had a better understanding of the time drayage truck drivers spend queuing to enter marine terminals and the locations of bottle- necks in terminal operations. However, until now there has only been anecdotal informa- tion from drayage truck drivers about the length of time they spend in queues outside the terminal gates and the underlying causes of delay. Under NCFRP Project 14, the Tioga Group, with the assistance of the University of Texas at Austin Center for Transportation Research and the University of South Carolina Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, was asked to (1) use evidence-based research meth- ods, as well as truck driver surveys, to identify and quantify bottlenecks within marine termi- nals and (2) develop a guidebook that identifies potential metrics for truck drayage productiv- ity and improvements that stakeholders can make to increase throughput, reduce emissions, improve freight mobility, and increase driver productivity at marine terminals nationwide.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Overview of Port Drayage 3 Purpose and Organization of This Guidebook 4 Additional Port Drayage Resources 5 Chapter 2 The Port Drayage Process 5 Port Drayage Transactions 6 Marine Container Terminals 8 Uniform Intermodal Interchange & Facilities Access Agreement 8 Import Drayage Process 10 Export Drayage Process 10 Empty Return Process 11 Drayage Subprocesses 16 Chapter 3 Drayage Data and Information Sources 16 Data and Information Needs 17 Marine Terminal Information Systems 20 Drayage Company Data 22 Local and Regional Traffic Data 23 Surveys 28 Terminal Webcam Data Collection 31 Site Visits and Field Data Collection 31 Special Studies 33 Chapter 4 Drayage Problems and Solutions 33 Problem and Solution Matrix 33 Drayage Problems 36 Causes 36 Impacts 37 Solutions 38 Implications for Stakeholders 39 Chapter 5 Truck Turn Times 39 Terminal Versus Overall Turn Times 39 Turn Time Distributions 40 Turn Time Components 42 Causes of Long Turn Times 42 Suboptimization 44 Need for Buffers 45 Turn Time Solutions 47 Chapter 6 Marine Terminal Gate Queuing 47 Entrance Gate Issues 48 Driver/Truck Arrivals 49 Gate Queuing Solutions

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53 Chapter 7 Marine Terminal Gate Processing 53 Gate Capacity and Working Hours 54 Trouble Tickets 58 Gate Processing Solutions 64 Chapter 8 Container Chassis Supply Time and Delays 64 Chassis Logistics 65 On-Terminal Chassis Supply 65 Chassis Equipment Issues 67 Chassis Flips 68 Chassis Supply Solutions 71 Chapter 9 Marine Terminal Container Yard Congestion 71 Container Yard Congestion Impacts 72 Marine Terminal Disruptions 75 Container Yard Solutions 76 Chapter 10 Extra Drayage Trips 76 Dry Runs 76 Extra Empty Equipment Moves 80 Motor Carrier Shuttles and Drayoffs 80 Extra Trip Solutions 82 Chapter 11 Congestion on Streets and Highways 82 Port-Area and Port Access Congestion 86 Road and Highway Congestion Solutions 88 Chapter 12 Emissions and Cost Impacts 88 Overview 93 Data Sources 94 National Drayage Cost and Emissions Estimates 95 Impacts of Drayage Bottlenecks 97 Implications Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.